Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Wisconsin’s Batteries

By the summer months of 1863, Wisconsin’s allocation to the Union cause included eleven numbered batteries.  The 1st Battery through the 10th Battery, along with the 12th, were in service at that time.  The 13th Battery would form later in the year. Wait… why skip the 11th and include the “unlucky” 13th?  Glad you asked….

The 11th Wisconsin Light Artillery organized in 1861 as the “Oconto Irish Guards” as part of the 17th Wisconsin Infantry.  When the men indicated a desire for artillery service (who wouldn’t?) the unit was designated as the 11th Battery.  Still, organization took too long.  So Captain John Rourke took his men to Chicago where it was mustered as Battery L, 1st Illinois Light Artillery, in Colonel James Mulligan’s Irish Brigade.  And Wisconsin never re-used the battery designation.

Looking at the summaries, we find the clerks dutifully excluded the 11th from the list.  Though they added the 13th and two lines for infantry reporting artillery:

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Of those fourteen lines, only three lacked statements.  Though we have some adjustments to make, due to late filings:

  • 1st Battery:  Reporting at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, as of March 1865.  But with no cannon on hand.  If we turn back the clock to June 1863, this battery was at Vicksburg, Mississippi under Ninth Division, Thirteenth Corps. The battery retained six 20-pdr Parrotts, putting them to good use earlier in May at Champion’s Hill.  Captain Jacob T. Foster, who was still division artillery chief, remained captain of the battery.  Lieutenant Charles B. Kimball, commanding in Foster’s place, became the division’s ordnance officer in late May.  In that absence, Lieutenant Oscar F. Nutting commanded the battery.
  • 2nd Battery:  No location given, but with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 10-pdr Parrotts (reverse from the previous quarter).   Captain Charles Beger commanded this battery, which at the time was under First Division, Fourth Corps (which had been reorganized in May).  Supporting Second Brigade, the battery reported at Williamsburg, Virginia as of June 30.  The battery participated in Dix’s Peninsula Campaign.
  • 3rd Battery: No return.  This battery, under Lieutenant Cortland Livingston, became was in Third Division, Twenty-first Corps, Army of the Cumberland and participated in the Tullahoma Campaign.  Though, the battery didn’t leave Murfreesboro until early July.  Captain Lucius H. Drury, of the battery, was division artillery chief.
  • 4th Battery: No return.  The battery was assigned to the Second Division, Fourth Corps under the reorganizations of the Department of Virginia in May.  The battery was at Yorktown, Virginia, presumably retaining six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  The participated in the operations on the Peninsula through June and July. Captain  John F. Vallee commanded this battery.
  • 5th Battery: Reporting from Winchester, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons, two 12-pdr mountain howitzers, and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  The battery was assigned to First Division, Twentieth Corps, and commanded by Captain George Q. Gardner. Participating in the Tullahoma Campaign, the battery moved out of Murfreesboro on June 24.
  • 6th Battery: With a report from Cartersville, Georgia, dated October 1864, this battery claimed two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.  As of June 30, 1863, this battery was with Seventh Division, Seventeenth Corps and part of the siege of Vicksburg.  Captain Henry Dillon commanded at the beginning of spring.  When Dillon became division artillery chief, Lieutenant Samuel F. Clark stood in as commander.
  • 7th Battery: At Memphis, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James rifles.  Lieutenant Galen E. Green remained in command of this battery, assigned to Third Division, Sixteenth Corps.  At the end of May, the battery was stationed in Jackson, Tennessee. They moved to Corinth, Mississippi on June 1.  But only remained their until July 1, when they moved to Memphis.
  • 8th Battery: At Winchester, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Assigned to First Division, Twentieth Corps. Captain Henry E. Stiles remained in command.  The battery accompanied the division on the Tullahoma Campaign.
  • 9th Battery: Fort Lyon, Colorado with four 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers. Captain Cyrus H. Johnson commanded this battery posted in the District of Colorado.
  • 10th Battery: Reporting at Stevenson, Alabama with six 6-pdr field guns, as of October 1863. Captain Yates V. Beebe’s battery was assigned to the Second Division, Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  From the beginning of the year up to September, the battery performed escort duties based out of Nashville and Murfreesboro.
  • 12th Battery: Another dated return has this battery at Dixon’s Station, Alabama on November 25, 1863.  However, for June 30, Captain William Zickerick and his battery’s four 10-pdr Parrotts were assigned to Seventh Division, Seventeenth Corps. Thus they fell in next to the 6th Wisconsin Battery at Vicksburg.
  • 13th Battery: No return.  As alluded to above, the 13th Battery did not muster until December 1863.  But the battery started forming in the summer.  A glance through the battery rolls indicate a handful of enlistments in July and August.
  • Company A, 8th Wisconsin: At Young’s Point, Louisiana with four 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and one 3.80-inch James rifle.  This is the regiment with “Old Abe” the bald eagle as a mascot.  To be honest, until reading this line I had no knowledge of any artillery manned by the regiment.  Perhaps captured weapons impressed for the siege of Vicksburg?  Captain Josiah B. Redfield commanded Company A.
  • Detachment, 30th Wisconsin:  On the Missouri River with six 6-pdr field guns.  The 30th Wisconsin served by detachments at posts in Wisconsin and the Dakota Territories at this time of the war.  Colonel Daniel J. Dill commanded the regiment.  In May, a detachment under Lieutenant-Colonel Edward M. Bartlett supported Brigadier-General Alfred Sully’s expedition up the Missouri River.  Bartlett’s command guarded boats and supplies. Given the placename provided and the nature of the mission, a good possibility that detachment had the guns identified here.

With that lengthy discussion to identify just who these fourteen lines represented, let’s put some weight to the matter.  Starting with some smoothbore shot, shell, case, and canister:

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Look at all those numbers!

  • 2nd Battery: 120 shell and 52 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; 160 case for 12-pdr field guns (likely a transcription error, and should be on the howitzer column).
  • 5th Battery: 96 shot, 32 shell, 96 case, and 40 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 65 shell, 159 case, and 49 canister for 12-pdr howitzer (field or mountain?).
  • 6th Battery: 77 shot, 145 case, and 124 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 21 shell, 89 case, and 18 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 7th Battery: 186 shot, 248 case, and 87 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 8th Battery: 32 shot, 96 shell, 64 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 9th Battery: 400 shot, 320 case, and 80 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 150 shells, 190 case, and 62 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 10th Battery: 569 shot, 480 case, and 120 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Company A, 8th Infantry: 269 shot, 44 case, and 636 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 48 case and 156 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons (or are those transcription errors and should be on the howitzer columns?)
  • 30th Infantry: 476 shot, 266 case, and 238 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

Regardless if the 12-pdr ammunition reported by the 8th Infantry was for Napoleons of howitzers, we see a rather substantial quantity of canister.  Such might indicate these were weapons assigned for use in the siege lines on guard points.

Four batteries reported Hotchkiss projectiles for rifled guns:

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Yes I said four.  Three of those batteries appear on this page.  The other, we’ll see on the “orphan” columns on the next page:

  • 6th Battery: 80 shot and 26 bullet shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 80 percussion shell, 160 fuse shell, and 450 bullet shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 8th Battery: 150 canister, 486 fuse shell, and 94 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

I’ll break down the next page by section for clarity.  First the stray Hotchkiss columns:

0228_1A_Snip_WI

Two lines:

  • 7th Battery: 80 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Company A, 8th Infantry: 39 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Turning next to the James projectiles:

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One battery:

  • 6th Battery: 116 shell and 66 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Next the Parrott columns:

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A heavy set of numbers here:

  • 1st Battery: 2,208 shell and 1,183 case for 20-pdr Parrotts.
  • 2nd Battery: 384 shell and 96 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 5th Battery: 142 shell, 168 case, and 79 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 12th Battery: 321 shell, 244 case, and 136 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Note that 1st Battery had no guns on the report.  Yet, they’d need a steamboat or two for the shells and case.  Someone left something out of the reports…

But we are not done with the Parrott batteries.  They also used Schenkl projectiles in those calibers:

0228_1D_Snip_WI

  • 1st Battery: 466 shot for 20-pdr Parrott.
  • 2nd Battery: 314 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 5th Battery: 9 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 12th Battery: 116 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.

No more entries for the Schenkl columns:

0228_2_Snip_WI

But a lone entry for Tatham’s canister:

  • 6th Battery: 62 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

That brings us to the small arms:

0228_3_Snip_WI

By battery:

  • 2nd Battery: Twenty Army revolvers and 153 horse artillery sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Twenty-three cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery: Thirty Army revolvers and twenty cavalry sabers.
  • 8th Battery: Sixteen Navy revolvers and four cavalry sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Forty-five navy revolvers and nineteen cavalry sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Fifteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 12th Battery: Eight cavalry sabers.

No real surprises here with the small arms, with quantities similar to that reported the previous quarter… where quantities are reported!

But that brings up an interesting contrast to consider.  We have seen many lines for batteries without proper documentation.  Wisconsin, with just two lacking (I don’t count the 13th Battery here, as it didn’t exist formally), is much better than most of the sections.  We have two batteries – one in Tennessee and one in Virginia – with no data to consider.  Of course, we can project reasons for this upon the situation.  After all, the war had priority… paperwork could wait.

Yet, the 30th Wisconsin Infantry, with no “real” artillerists and scattered all over the western plains far away from the Ordnance Department, managed to provide a return for compilation.  The inconsistencies of reporting in the 1860s.

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Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Ohio Independent Batteries, Part 2

Picking up where we left off with the last post, we proceed through Ohio’s independent batteries for the second quarter of 1863.  Looking at the “lower half” of those:

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As mentioned last week, there were twenty-six numbered independent batteries.  Only twenty-five appear on this list.  The last, the 26th Independent Battery, was Company F, 32nd Ohio Infantry.  And we’ll see them tallied on a later page of the summaries.  For now, we have the 13th through the 25th:

 

  • 13th Battery: “Not in service.”  This battery ceased to exist, officially, in April 1862.
  • 14th Battery: Reporting, as of August, 1863, at Corinth, Mississippi with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance rifles. However, at the end of June, the battery part of the District of Jackson (though at Lynnville, Tennessee), Thirteenth Corps.   Lieutenant Homer H. Stull was the commander “in the field” with the battery.  But Stull died in May.  Captain Jerome B. Burrows returned later in the spring.
  • 15th Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 6-pdr field guns.  Captain Edward Spear, Jr. remained in command.  The battery was in Fourth Division, Sixteenth Corps, and serving in the siege of the city.
  • 16th Battery: Reporting on September 25, 1863 as at Carrollton, Louisiana with one  6-pdr field gun, one 12-pdr Napoleon, and three 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain (promoted that spring) Russell P. Twist remained in command.  The battery was with Twelfth Division, Thirteenth Corps.  As such it was involved with the Vicksburg siege at the end of June 1863.
  • 17th Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with six 10-pdr Parrotts. The battery was assigned to Tenth Division, Thirteenth Corps.  Captain Ambrose A. Blount remained in command through the much Vicksburg Campaign, but resigned on July 2.  Lieutenant Charles S. Rice was promoted to replace Blount.
  • 18th Battery: Reporting at Tullahoma, Tennessee with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain Charles Aleshire’s battery was in First Division, Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.
  • 19th Battery: As of January 1864, reporting at Knoxville, Tennessee with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  The battery remained at Lexington, Kentucky through the first weeks of June.  After which, Captain Joseph C. Shields’ battery was involved with the pursuit of Morgan.  The battery was officially in the District of Central Kentucky.   Later, in July, the battery was placed in First Division, Twenty-third Corps.
  • 20th Battery: Reporting, in June 1864, at Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  The armament is fine.  But for June 1863 the battery was involved with the Tullahoma Campaign, and thus somewhere near Hoover Gap at the end of the quarter.  The battery remained under Captain [John T.] Edward Grosskopff  and assigned to assigned to Second Division, Twentieth Corps.
  • 21st Battery: No report.  The battery remained at Camp Dennison, Ohio, presumably still with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain James W. Patterson, commanding.  The battery was involved with the pursuit of Morgan in July.
  • 22nd Battery: No report.  After organizing, the battery moved briefly to Wheeling, West Virginia (to counter resistance to the draft), with only two guns.  In mid-June the battery moved back to Camp Chase, Ohio, where two more guns were assigned.  Caliber not reported.  Commanded by Captain Henry M. Niel.
  • 23rd Battery: “Not in service.” This battery was formed from the 2nd Kentucky Infantry and later became the 1st Kentucky Independent Light Battery. Only mentioned here due to “placeholder” status.
  • 24th Battery:  No report. Not mustered until August 1863.  However, the battery does appear as assigned to the Department of Ohio with Lieutenant James W. Gamble assigned command of recruits gathered at Camp Dennison.
  • 25th Battery: Reporting from Little Rock, Arkansas, in May 1864, with two 3-inch Ordnance rifles and four 3.67-inch rifles (replacing four 6-pdr smoothbores from the previous quarter).  In June 1863 the battery moved from Rolla to Pilot Knob, Missouri.  There the battery became part of the force that would advance on Little Rock in August.  Captain Julius L. Hadley was in command.

So of thirteen numbers, eight were posted to active departments.  Three were forming up.  And two were just administrative placeholders.

Turning to the smoothbore ammunition on hand:

 

0211_1_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt2

Five batteries reporting:

  • 14th Battery: 148 shot, 48 shell, 150 case, and 50 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 15th Battery: 233 shot, 123 case, and 220 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 16th Battery: 46 shot, 90 case, and 26 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 61 shot, 54 shell, 106 case, and 26 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 19th Battery: 74 shot, 251 shell, 293 case, and 234 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 20th Battery: 62 shot, 41 shell, 34 case, and 34 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Moving to the rifled projectiles, first the Hotchkiss patents:

0211_2_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt2

Five lines:

  • 14th Battery: 147(?) canister, 385 percussion shell, and 276 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 16th Battery: 190 shot and 120 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 18th Battery: 246 canister, 115 percussion shell, 694 fuse shell, and 493 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 20th Battery: 148(?) canister, 214 percussion shell, and 365 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 25th Battery: 410 shot, 360 percussion shell, and 40 fuse shell for 3.67-inch rifles.

Notice the 25th Battery did not report Hotchkiss rounds for their 3-inch rifles.

Continuing to the next page, there are a couple of stray Hotchkiss columns and Dyer’s patent:

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Hotchkiss first:

  • 16th Battery: 104 Hotchkiss canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 25th Battery: 160 Hotchkiss canister for 3.67-inch rifles.

Dyers:

  • 25th Battery: 172 Dyer’s shrapnel for 3-inch rifles.

Moving over to the James columns:

0212_1B_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt2

Just one:

  • 16th Battery: 50 shell and 450 case for 3.80-inch rifles.

Then on to the Parrott projectiles:

0212_1C_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt2

A lonely entry:

  • 17th Battery: 240 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

This begs the question as to what Blount’s battery was firing at Vicksburg.

One line from the Schenkl columns:

0212_2_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt2

  • 25th Battery: 159 shell and 80 canister for 3.67-inch rifles.

The 25th had a variety of projectiles for the rifled 6-pdrs, but apparently only shrapnel for the 3-inch rifles!

Lastly the small arms:

0212_3_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt2

By battery:

  • 14th Battery: Thirty Army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • 15th Battery: Eight cavalry sabers.
  • 16th Battery: Twenty-five Navy revolvers and twenty-two cavalry sabers.
  • 17th Battery: Nine Army revolvers.
  • 18th Battery: Thirty Army revolvers, three cavalry sabers, and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • 19th Battery: Thirty Navy revolvers and twelve cavalry sabers.
  • 20th Battery: Twenty-five Army revolvers and twenty-nine horse artillery sabers.
  • 25th Battery: Six “Rifled muskets, foreign manufacture”, twenty-six Navy revolvers, and fourteen cavalry sabers.

From the previous quarter, the 25th Battery reported Belgian rifles.

Next we will look at the 1st Ohio Light Artillery’s batteries.

 

Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Ohio Independent Batteries, Part 1

Ohio, like New York, had both a regimental system for artillery and independent batteries.  With the summaries for the second quarter of 1863, for some reason the Ordnance Department clerks opted to list the independent batteries before those of the 1st Ohio Light Artillery Regiment.  Yet another accounting anomaly to pester historians with OCD.  Looking at the summary, we find twenty-five of the twenty-six independent batteries were allocated a line:

0209_1_Snip_Ohio_IND_All

The 26th Independent Battery?  It was indeed in service at this time of the war, but under a different name.  But we’ll see them listed a little later… and then discuss their interesting story.

For part one, let us focus on the first twelve independent batteries:

0209_1_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

Nine of the first twelve filed returns.  Though several of those were not received by Washington until 1864.

 

  • 1st Battery: No report. Captain James R. McMullin commanded this battery, supporting the Third Division, Eighth Corps. The battery moved from Kanawha Falls, to Charleston, West Virginia near the end of June.  Sketches of the unit’s service indicate the battery had four guns at this time.  Not sure as to the type and caliber.
  • 2nd Battery: From an April 1864 return, this battery was at Ship’s Island, Mississippi with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James rifles.  Lieutenant Augustus Beach commanded this battery assigned to Twelfth Division (later Third Division), Thirteenth Corps.  The battery participated in the Vicksburg Campaign, and was in the lines at Vicksburg at the end of June 1863.
  • 3rd Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.   The battery was assigned to Third Division, Seventeenth Corps.  Captain William S. Williams remained in command.
  • 4th Battery:  Reported, as of October 1863, at Iuka, Mississippi, with two (or three) 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.   However, Captain Louis Hoffman’s battery was assigned to First Divsision, Fifteenth Corps.  And they participated in the Vicksburg Campaign with that formation.
  • 5th Battery:  No location given.  Battery reported two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Commanded by Lieutenant Anthony B. Burton.  The battery served in Fourth Division, Sixteenth Corps through the Vicksburg Campaign.  During the siege, the battery operated a 42-pdr rifle and an 8-inch siege gun captured from the Confederates.
  • 6th  Battery:  Reporting from Hillsboro, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Cullen Bradley remained in command of the battery, which was assigned to First Division, Twenty-First Corps.  The battery participated in the Tullahoma Campaign.  Hillsboro is roughly half-way between Murfreesboro and Chattanooga.
  • 7th Battery: No return.  In the previous quarter, the battery reported four 3.80-inch James Rifles.  The battery was assigned to Fourth Division, Sixteenth Corps.   Captain Silas A. Burnap remained commander.  During the siege of Vicksburg, the battery guarded the rear of the Federal lines.
  • 8th Battery: Reporting in January 1864 as at Vicksburg, Mississippi.  But no guns listed.   Commanded by Captain James F. Putnam, this battery was assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Corps.  During the siege of Vicksburg, the battery manned 30-pdr Parrotts (those not being considered “field guns” may explain the absence of guns on the summary).
  • 9th Battery: Guy’s Gap, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery was commanded by Captain Harrison B. York and assigned to the Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  The battery was among the forces arrayed to protect the Army of the Cumberland’s supply lines.
  • 10th Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Under Captain Hamilton B. White, the battery remained with Sixth Division, Seventeenth Corps.  For a time during the siege of Vicksburg, the battery occupied Fort Ransom. but the end of June found them protecting the Federal rear along the Big Black River.
  • 11th Battery: No report. Was part of the Seventh Division, Seventeenth Corps. On paper, Captain Frank C. Sands was commander.  But with Sands serving as division artillery chief, Lieutenant Fletcher E. Armstrong commanded. The battery through the Vicksburg Campaign though suffered heavily due to sickness.
  • 12th Battery: At Camp Barry, District of Columbia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Aaron C. Johnson commanded this battery.  In June, the battery was among several swapped out of the Army of the Potomac for fresh batteries.  They reported to the Artillery Camp of Instruction.

 

So we see, among these twelve batteries, a focus on Vicksburg, Mississippi.  With of course a couple employed in Tennessee, one in West Virginia, and one just missing the Gettysburg Campaign.

Moving to the ammunition, first we look at the smoothbore rounds:

0211_1_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

With 6-pdr field guns, 12-pdr field howitzers, and Napoleons on hand, this is a busy page:

  • 2nd Battery: 74 shell, 135 case, and 69 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 70 shot, 40 case, and 56 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 4th Battery: 49 shell, 13 case, and 46 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 5th Battery: 4 shot, 235 case, and 155 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 155 shell, 64 case, and 69 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 6th Battery: 48 shot, 52 shell, 76 case, and 80 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 9th Battery: 104 shot, 153 shell, 310 case, and 226 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Moving to the rifled projectiles, we find a wide array of makes and calibers.  Starting with the Hotchkiss patent types:

0211_2_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

Hotchkiss for both the James and Ordnance rifles:

  • 2nd Battery: 100 fuse shell and 90 bullet shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 3rd Battery: 112 percussion shell and 113 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 64 shot and 216 percussion shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 5th Battery: 79 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 9th Battery: 85 canister, 145 fuse shell, and 155 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 30 shot and 160 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery:  492 fuse shell and 403 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

I’ll break down the next page in sections for easier handling.  Starting with the extended Hotchkiss columns and Dyer’s patent:

0212_1A_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

Hotchkiss patent:

  • 3rd Battery: 49 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 309 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Dyer’s:

  • 12th Battery: 120 canister for 3-inch rifles.

Then moving to the James patent projectiles:

0212_1B_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

Four batteries reporting:

  • 2nd Battery: 100 shot and 400 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 3rd Battery: 15 shot and 35 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 5th Battery: 4 shot, 112 shell and 95 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 103 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

Only one battery reported Parrott rifles:

0212_1C_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

So we find one battery reporting Parrott projectiles:

  • 6th Battery: 440 shell, 347 case, and 60 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

But do remember 8th Battery used 30-pdr Parrotts at Vicksburg, though not listed in the summary.

Tuning to the last page, let us break the projectiles into two sections.  First the Schenkl patent:

0212_2A_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

Three lines:

  • 4th Battery: 143 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 64 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery: 167 shell for 3-inch rifles.

Moving to the last columns, we have Tatham’s canister on hand with two batteries:

0212_2B_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

  • 2nd Battery: 143 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 94 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

One might expect a variety of projectiles used by the batteries at Vicksburg, given the extended supply lines.  But 12th Battery, at Camp Barry, had three different patent types of 3-inch projectiles.  And they were right in the Ordnance Department’s back yard!

Last we have the small arms:

0212_3_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

By battery:

  • 2nd Battery: Eight cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Twenty-three Navy revolvers and eight cavalry sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Twenty-five Army revolvers, fifty-two cavalry sabers, six horse artillery sabers, and sixteen foot artillery sabers.
  • 5th Battery: Seven Navy revolvers and sixteen cavalry sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Two Army revolvers and six cavalry sabers.
  • 12th Battery: Four cavalry sabers and twenty horse artillery sabers.

The 4th Battery demonstrated a fondness for edged weapons.

We’ll look at the second half of the Ohio independent batteries in the next installment.

 

Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Michigan’s Batteries

Starting a fresh set of pages in the second quarter summaries, we find Michigan’s are the next set of volunteer batteries.  As mentioned in previous installments, the clerks identified Michigan’s batteries with numbered designations, as per early war convention.  But the batteries were later designated with letters within the state’s 1st Light Artillery Regiment.  I will merge the two in an attempt to cover all bases.

Michigan provided a full light artillery regiment during the war in addition to a handful of independent batteries.  The independent batteries were late war formations.  However, all twelve of the 1st Michigan Light Artillery were formed by the end of June, 1863 (just barely, that is).  Colonel Cyrus O. Loomis, formerly of 1st Batttery / Battery A, was made colonel of the regiment on October 8, 1862.  And Loomis also served as the chief of artillery for Fourteenth Corps, Army of the Cumberland (analogous to the service of Colonel Charles Wainwright in the Army of the Potomac).

0201_1_Snip_MI

Of the twelve batteries of the 1st Michigan, only ten made the summary.  Added to those were three additional lines.  So we have some gaps to fill and questions to resolve:

  • 1st Battery (Battery A): No return.  Also known as the Loomis Battery, for its first commander. At the reporting time, this was Lieutenant George Van Pelt’s battery, assigned to First Division, Fourteenth Corps.   Battery reported five 10-pdr Parrotts in an internal report for the Army of the Cumberland.  And of course, the battery was part of the Tullahoma Campaign at the reporting date. Van Pelt killed in action at Chickamauga.
  • 2nd Battery (Battery B): Reporting from Corinth, Tennessee with two 12-pdr howitzers and three 3-inch rifles (under the “steel” column). The battery, under Lieutenant Albert F. R. Arndt, was posted to West Tennessee, under the District of Corinth, Sixteenth Corps.
  • 3rd Battery (Battery C): At Memphis, Mississippi.  One 12-pdr field howitzer and three 10-pdr Parrotts.  Under Captain George Robinson, this battery was also part of the District of Corinth, Sixteenth Corps.
  • 4th Battery (Battery D): Reporting Manchester, Tennessee with two 12-pdr field howitzers, two 10-pdr Parrotts, and two James 3.80-inch rifles.  Captain Josiah Church took this battery, assigned to the Third Division, Fourteenth Corps, into action at Hoover’s Gap in late June.
  • 5th Battery (Battery E): At Lavergne (?), Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain John J. Ely’s battery was part of the Artillery of the Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland, and then serving under the garrison of Nashville.  The battery was assigned to a post named Fort Riley during this period.
  • 6th Battery (Battery F): Munfordsville, Kentucky with two 6-pdr field guns and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  By some reports, the battery had sections at Munfordsville, Bowling Green, and Louisville, through October 1863.  Captain Luther F. Hale commanded overall, and at Munfordsville.  That section had two 6-pdrs and two Parrotts, in a report to the Department of the Ohio on June 20.  Another section at Bowling Green under Lieutenant Byron Paddock also reported two 6-pdrs and two Parrotts.  As with the previous quarter, we have to ask if those were duplicate reports?  Or if only one section is represented for the summary? Or… one of those sections is carried in the other lines below.
  • 7th Battery (Battery G):  At Vicksburg, Mississippi with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  The battery was assigned to the Ninth Division, Thirteenth Corps and commanded by Captain Charles H. Lanphere.
  • 8th Battery (Battery H): Also reporting at Vicksburg, but with with two 12-pdr field howitzers, one 6-pdr (3.67-inch) rifles, and two James (3.80-inch) rifles.  Captain Samuel De Golyer commanded this battery, assigned to Third Division, Seventeenth Corps, when the Vicksburg Campaign began.  On May 25, while directing one of his howitzers, De Golyer was mortally wounded (in the hip).   He died later in August.  Lieutenant Theodore W. Lockwood assumed command.
  • 9th Battery (Battery I): Reporting at Boonesboro, Maryland with six 3-inch rifles.  Captain Jabez J. Daniels commanded this battery.  When Stahel’s Cavalry Division transferred to the Army of the Potomac, Daniels’ battery became part of the 1st Brigade, Horse Artillery, Army of the Potomac.  However, the battery was detailed to support First Corps on July 3, and fired 322 rounds of Hotchkiss shot, shell, and canister in the fighting that day at Gettysburg.  Their monument is across from the Pennsylvania Memorial.
  • 10th Battery (Battery K): Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee, with four 3-inch rifles.  However, this reflects the September 1864 posting date.  In June 1863, the battery was at Camp Barry, Washington, D.C..  Captain John Schuetz commanded.  (The battery was sent west as part of the reinforcements sent to Chattanooga in November.)
  • 11th Battery (Battery L):  Not listed.  Under Captain Charles J. Thompson.  The battery reported to Cincinnati, Ohio in May.  First action on June 15, 1863, at Triplett’s Bridge, Kentucky.  And in July, the battery was active against Morgan’s Raid, with one section serving at Buffington’s Island.
  • 12th Battery (Battery M):  Not listed. Captain Edward G. Hillier commanded.  The battery did not leave the state until July 9, being dispatched to Indianapolis in reaction to Morgan’s Raid.

So with the two “fill ins” provided here at the end, we’ve reconstructed a complete list for the regiment.  The biggest remaining question is the sections of 6th Battery / Battery F.  It is my belief the battery had only four cannon, and the Department of the Ohio report duplicates the listings. And one of the “other” lines seems to reinforce that belief:

  • Finch’s (?) Section: In the previous quarter, we saw Lieutenant Amasa J. Finch, 18th Michigan Infantry, had two field howitzers at Hickman’s Bridge, Kentucky.  This was a temporary assignment, apparently disbanded before the end of the March.  Though the guns were turned over, the section still reported a handful of implements and tools on hand.
  • “Lieutenant, Stores in Charge”: Reporting from Bowling Green, Kentucky. This line included ammunition (which we will consider below), friction primers, and implements.  This line could account for Paddock’s section of 6th Battery / Battery F.  And if so, this indicates the section’s guns were accounted for with the main battery summary.
  • 12th Michigan Infantry: At Little Rock, Arkansas with one 12-pdr field howitzer.  At the end of June, 1863, the 12th Michigan was part of the reinforcements sent from the Sixteenth Corps to Vicksburg, and assigned as part of Kimball’s Provisional Division to the Thirteenth Corps.  Later in the summer and fall, the regiment moved with its parent brigade to the other side of the Mississippi, and was part of the force moving on Little Rock.  That city fell in November, which is also when the clerks received this return in Washington.  Thus explains the location.

So with those explanations, we seem to have the blanks covered and important questions answered.

Not so fast, as we move to the smoothbore ammunition:

0203_1_Snip_MI

Like a canister pattern here, with numbers scattered all about:

  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: 152 shell, 152 case, and 94 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery / Battery C: 80 shell, 80 case, and 35 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 4th Battery / Battery D: 98 shell, 108 case, and 40 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 5th Battery / Battery E: 206 shot, 133 case, and 137 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 6th Battery / Battery F: 251 shot, 209 case, and 115 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 8th Battery / Battery H: 75 shot and 30 case for 6-pdr field guns; 128 shell, 95 case, and 27 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 9th Battery / Battery I: 12 shell for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • Bowling Green: 294 shot, 196 case, and 98 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 12th Infantry: 20 shell, 24 case, and 16 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.

The first issue to consider is the 8th Battery / Battery H and the 6-pdr ammunition.  But that battery also had a rifled 6-pdr field gun, 3.67-inch caliber, which could use smoothbore ammunition in a pinch.

More concerning is the 9th Battery / Battery I with mountain howitzer ammunition on hand.  I can only speculate.

Finally, we see a substantial quantity of rounds at Bowling Green, which might support the idea this was a section from 6th Battery / Battery F.

Moving over to the rifled projectiles, we consider the Hotchkiss rounds first:

0203_2_Snip_MI

Five batteries to consider:

  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: 240 shot, 48 canister, 48 percussion shell, and 72 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery / Battery G: 202 canister, 399 fuse shell, and 1,487 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 8th Battery / Battery H: 117 shot, 62 percussion shell, and 12 fuse shell for 3.67-inch rifles.
  • 9th Battery / Battery I:  96 canister, 120 percussion shell, 240 fuse shell, and 713 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery / Battery K: 96 canister, 165 percussion shell, 179 fuse shell, and 402 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

We have not seen much solid shot for 3-inch rifles reported.  So 2nd Battery / Battery B’s report is worthy of notice.

However, keep in mind the caliber of projectiles reported by 8th Battery / Battery H.  In this case, rifled 6-pdr caliber.

Moving to the next page, we’ll break this into segments for clarity:

0204_1A_Snip_MI

A leftover Hotchkiss column:

  • 8th Battery / Battery H: 27 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

So, both 3.67-inch and 3.80-inch in the same battery.  That 0.13-inch difference?

James Projectiles:

  • 4th Battery / Battery D: 413 shell, 150 case, and 12 canister for 3.80-inch rifls.
  • 8th Battery / Battery H: 1 shot and 272 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

And moving over to the Parrott and Schenkl columns:

0204_1B_Snip_MI

First the Parrott patent projectiles:

  • 3rd Battery / Battery C: 40 shell, 421 case, and 80 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 4th Battery / Battery D: 150 shell, 150 case, and 45 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 5th Battery / Battery E: 289 shell, 108 case, and 171 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 6th Battery / Battery F: 412 shell, 381 case, and 92 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

Now the Schenkl patent:

  • 3rd Battery / Battery C: 57 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 5th Battery / Battery E: 129 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.

Continuing with the Schenkl, we have one entry on the next page:

0204_2_Snip_MI

  • 5th Battery / Battery E: 40 shell for 10-pdr Parrott.

Appears the 10-pdr ammunition chests were well stocked.

Lastly, we turn to the small arms.  Notice the hand-written column headers here.

0204_3_Snip_MI

None of those come into play for the Michigan batteries.  But we’ll see those discussed in future installments.

For Michigan:

  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: Twenty Army revolvers and 31 cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery / Battery C: Seventeen cavalry sabers.
  • 4th Battery / Battery D: Twenty cavalry sabers.
  • 5th Battery / Battery E: Twenty-five cavalry sabers and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 6th Battery / Battery F: Twenty-five Army revolvers and twelve cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery / Battery G: Thirteen Army revolvers, forty-six cavalry sabers, and six horse artillery sabers.
  • 9th Battery / Battery I: 106 Army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery / Battery H: Fifteen Army revolvers and sixty-nine horse artillery sabers.

Looking back to the previous quarter, there is some attrition and loss indicated with the small arms.  As one might expect with these batteries involved with hard campaigning.

Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Miscellaneous Missouri artillery units

Having looked at the second quarter, 1863 summaries for the First Regiment and Second Regiment (first formation) Missouri Artillery, we can now turn to eight entries carried at the bottom of the state’s listings:

0193_1_Snip_MO_Misc

Eight lines.  Double the number from the previous quarter.  There is some carry-over from the previous quarter, but each line deserves close scrutiny:

  • 1st Battery Missouri State Militia (M.S.M.) Artillery: Matches up from the previous quarter.  Reporting at Sedalia, Missouri with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers and four 10-pdr Parrotts. This was Captain Charles H. Thurber’s battery.  The return was posted to Washington in September 1863.  So we might think this reasonably accurate.  Think again.  Indeed most of the battery was at Sedalia, in the District of Central Missouri, at this time of the war.  But a muster roll from that same time indicates, a section of two 2.9″ English Rifled Guns, 21 men, and 24 horses under Lieutenant Albert Wachsman was on escort duty with the 4th M.S.M. Cavalry.  The guns mentioned were undoubtedly imported from Liverpool, England, manufactured by Fawcett, Preston & Company, with some affiliation to the Blakely rifles of note (Very likely a CORRECTION here, see comments below).  The caliber was, of course, the same as the 10-pdr Parrott.  So perhaps a clerk somewhere along the way made a decision to tally under that column.  Call it clerical expediency?
  • Lovejoy’s (?) Battery, Mountain Howitzer: Listed at Brownsville, Arkansas with four 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  The location is almost certainly reflecting the August 1864 reporting date.  If my read of the name is correct, this is a battery in the 2nd Missouri Cavalry (Merrill’s Horse) commanded by Lieutenant George F. Lovejoy.  And, if so, the regiment, along with its battery, was posted in central Missouri.  The 2nd Cavalry was in the 1st Brigade, First Cavalry Division, Department of Missouri.
  • Howitzer Battery Attached to 5th Cavalry M.S.M.: This unit reported from Waynesville, Missouri, but with no cannon indicated.  Three companies from that regiment were at Waynesville under Major Waldemar Fischer. A listing of equipment reported included: four thumbstalls, two tube pouches, two vent covers, two vent punches, two whips, two tar buckets, two leather buckets, two gimlets, one guners’ pincers, four sets of mountain howitzers harnesses, four lanyards, two priming wires, and 250 friction primers.  We might say that’s the left-overs from a couple of mountain howitzers.  Maybe?
  • 2nd Cavalry M.S.M. :  At Cape Girardeau, Missouri, with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  The 2nd Cavalry M.S.M. was assigned to the District of Southeast Missouri at this time of the war, under Lieutenant-Colonel Hiram M. Hiller.  Dyer’s mentions McClanahan’s Battery associated with this regiment, but I have no other particulars.
  • Company G?, 6th Cavalry:  Reporting at Vicksburg, the 6th Missouri Cavalry was assigned to Thirteenth Corps at the time.  Colonel Clark Wright commanded.  During the campaign, the 6th was initially assigned to the corps headquarters.  Later they were assigned to the Ninth Division of the corps (remember, at that time the Western armies gave unique numbers to each division).  When given verbal orders to report to Brigadier-General Peter Osterhaus, commanding that division, on May 25, Wright refused, asking for written orders.  Reason I bring that up, in addition to demanding written orders, Wright also asked for two 12-pdr howitzers. (See OR, Series I, Volume XXIV, Part III, Serial 38, page 347.) Such implies Wright had found use for light artillery with his troopers, perhaps based on experiences. At any rate, the 6th Cavalry would, for the second quarter running, report ammunition on hand… for 12-pdr mountain howitzers… which we will count below.
  • Company A, 10th Cavalry: Reporting at Memphis, Tennessee, with four 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  The 10th Missouri Cavalry was assigned to the Sixteenth Division, specifically the District of Corinth, and commanded by Colonel Florence M. Cornyn.  Lieutenant Peter Joyce of Company A had charge of two sections of mountain howitzers.  State records cite this as Joyce’s Battery.  The battery received praise for work on July 7 in action near Iuka, Mississippi.
  • 18th Missouri Volunteers: The location is difficult to read, but indicating a Tennessee address.  The regiment reported two 6-pdr field guns. Colonel Madison Miller commanded this regiment, which at the time was part of the District of Corinth, Sixteenth Corps.
  • 6th Co., 1st Missouri Engineers:  Reporting no guns, but stores, and at Pocahontas, Tennessee.  And yet another interesting story.  During the Vicksburg Campaign a battalion of the engineers were sent to Pocahontas on orders to gather timber and other supplies.  While there, the engineers found themselves heavily involved with suppressing irregulars and other sorts.  From the regimental history, page 97:

The train used by the Regiment for bringing timbers and other materials required, was fitted out with a guard of boiler iron for the Engineer on the locomotive, and a flat car was fitted up with a timber guard faced on the outside with boiler iron, and carrying a ten pounder Parrott gun with a train guard of fifteen men, they called this bullet-proof car their gunboat.

So maybe the engineers are reporting the stores on hand for that Parrott gun?  Well, I’m going to dispute the identification of the gun based on the ammunition reported, below.

One glaring omission from the list above, and the two regimental listings, is Landgraeber’s Battery.  Originally organized in October 1861 as the First Missouri Flying Battery, or sometimes the First Missouri Horse Artillery, or Pfenninghausen’s Battery (after the battery’s first commander), in June 1863, this battery was assigned to First Division, Fifteenth Corps.  Captain Clemens Landgraeber commanded. The battery had four 12-pdr howitzers (some indications mountain, others field) on hand.  After September 1863, the battery would receive the official designation of Battery F, 2nd Missouri Light Artillery.  And that is actually how the battery appears on the consolidated returns from the Official Records in June.  However, I would contend the designation was retroactively applied.  The “first” Battery F was at that time in Missouri, counting down the days to mustering out, but with no report entered for the summary.  Either way around, we have two units which can be called Battery F, but no data from either of them.

Another battery missing from Missouri’s lists is Walling’s Battery.  But they appear elsewhere in the summaries under the Mississippi Marine Brigade.

With those administrative details aired out… or at least the questions laid on the table… we can move to account for the ammunition.  With a lot of mountain howitzers, the smoothbore page is busy:

0195_1_Snip_MO_Misc

By battery:

  • 1st Battery M.S.M.: 36 shell, 50 case, and 40 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • Lovejoy’s Battery: 64 shell, 372 case, and 116 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 2nd Cavalry M.S.M.: 20 case and 24 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 6th Missouri Cavalry: 64 shell and 40 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 10th Missouri Cavalry: 30 shell, 160 case, and 30 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 18th Missouri Infantry: 217 shot, 179 case, and 123 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

So we have an indication that the 6th Missouri Cavalry had mountain howitzers at one time.

Moving over to the rifled projectiles, none of these units reported Hotchkiss projectiles on hand.  But moving to the next page, there are some points to discuss:

0196_1_Snip_MO_Misc

Two batteries reporting quantities:

  • 1st Battery M.S.M.:  245 Parrott shell and 80 Parrott canister in 2.9-inch caliber; 100 Schenkl shot in 2.9-inch caliber.
  • 1st Missouri Engineers: 26 James shells, 3.80-inch caliber.

If we work from the premise that Washman’s section used 2.9-inch English rifles, then we have to question the identification of Parrott projectiles here.  When those rifles were purchased, a quantity of projectiles were included.  So might those be Britten rifled projectiles, 2.9-inch, instead of Parrott?  I can make a case the clerks simply transcribed these as Parrott projectiles, lacking an open column header.

As for the 1st Missouri Engineers, let’s also consider the next page:

0196_2_Snip_MO_Misc

  • 1st Missouri Engineers: 72 Schenkl shells, 3.80-inch caliber; 20 Tatham’s canister, 3.80-inch caliber.

The 1st Missouri Engineers didn’t report any cannon, but we have a citation from the regimental history mentioning a Parrott rifle.  However, the detachment reported having James caliber projectiles on hand.  I’d lean towards this unit having a James rifle on the armored flat car (if indeed that is what we are looking at here), and the regimental history incorrectly identifying the gun.

To close out this section and all of Missouri for the second quarter, we have the small arms:

0196_3_Snip_MO_Misc

Looking down the list, we see a scatter of entries:

  • 1st Battery M.S.M.: Thirty Navy revolvers, twenty-eight cavalry sabers, twenty horse artillery sabers, and forty-nine (?) foot artillery sabers.
  • 10th Missouri Cavalry: Sixty-nine cavalry sabers.
  • 18th Missouri Infantry: Three Army revolvers.
  • 1st Missouri Engineers: Twenty-six breechloading carbines and three rifles (type not specific).

My presumption is the “train guard” from the 1st Missouri Engineers carried those long arms while doing their escort work.  As to why those appear on the artillery’s ordnance return as opposed to one for infantry weapons, I think this goes back to who was filing the paperwork.  If you are the ordnance officer for a detachment of engineers working in Tennessee, would you submit two separate reports?  Or just consolidate it all onto one report, regardless if artillery or small arms?  All that paperwork was going to Washington anyway.

Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – 1st Missouri Artillery

As a “westerner”… or dare I say “Trans-Mississippian”… from my youngest days, it was impressed upon me, through my own studies and the words of others, that nothing regarding Missouri and the Civil War is straight forward.  Such is certainly the case with respect to Missouri’s artillery batteries serving the Federal army during the war.  While the state provided two “on paper” organized regiments of light artillery, there were in addition several independent batteries, militia batteries, and other sections and detachments.  And within that loose structure, there were oddities and questions in terms of administrative arrangements and issued equipment (which we’ll focus on here).

Looking at the aggregate listing for the second quarter, 1863, you can see the clerks opted to consolidate all the Missouri batteries, violating alphabetical order, onto the bottom of the page for this section of the summaries:

0193_1A_Snip_MO

As our focus this round is just the 1st Missouri Light Artillery Regiment, we shall trim that list down:

0193_1_Snip_MO

While an improvement, in terms of completeness, over the previous quarter, we see that most of the returns were not received in Washington until late summer or fall of 1863.  And two returns were not posted until 1864.  The rundown:

  • Battery A: Reported at Iuka, Mississippi with two 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers.  Captain George W. Schofield remained in command.  And the battery remained with Twelfth Division, Thirteenth Corps.  As such, the location given is at odds with the battery service record.  In June 1863, the battery was at Vicksburg, part of the besieging force.  In October 1864, when the report was received in Washington, the battery was at Carrollton, Louisiana, having transferred to the Department of the Gulf.  Iuka does not fit into the time line for this battery.
  • Battery B:  No return.  At the start of the spring, this battery was assigned to the Second (Brigadier-General Francis J. Herron’s) Division, Department of Missouri during the quarter.  Captain Martin Welfley returned, from his staff assignment, in late May.  Then in June the battery moved, with it’s parent organization, to Vicksburg and was assigned to the Thirteenth Corps.  Arriving at Vicksburg on June 14, the battery fell in on a 32-pdr gun during the siege in addition to their own 12-pdr Napoleons and field howitzers.
  • Battery C: Reporting from Vicksburg, Mississippi with two 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers.  Captain Charles Mann remained in command, with the battery assigned to Sixth Division, Seventeenth Corps.
  • Battery D:  At Corinth, Mississippi, with two 6-pdr field guns (a reduction from four the previous quarter), two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 3-inch rifles.  The battery, under Captain Henry Richardson was assigned to Corinth, part of the Sixteenth Corps.
  • Battery E: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 10-pdr Parrotts and two “Fawcett Rifled Iron Gun, Cal. 3.5.”  Note the designation change from a generic “English Guns” the previous quarter.  In late May, Captain Nelson Cole’s battery moved to St. Louis, and with their parent division (Herron’s) then moved to Vicksburg.
  • Battery F: Carrollton, Louisiana with two 3.80-inch James Rifles and four 3.5-inch Fawcett Guns. The location reflects a reporting date of September 1863.  Battery F, like Batteries B and E, was part of Herron’s Division sent to Vicksburg in June 1863. Captain Joseph Foust remained in command.
  • Battery G: No return.  Captain Henry Hescock’s battery was assigned to the Third Division, Twentieth Corps. Hescock was also listed as commander of the artillery brigade supporting the division.  As of the reporting date, they were on the Tullahoma Campaign.
  • Battery H: At Corinth, Mississippi with two 6-pdr field guns, one 24-pdr field howitzer, and two 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Frederick Welker’s battery was part of the garrison at Corinth, under the Sixteenth Corps.
  • Battery I:  Reporting at Pocahontas, Tennessee (a railroad stop northwest of Corinth), with two 6-pdr field guns, one 12-pdr field howitzers (down by one from the previous quarter), two 10-pdr Parrotts, and one 4.62-inch rifle (cited as a 12-pdr James, see mention below).  Captain Benjamin Tannrath commanded the battery, assigned to the Sixteenth Corps, under the Corinth Garrison.
  • Battery K: At Helena, Arkansas with four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Stillman O. Fish was in command.  The battery was part of the District of Eastern Arkansas.
  • Battery L: At Rolla, Missouri with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.67-inch rifles. Captain Frank Backof’s Battery, remaining with the Department of the Frontier, was with a portion of Herron’s Division not forwarded to Vicksburg.
  • Battery M: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 10-pdr Parrotts.  Captain Junius W. MacMurray’s battery remained assigned to Seventh Division, Seventeenth Corps.

So of the twelve batteries of this regiment, half at Vicksburg. Four other batteries were indirectly supporting that campaign.  Battery G was on the Tullahoma Campaign. Leaving only Backof’s Battery in their home state.

The variety of armament should excite readers.  Naturally the mention of Fawcett guns is noteworthy.  But we’ve seen those reported from previous quarters.  It’s the 12-pdr James rifle, with Battery I, which stands out for this summary.  The column header (part of the form) clearly calls this out as a bronze weapon.  And specifically 4.62-inch caliber.  We can’t dismiss this simply as transcription error because, as we will see below, the battery also reported ammunition in that caliber.  So either a lot of transcription errors…. or a bronze 12-pdr rifle was with the battery.  Certainly not the rifled 12-pdr Napoleons that are seen at Gettysburg.  Those were only used for tests.  Rather, the leading candidate is a 12-pdr field gun, heavy, that had been rifled to the James system.  Several of those survive today. And with Battery I posted to guarding a railroad, form seems to follow function.  Until I find more information, I’d still rate that tentative.

Turning to the smoothbore ammunition, we find the need to extend the table to include those 24-pdr howitzer rounds:

0195_1_Snip_MO

Listing by battery:

  • Battery A:  66 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 16 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers
  • Battery C: 65 shot for 6-pdr field guns; 124 shell, 96 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery D: 182 shot, 50 case, and 87 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 119 shell and 38 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; and 162 case for 12-pdr Napoleons (which may be a transcription error).
  • Battery H: 130 case and 28 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 69 shell, 53 case, and 60 canister for 24-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery I: 15 shot, 195 case, and 109 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 49 shell, 36 case, and 71 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery L: 184 case and 80 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.

The limited number of rounds for Battery A stand out in particular. Just canister… for the siege of Vicksburg.  Go figure.

Turning to the rifled projectiles, Hotchkiss is first:

0195_2_Snip_MO

We have a short list, but with notes:

  • Battery D: 40 canister, 98 percussion shell, 152 fuse shell, and 270 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery F: 12 shot and 86 percussion shells for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 280 shot and 270 percussion shell for 3.67-inch rifles.

Once again we see those in the field, and those in Washington, make distinction between the 3.80-inch “James” and the 3.67-inch “Wiard” calibers.  We should not read into the latter identification, as that was simply tied to a caliber of gun, though not specifically the inventor’s gun.  In this case, Backof’s battery had rifled 6-pdrs.

That distinction remains for carry-over columns of Hotchiss on the next page (which I’ll break down by section for clarity):

0196_1A_Snip_MO

Two reporting:

  • Battery F: 88 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery L:  100 canister for 3.67-inch rifles.

Now we can move to the James-patent Projectiles:

0196_1B_Snip_MO

And as mentioned above, we have either a lot of transcription errors, or something to fire from a rifled bronze 12-pdr:

  • Battery I: 10 shot, 8 shell, 25 case, and 30 canister for 4.62-inch rifles.

The next section covers Parrott-patent projectiles:

0196_1C_Snip_MO

Five batteries reporting:

  • Battery E: 420 shell, 175 case, and 75 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery H: 163 shell, 137 case, and 137 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery I: 48 shell, 44 case, and 64 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery K: 160 shell, 340 case, and 120 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery M: 265 shell, 473 case, and 130 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Lastly we turn to the Schenkl columns:

0196_1D_Snip_MO

A lot of shot of that type:

  • Battery E:  130 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery I: 54 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery K: 92 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery M: 126 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.

There are no further Schenkl entries on the next page.  So we can move to the small arms:

0196_3_Snip_MO

By battery:

  • Battery A: Fourteen percussion pistols, twenty Navy revolvers, and ninety-three cavalry sabers.
  • Battery C: Three (?) Army revolvers and four cavalry sabers.
  • Battery D: Eight Army revolvers and thirty cavalry sabers.
  • Battery E: Seventy-seven Army revolvers and forty-four cavalry sabers.
  • Battery F: Ten Army revolvers and eighteen cavalry sabers.
  • Battery H: Eight Army revolvers and forty-eight (?) cavalry sabers.
  • Battery I: Seventeen Army revolvers, 113 cavalry sabers, and one horse artillery saber.
  • Battery K: Three Navy revolvers and twenty-five cavalry sabers.
  • Battery L: Eleven Navy revolvers and thirty-nine cavalry sabers.
  • Battery M: Four Army revolvers and seven cavalry sabers.

Other than the percussion pistols, no oddities among the small arms.  There are a lot of reenactor impressions “taking a hit” right now.

We will pick up with the 2nd Missouri Artillery next.

Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Batteries from Minnesota

Minnesota provided three light batteries to the Federal cause.  All three of those were on active service at the end of the second quarter, 1863:

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All three offered returns for the quarter, though posted in Washington with some delays:

  • 1st Battery: Received in September 1863, with location of Vicksburg, Mississippi.  This is probably correct, as the battery supported Sixth Division, Seventeenth Corps at this juncture.  In fact, the battery would spend most of its time through the subsequent fall and winter around Vicksburg.  The battery reported two 12-pdr field howitzers and two 3.67-inch (6-pdr) rifles.  Captain William Z. Clayton commanded.
  • 2nd Battery:  For the second quarterly return in a row, we see Chattanooga, Tennessee as the location for this battery.  Certainly valid for a posting date of January 1864.  But as of June 30, 1863, the battery was assigned to First Division, Twentieth Corps, and active on the Tullahoma Campaign through middle Tennessee.  Chattanooga was the objective, but not quite yet reached.  Two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 10-pdr Parrotts were in the battery’s charge.  Lieutenant Albert Woodbury remained in command.  Woodbury would be mortally wounded at Chickamauga later in the summer.  Lieutenant Richard L. Dawley did get the battery off the field, however.
  • 3rd Battery:  Reporting from Fort Snelling, Minnesota with two 6-pdr field guns and six 12-pdr field howitzers (But… see note below).  Captain John Jones commanded this battery assigned to the District of Minnesota, Department of the Northwest.  Far away from the big battles in Mississippi, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania, the 3rd did not have a quiet summer by the lake.  At the end of June, the Battery was among the forces on an expedition against the Sioux.   Lieutenant J. C. Whipple, commanding a section (of howitzers, if my memory is correct), served with distinction at Stony Lake later in July.

Three batteries.  Three different campaigns. No light duty for the Minnesota batteries.

The 3rd Battery’s howitzers deserve some attention… or question marks, perhaps.  We see field howitzers on the cannon summary page.  But later in the summary, we find the ammunition reported was for mountain howitzers.  And Brigadier-General Henry H. Sibley, commanding the expedition against the Sioux, specifically mentioned a section of 6-pdrs and two sections of mountain howitzers in his official report.  I would make the case for four mountain howitzers, and the tally being placed in the wrong column.

Turning to their ammunition, we look at the smoothbore page first:

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All three had some quantities to report:

  • 1st Battery: 74 shell, 128 case, and 90 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 2nd Battery: 96 shot, 32 shell, 96 case, and 32 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 3rd Battery:  130 shot, 230 case, and 42 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 60 shell, 224 case, and 84 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzer.  (That last entry, I’m suggesting is another column entry error and should have been entered one to the right.)

Moving to the rifled projectiles, we saw the 1st Battery reported rifled 6-pdrs.  These were, based on the column entry, REAL 6-pdrs that were rifled.  In other words 3.67-inch caliber.  And that’s the ammunition they reported:

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These on the first page of Hotchkiss projectiles:

  • 1st Battery: 122 shot, 36 percussion shell, and 26 bullet shell for 3.67-inch rifles.

Note the Ordnance Department called this “Wiard” caliber, related to the rifled guns from that inventor.  But we know that caliber pre-dated Wiard’s guns.

More Hotchkiss on the next page, which we will break down into sections:

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  • 1st Battery:  116 canister for 3.67-inch.  Again “Wiard” is the association, but we should properly disassociate from the eccentric inventor.

Moving over to the right, there are some Parrott projectiles to account for:

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  • 2nd Battery:  444 shell, 207 case, and 143 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

There were no Schenkl or Tatham projectiles reported.  So we move quickly to the small arms:

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By battery:

  • 1st Battery: Two rifles (type, non-specific) and eleven Navy revolvers.
  • 2nd Battery: One Navy revolver and nine cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Thirty Army revolvers and 126 cavalry sabers.

3rd Battery must have issued a saber to every man when stepping out on Sibley’s Sioux Expedition.

Looking ahead to the next installments, one might wonder “Where’s Michigan?”  Well the clerks at the Ordnance Department, never ones to be constrained by the alphabet, shifted that state’s batteries to the next page.  That gave room for all the batteries of Missouri to be considered in one contiguous group.