Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Iowa’s batteries

Iowa provided four light batteries to the Federal cause during the Civil War. Three of those were on active service at the end of September, 1863.  The fourth was mustering and organizing that fall.  For the third quarter, 1863, the summaries offer four entry lines:

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Three batteries and one artillery section reported with the 2nd Iowa Cavalry.  I’ll include the 4th Battery here for “administrative” discussions:

 

  • 1st Iowa Battery: No report.  After the fall of Vicksburg, the 1st Iowa Battery participated in operations against Jackson, Mississippi.  After that operation, the battery fell back to the Big Black River Bridge were it camped for most of the summer.  At the end of September, the 1st Iowa Battery moved with its parent formation, First Division, Fifteenth Corps to Memphis, as part of the relief column sent to Chattanooga.  Captain Henry H. Griffiths commanded, however he also served as division artillery chief.  In his place Lieutenants William H. Gay and James M. Williams led the battery. In the previous quarter, the battery reported four 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers.  Later in the fall, the battery’s guns were completely worn out.  They would receive a full complement of 10-pdr Parrott rifles in December.
  • 2nd Iowa Battery: Reporting from Vicksburg, Mississippi with two 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers. The battery remained with Third Division, Fifteenth Corps and spent the summer at Big Black River Bridge.  It was still there at the end of September.  As Captain Nelson T. Spoor served as division artillery chief, Lieutenant Joseph R. Reed commanded this battery.
  • 3rd Iowa Battery: At Little Rock, Arkansas with four 6-pdr field guns, three 12-pdr field howitzers, one 3-inch Ordnance Rifle, and one 10-pdr Parrott.  Yes, nine cannon! Captain Mortimer M. Hayden remained in command.  The battery served in the Department of Eastern Arkansas and participated in Steele’s Little Rock expedition (Third Division) in September.  When Hayden briefly served as division artillery chief, Lieutenant Melville C. Wright held temporary command.
  • 4th Iowa Battery:  Not listed.  Still organizing at Davenport, Iowa.  Captain Philip H. Goode received his commission and command of battery on September 12, 1863. He’d previously served with Company F, 15th Iowa Infantry.
  • 2nd Cav. Arty. Stores.” –  A location of Memphis, Tennessee and with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers, and attributed to a lieutenant.  Colonel Edward Hatch commanded the regiment.  But with Hatch in command of a brigade of cavalry, part of Sixteenth Corps, operating out of Memphis, Lieutenant-Colonel William P. Hepburn stood in.  The regiment saw much service scouting and chasing Confederate raiders in west Tennessee that summer and early fall.  Hatch would mention, specifically, Lieutenant Perry L. Reed in charge of two howitzers in a dispatch later in November.  So he is the leading candidate for the “lieutenant in charge of stores.”

 

In the previous quarter, we saw the 41st Iowa Infantry reported a 12-pdr mountain howitzer in their charge at far away Fort Pierre, in the Dakota Territories.  No mention of it here.  But no doubt that mountain howitzer was still in use somewhere on the frontier, if not by the Iowans.

Those particulars out of the way, we can move to the “feed” for those cannons, starting with the smoothbores:

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Three lines to consider:

  • 2nd Battery: 57 shot, 42 case, and 80 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 74 shell, 20 case, and 60 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 371 shot,  319 case, and 102 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 269 shell, 276 case, and 62 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 2nd Iowa Cavalry: 148 shell, 212 case, and 144 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

Moving to the rifled projectiles, first the Hotchkiss type:

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  • 3rd Battery: 40 percussion shell, 40 fuse shell, and 60 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

And that same battery had Parrotts on hand:

0252_1_Snip_Iowa

  • 3rd Battery: 354 shell, 240 case, and 60 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

We have no Schenkl or Tatham projectiles to account for, so let us move directly on to the small arms:

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Two lines to consider:

  • 2nd Battery: Four cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Three Navy revolvers, two cavalry sabers, and nine horse artillery sabers.

A rather clean accounting for the Iowa cannoneers.  With the exception of the missing return for the 1st Battery, we have most of the I’s dotted and T’s crossed… down to Lieutenant Reed’s pair of mountain howitzers.

 

 

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Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Indiana’s batteries, Part 3

Looking to the bottom of the Indiana section for the third quarter, 1863, we find five entries set aside from the independent batteries:

0249_1_Snip_IND_Pt1 Looking closer, those are two entry lines for the 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery and three sections from other arms:

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As we have not detailed the “heavies” often enough within the summaries, let us take those first two lines as license to formally discuss the 1st Indiana Heavy.  The “Jackass Regiment” mustered as the 21st Indiana Infantry in July 1861.  Assigned to the defenses of Baltimore, the regiment was among those sent on the New Orleans Expedition at the start of 1862.  In February 1863, the regiment was re-designated heavy artillery in light of its posting to fortifications around Louisiana.  Colonel John Keith Commanded the regiment.  Eight companies of the regiment served in the siege of Port Hudson.  With the fall of that river bastion, the regiment’s batteries were assigned to different posts in the Department of the Gulf.

In the last quarter, the summaries listed Batteries (or properly, “Companies”) A and E, both with 20-pdr Parrotts, serving at Port Hudson and Baton Rouge, respectively. For this quarter, we find Batteries E and L.  And the latter had a mix of big Parrotts and 12-pdr Napoleons.  Looking at the whole of the regiment:

  • Company A: No return.  Captain Eden H. Fisher remained in command, but resigned in November. Captain Harvey B. Hall was the replacement.  The battery was likely at Baton Rouge at the end of September.
  • Company B: No return.  Garrison artillery at New Orleans.  Captain James Grimsley commanded.
  • Company C: No return.  Captain Elihu E. Rose in command.
  • Company D: No return.  Captain William S. Hinkle’s command.
  • Company E:  No location given, but with four 20-pdr Parrotts. Captain James W. Hamrick in command.
  • Company F: No return.  Captain Francis W. Noblet’s battery.
  • Company G: No return.  Garrison artillery at New Orleans.  Captain Edward McLaflin was in command, but was absent from the battery, commanding a detachment from the regiment at Baton Rouge.
  • Company H: No return.  Captain James W. Connelly in command.
  • Company I: No return.  Captain Richard Campbell’s command.
  • Company K: No return.  Garrison artillery at New Orleans.  Under Captain Clayton Cox.
  • Company L: Reporting at New Orleans, Louisiana with three 12-pdr Napoleons and two 20-pdr Parrotts.  Captain Isaac C. Hendricks commanded.  The battery was assigned to an ad-hoc command under Major-General Cadwallader Washburn assembling at New Orleans that fall.
  • Company M: No return.  Garrison artillery at New Orleans.  This battery mustered in the early fall.  Captain Samuel A. Strong was in command.

I believe many of those for which a location is not indicated were at the time part of the detachment of the regiment at Baton Rouge.  Furthermore, I’d point out that several of these batteries would support the Red River Campaign in 1864, hauling 20-pdr and 30-pdr Parrotts along.

Below the two lines for the 1st Indiana Heavy are three lines for sections from cavalry or infantry regiments:

  • 1st Indiana Cavalry:  Artillery stores. At Pine Bluff, Arkansas with three 10-pdr Parrotts. As mentioned for the previous quarter, the detachment of this regiment then serving in Arkansas had a three gun section under Lieutenant Samuel Lefler, Company B.  The section fought well in an action at Pine Bluff on October 25, that fall.
  • 6th Indiana Cavalry: A lieutenant-colonel reporting artillery stores.  No location given.  Two 12-pdr mountain howitzers. Lieutenant-Colonel Courtland C. Matson and six companies of this regiment were assigned garrison duties in eastern Kentucky at this time of the war, and part of the Twenty-Third Corps.  The regiment, which was formed from the 71st Infantry in 1862 and reorganized as cavalry in the winter of 1863, arrived in Kentucky in August.
  • 87th Indiana Infantry: A lieutenant-colonel reporting artillery stores.  At Vicksburg, Mississippi with one 6-pdr field gun.  The only lieutenant-colonel in the regiment at the time as Thomas Sumner.  The 87th was assigned to Third Brigade, Third Division, Fourteenth Corps.  And from that we have to ask about the location given here, as that formation (and the regiment indicated) was at this time in Chattanooga.  And if we look at the reporting date – June 24, 1864 – we know the 87th was taking in Kennesaw Mountain at that time. So this entry is questionable from left to right. But the handwriting is clear – 87th Infantry and Vicksburg!  One or the other has to be incorrect.

Moving past that rather substantial question mark, we consider the ammunition reported.  Smoothbores first:

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Three lines reporting, and matching to the cannon mentioned on the first page:

  • Company L, 1st Heavy: 121 shot, 62 shell, 196 case, and 53 canister for 12-pdr Napoleon.
  • 6th Cavalry: 128 case and 124 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 87th Infantry:  23 shot, 48 case, and 40 canister for a 6-pdr field gun.

Looking to the rifled projectiles, we find no Hotchkiss, James, Schenkl, or Tatham’s.  But there are some Parrott rounds for those Parrott rifles:

0252_1A_Snip_IND_Pt3

Three reporting:

  • Company E, 1st Heavy: 210 shell for 20-pdr Parrott.
  • Company L, 1st Heavy: 30 shot, 195 shell, and 34 canister for 20-pdr Parrott.
  • 1st Cavalry: 78 shell and 123 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

We then turn to the small arms:

0252_3_Snip_IND_Pt3

Just one line to consider:

  • Company L, 1st Heavy: 50 rifles (type unspecified) and six horse artillery sabers.

So we close out the third quarter, 1863 summary for Indiana’s artillery with a very difficult question, about that entry for the 87th Indiana Infantry, marring an otherwise relatively clear set of entries.  I wish there were answers!

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Indiana’s batteries, Part 1

Indiana organized twenty-six independent batteries, which were mostly light batteries.  In addition, there was a regiment of heavy artillery.  Looking at the summaries for the third quarter, 1863, we find all twenty-six independent batteries and two of the heavies represented, along with two sections from cavalry regiments and one section from an infantry regiment:

0249_1_Snip_IND_Pt1

As with previous quarters, we’ll break this into parts for ease of discussion.  That said, the first twelve batteries are our focus here:

0249_1A_Snip_IND_Pt1

Notice four batteries do not have returns.  Additionally, two returns are dated from 1864.  And we have an extra line at the bottom for “Detachment of 12th”.  Giving us thirteen lines to consider:

  • 1st Battery:  Reporting, on November 20, at New Iberia, Louisiana with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch guns.  Captain Martin Klauss remained in command of this battery. With the realignments of divisions after the fall of Vicksburg, the battery’s parent formation became First Division, Thirteenth Corps.  The battery participated in the campaign against Jackson, Mississippi, in July.  Then it moved with the rest of the division to New Orleans, in August, to join the Department of the Gulf.  There, the battery was assigned to the District of La Fourche and supported the Teche Country expedition in October.   Lieutenant Lawrence Jacoby lead the battery while Klauss was absent during the fall.
  • 2nd Battery:  Reporting at Springfield, Missouri with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain John W. Rabb was the senior officer of the battery.  But that fall Rabb accepted a job in the reformed 2nd Missouri (Light) Artillery Regiment.  Lieutenant Hugh Espey, as mentioned in previous quarters, commanded this battery in the field.  The battery remained with the Department of Southwestern Missouri, and served in sections, with 1st and 2nd Sections under Lieutenant William W. Haines. After a hard season campaigning in Missouri, Arkansas, and Indian Territories, the battery move to the Department of the Frontier.
  • 3rd Battery: At Rolla, Missouri with two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr Napoleons, and two 3.80-inch James rifles (as opposed to 3.67-inch rifles the previous quarter, which raises a question).  Captain James M. Cockefair remained in command of this battery.  The battery split duty between Rolla and St. Louis through the early fall, being assigned to the District of Rolla and later District of St. Louis.  In November, the battery reenlisted with “veteran” status.
  • 4th Battery:  At Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons, two 12-pdr field howitzers and one 3.80-inch James Rifles. The battery remained with First Division, Fourteenth Corps.  Lieutenant David Flansburg led this battery into action at Chickamauga, with “great coolness and bravery.”  But Flansburg was wounded and captured on September 19.  Lieutenant Henry J. Willits took his place.  In addition to their commander, the battery lost a James rifle, a caisson, three pistols, six sabers, and thirty-four horses in the battle.  While in prison, Flansburg was promoted to Captain, with September 30 as his date of rank. He was among the officers who escaped, from Libby Prison, Richmond, in February 1864, but was re-captured.  Flansburg would die in November of that year, still a prisoner, and is buried in Florence, South Carolina.
  • 5th Battery: No return.  The battery remained with First Division, Twentieth Corps.  Thus at the end of September, the battery was under siege in Chattanooga. At the start of September, Captain Peter Simonson was relieved of duties as division artillery chief and returned to his battery in time to lead it into battle at Chickamauga.  Heavily engaged, the battery fired 1,247 rounds.  Twice having to withdraw to resupply.  In the final tally, Simonson reported one killed, eight wounded, and one missing; and thirty horses lost.  Material losses included one 12-pdr Napoleon and one 3.80-inch James rifle, leaving the battery with one Napoleon and three James rifles. Reorganizations of the Army of the Cumberland would put the battery in Fourth Corps later in the fall.
  • 6th Battery: No report.  Going back to the first quarter’s returns, the battery had two 6-pdr field guns and two 3.80-inch James Rifles. After Vicksburg, the battery moved from Sixteenth Corps to Third Division, Fifteenth Corps. Captain Michael Mueller remained in command. Mueller’s battery was still around Vicksburg at the end of September.
  • 7th Battery: Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee, with two 12-pdr Napoleons and three (down from four) 10-pdr Parrotts. The battery supported Third Division, Twenty-First Corps.  Captain George R. Swallow remained in command, but also served as division artillery chief.  The battery expended all their canister in close action on September 19.  Then on September 20 was again heavily engaged.  As alluded to with the numbers, the battery lost a Parrott rifle in the battle.
  • 8th Battery: No return. Captain George Estep retained command of this battery, part of First Division, Twenty-First Corps.  The battery brought four 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers into battle at Chickamauga.  The battery fought a bitter and close fight, suffering one killed, eight wounded and nine missing in the battle.  Furthermore, the battery lost all its cannon.  In October, the battery was assigned to Chattanooga’s garrison artillery and temporarily in charge of a pool of horses. By November, the battery maned Fort Jefferson C. Davis, with three 20-pdr Parrotts.
  • 9th Battery: No return. Lieutenant George R. Brown commanded this battery from Sixteenth Corps.  At the end of September, Brown’s battery was part of the garrison at Union City, Tennessee.
  • 10th Battery: Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain William A. Naylor (promoted in June) remained in command of this battery, assigned to First Division, Twenty-First Corps.  During the fighting at Chickamauga, the 10th was part of the force left behind to guard Chattanooga, and was thus not engaged in the battle.
  • 11th Battery: Also at Chattanooga, Tennessee, with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Arnold Sutermeister’s battery supported Third Division, Twentieth Corps. During the Federal route on September 20, the section with two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles was overwhelmed, having all their horses shot.  The battery lost three killed, twelve wounded, and four missing, and nineteen horses.  The battery expended 120 rounds.
  • 12th Battery: Reporting at Fort Negley, Nashville, Tennessee as siege artillery.  We know the battery had four 4.5-inch Ordnance siege rifles around this time.  Captain James E. White remained in command.  White also presided over the 20th Indiana battery, which was also stationed at Nashville.  However, see the next line….
  • Detachment of 12th Battery: At Fort Wood, Chattanooga, Tennessee. No other details offered.  Lieutenant James A. Dunwoody commanded a detachment, about half of the battery, dispatched to reinforce Chattanooga that fall.  They arrived in November.

Yes, several of these batteries could report hard fighting in tight places that September.  Let’s see how their ammunition reports stack up.  Starting with the smoothbore:

0251_1_Snip_IND_Pt1

Seven batteries reporting smoothbore ammunition on hand:

  • 1st Battery: 198 shell, 250 case, and 46 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 2nd Battery: 193 shot, 175 case, and 71 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 3rd Battery: 105 shot, 141 case, and 132 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 136 shot, 406 shell, 224 case, and 300 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 4th Battery: 48 shot, 24 shell, 65 case, and 24 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 40 shell, 74 case, and 50 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 7th Battery: 74 shot, 33 shell, 79 case, and 63 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 10th Battery: 111 shell, 100 case, and 116 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 11th Battery: 127 shot, 113 shell, 106 case, and 100 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Turning to the Hotchkiss page of rifled projectiles:

0251_2_Snip_IND_Pt1

Three reporting:

  • 1st Battery: 46 canister, 31 percussion shell, and 160 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 195 percussion shell, 217 fuse shell and 168 bullet shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 11th Battery: 80 canister, 100 fuse shell, and 120 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.  Yes, the battery still had ammunition chests for the two rifles lost at Chickamauga.

The next page, we’ll break down into two sections.  First the remaining Hotchkiss columns and James projectiles:

0252_1A_Snip_IND_Pt1

The last of the Hotchkiss projectiles:

  • 2nd Battery: 58 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 2 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

The the James projectiles:

  • 2nd Battery: 111 shot and 199 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 3rd Battery: 52 shot, 173 shell and 24 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 4 shot for 3.80-inch rifles.

Then over to the Parrott side of the page:

0252_1B_Snip_IND_Pt1

Two batteries reporting:

  • 7th Battery: 315 shell, 301 case, and 130 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 10th Battery: 369 shell, 274 case, and 106 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

Then on to the Schenkl and Tatham’s columns:

0252_2_Snip_IND_Pt1

Two batteries reporting Schenkl:

  • 1st Battery: 174 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 64 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

And one for Tatham’s canister:

  • 4th Battery: 9 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Moving last to the small arms:

0252_3_Snip_IND_Pt1

By battery:

  • 1st Battery: Twenty-five cavalry sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: Seven rifled muskets of foreign manufacture, twenty-two Army revolvers, and Twenty-one cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Four foreign rifled muskets, Four breechloading carbines, four Navy revolvers, and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Twenty-two Army revolvers and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • 7th Battery: Two cavalry sabers and thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Seventeen Army revolvers and twelve horse artillery sabers.
  • 11th Battery: Eight Army revolvers, eleven navy revolvers, and nine cavalry sabers.

Considering the service of these twelve batteries from Indiana, we find a fair cross section of western service.  Batteries campaigning in east Tennessee, along the Mississippi, and in the Indian Territories.  Also a sampling of field, garrison, and heavy battery service.  But the heavy hitting stories come from northern Georgia near a creek called Chickamuaga.   We see some of the ferocity of that battle reflected in the numbers – specifically batteries reporting fewer cannons and limited ammunition supplies, but likewise the absence of reports from the 5th, 8th and 9th Batteries.  And we can match those with the tally of losses, to include men and horses, from the official reports.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 1st Illinois Artillery Regiment

If we just focus on the service of individual batteries from the 1st Illinois Artillery Regiment, we’d have a noteworthy and eventful narrative of service in some of the war’s great battles.  But the regiment’s contribution to the Federal war effort included some important and influential senior officers.  The regiment’s first commander was Colonel Joseph D. Webster, a regular Army officer, having resigned in 1854, and Mexican War veteran.  Webster served both as commander of the regiment and as General Grant’s chief of staff through the first year of the war – and through many of those early western theater campaigns.  After November 1862, Webster took a staff position managing transportation for Grant.  And later in the war, he would serve as Major-General William T. Sherman’s chief of staff.  With a promotion to brigadier-general in April 1863, Webster relinquished command of the 1st Illinois.

Ezra Taylor, with promotion from major to colonel, succeeded Webster in command.  But like many of the light artillery regimental commanders, Taylor did not directly command these subordinate batteries.  Rather, in relation to the batteries, the regimental command was more an administrative head than actual field command.  Instead, Taylor served as an artillery chief at divisional, corps, and army level.  While in command of the 1st Illinois in the fall of 1863, Taylor was also Sherman’s chief of artillery (Fifteenth Corps).  Later in the winter, Taylor became the artillery chief of the Army of the Tennessee. However, Taylor’s active service came to an end after a serious wound at the battle of Dallas, on May 28, 1864.

But all of that was in the future at the end of September 1863, and the returns of the 1st Illinois were still the responsibility, administratively speaking, of Colonel Taylor.  How well did he attend those details?

0241_1_Snip_ILL1

We find returns for eleven of twelve batteries.  But that is a little deceptive, with three of those returns not received until 1864.  And one that was nearly two years late, arriving in 1865!  But at least that leaves us numbers to consider:

  • Battery A: Larkinsville, Alabama, with five 12-pdr Napoleons and one 10-pdr Parrott.  That is where the battery wintered in 1864, when the report was received at the Department.  In September 1863 the battery was still assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, with Captain Peter P. Wood in command.  After the fall of Vicksburg, the battery was part of the force sent to Jackson.  Then in late September, with the Fifteenth Corps sent to reinforce the beleaguered Army of the Cumberland, Battery A was en route to Memphis, Tennessee.
  • Battery B: On the steamer Atlantic, in the Mississippi River, with five 6-pdr field guns and one 12-pdr field howitzer. Like Battery A, this battery was also assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Corps.  And Battery B was also heading to Memphis at the end of September, with ultimate destination of Chattanooga.  Captain Samuel E. Barrett received promotion to Major in August 1863.  Lieutenant Israel P. Rumsey was promoted to captain of the battery, with date of rank as August 13, 1863.
  • Battery C:  Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee with one 12-pdr field howitzers (down from three the previous quarter) and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles (down from four). The quantities reflected losses at Chickamauga, which also included a caisson and twelve horses.  Four of the battery were wounded.  Captain Mark H. Prescott returned in time to assume command from Lieutenant Edward M. Wright (who resigned on September 9), and lead it in the battle.  Remarkably, the battery only expended nineteen rounds at Chickamauga.  The battery remained with Third Division, Twentieth Corps.
  • Battery D: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles, having turned in 24-pdr field howitzers. The battery was assigned to Third Division, Seventeenth Corps, and part of the occupation force at Vicksburg.   Lieutenant George P. Cunningham remained in command, though would not be promoted to captain until December 1864.
  • Battery E: Reported at Oak Ridge, Mississippi, (about half way between Vicksburg and the Big Black River) with five 12-pdr Napoleons and one 3.80-inch James Rifle.  Lieutenant John A. Fitch remained in command, and the battery remained under Third Division, Fifteenth Corps.
  • Battery F: No report. Captain John T. Cheney remained in command of this battery.  With reorganizations after the fall of Vicksburg, the battery moved from First Division, Sixteenth Corps to Fourth Division, Fifteenth Corps, and supported the move on Jackson. At the end of September, Battery F, like the rest of the Fifteenth Corps, moved to Memphis by boat and then started the march to Chattanooga.
  • Battery G:   Serving as siege artillery at Corinth, Mississippi, in Second Division, Sixteenth Corps.  Captain Raphael G. Rombauer remained in command.
  • Battery H: At Vicksburg with four 20-pdr Parrotts.  Assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Corps, Lieutenant Francis DeGress remained in command of this battery (he would receive promotion to captain in December).  At the end of September, the battery was in transit to Memphis to stage for the relief of Chattanooga.
  • Battery I: Also at Vicksburg, but with four 3.80-inch James Rifles. The battery transferred from the Sixteenth Corps to Fourth Division, Fifteenth Corps after the fall of Vicksburg.  After the siege of Jackson, the battery was assigned a positino on the Big Black River. Lieutenant William N. Lansing, then the commander, accepted a commission in the 2nd Tennessee Colored Heavy Artillery.  His replacement was Captain Albert Cudney.  Like the other Fifteenth Corps batteries, Battery I was in transit to Memphis at the end of September.
  • Battery K: Memphis, Tennessee with with ten Union Repeating Guns.  But as noted earlier, that column was likely being utilized by the clerks to track Woodruff guns. Captain Jason B. Smith resumed command.  As many will recall, the battery accompanied Colonel Benjamin Grierson’s raid in April-May, and then operated as part of the Nineteenth Corps.  At the end of July the battery moved back to Memphis and was assigned a post near Germantown, in the Sixteenth Corps.
  • Battery L: In Washington, D.C., with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain John Rourke commanded this battery, assigned to Eighth Corps. The location given for the return is in question.  This battery was still in West Virginia through the fall and winter of 1863.
  • Battery M:  Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Lieutenant George W. Spencer commanded this battery, assigned to the Second Division, Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.

If we could summarize the service of the 1st Illinois Artillery at this stage of the war, the key word would be “Chattanooga” with the majority of batteries either holding that beleaguered city or part of the relief sent.

Moving to the ammunition columns, we have a lot to discuss with the smoothbore:

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Yes, extended columns here:

  • Battery A: 224 shot, 88 shell, 258 case, and 90(?) canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery B: 454 shot, 420 case, and 121 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 60 shell, 35 case, and 12 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery C: 42 case for 6-pdr field guns; 190 shell, 245 case, and 80 canister for 12-field howitzers.
  • Battery D: 177(?) shell for 12-pdr Napoleons; 128 case and 24 canister for 24-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery E: 43 shot, 119 shell, 246 case, and 158 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L:  70 shot and 504 case for 6-pdr field guns; 519 shot, 639 case, and 923 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 189 shell, 48 case, and 25 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery M: 59 shot, 156 shell, 195 case, and 48 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Referring back to the quantities reported in the previous quarter, the anomalies with Battery C (6-pdr ammunition) and Battery L (6-pdr and 12-pdr howitzer) persisted.  Battery D switched from 24-pdr field howitzers to 6-pdr rifles during the summer months, and apparently was still turning in ammunition for their old howitzers.

Turning to the rifled columns, Hotchkiss are first:

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Four batteries reporting:

  • Battery C: 149 canister, 244 percussion shell, 189 fuse shell, and 301 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E: 17 percussion shell and 93 fuse shell for 3.80-inch James Rifles.
  • Battery L: 504 canister, 115 percussion shell, and 1005 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles; 186 shot, 144 fuse shell, and 233 bullet shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery M: 70 canister, 32 fuse shell, and 259 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

Continuing speculation from previous quarters, I suspect Battery L was charged with maintaining a store of ammunition for their brigade, explaining the presence of 3-inch rifle rounds.

Turning to the next page, we’ll break these down for clarity.  One stray Hotchkiss column:

0244_1A_Snip_ILL1

  • Battery H: 49 canister for 3.67-inch rifles (20-pdr Parrotts).

Further to the right, one entry for Dyer’s patent:

  • Battery L: 880 shrapnel for 3-inch rifles.

Moving to the James columns:

0244_1B_Snip_ILL1

Three batteries reporting:

  • Battery E: 50 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery I: 64 shot, 214 shell, and 256 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 387 shot, 106 shell, and 19 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Two batteries with Parrotts:

0244_1C_Snip_ILL1

And two batteries reporting Parrott rounds:

  • Battery A: 145 shell, 6 case, and 16 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery H: 240 shell and 96 case for 20-pdr Parrott.

The next page we have a couple of lines reporting Schenkl and Tatham projectiles:

0244_2_Snip_ILL1

Schenkl first:

  • Battery L: 300 shell for 3-inch rifles; 282 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

Tatham canister:

  • Battery H: 40 canister for 3.67-inch (20-pdr Parrott) rifles.
  • Battery L: 268 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Lastly, the small arms reported:

0244_3_Snip_ILL1

By battery:

  • Battery A: Three Army revolvers, thirty Navy revolvers, and four (?) horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Sixteen Navy revolvers and two cavalry sabers.
  • Battery C: Seven Army revolvers, ten Navy revolvers, and ten cavalry sabers.
  • Battery D: Fifteen cavalry sabers.
  • Battery E: Two cavalry sabers.
  • Battery I: Eleven Navy revolvers and three cavalry sabers.
  • Battery K: Sixteen breechloading carbines and ninty-five (?) cavalry sabers.
  • Battery L: Seventeen breechloading carbines, twenty-eight Army revolvers, and 148 horse artillery sabers.

Very little attrition or loss among the small arms.  Then again, I suspect we don’t have a full report.  Perhaps only what the “federal government” had issued, not counting private purchase or that issued by the state.

We’ll move forward to the 2nd Illinois Artillery in the next installment.

 

Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Wisconsin’s Batteries

By the summer months of 1863, Wisconsin’s allocation to the Union cause included eleven numbered batteries.  The 1st Battery through the 10th Battery, along with the 12th, were in service at that time.  The 13th Battery would form later in the year. Wait… why skip the 11th and include the “unlucky” 13th?  Glad you asked….

The 11th Wisconsin Light Artillery organized in 1861 as the “Oconto Irish Guards” as part of the 17th Wisconsin Infantry.  When the men indicated a desire for artillery service (who wouldn’t?) the unit was designated as the 11th Battery.  Still, organization took too long.  So Captain John Rourke took his men to Chicago where it was mustered as Battery L, 1st Illinois Light Artillery, in Colonel James Mulligan’s Irish Brigade.  And Wisconsin never re-used the battery designation.

Looking at the summaries, we find the clerks dutifully excluded the 11th from the list.  Though they added the 13th and two lines for infantry reporting artillery:

0225_1_Snip_WI

Of those fourteen lines, only three lacked statements.  Though we have some adjustments to make, due to late filings:

  • 1st Battery:  Reporting at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, as of March 1865.  But with no cannon on hand.  If we turn back the clock to June 1863, this battery was at Vicksburg, Mississippi under Ninth Division, Thirteenth Corps. The battery retained six 20-pdr Parrotts, putting them to good use earlier in May at Champion’s Hill.  Captain Jacob T. Foster, who was still division artillery chief, remained captain of the battery.  Lieutenant Charles B. Kimball, commanding in Foster’s place, became the division’s ordnance officer in late May.  In that absence, Lieutenant Oscar F. Nutting commanded the battery.
  • 2nd Battery:  No location given, but with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 10-pdr Parrotts (reverse from the previous quarter).   Captain Charles Beger commanded this battery, which at the time was under First Division, Fourth Corps (which had been reorganized in May).  Supporting Second Brigade, the battery reported at Williamsburg, Virginia as of June 30.  The battery participated in Dix’s Peninsula Campaign.
  • 3rd Battery: No return.  This battery, under Lieutenant Cortland Livingston, became was in Third Division, Twenty-first Corps, Army of the Cumberland and participated in the Tullahoma Campaign.  Though, the battery didn’t leave Murfreesboro until early July.  Captain Lucius H. Drury, of the battery, was division artillery chief.
  • 4th Battery: No return.  The battery was assigned to the Second Division, Fourth Corps under the reorganizations of the Department of Virginia in May.  The battery was at Yorktown, Virginia, presumably retaining six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  The participated in the operations on the Peninsula through June and July. Captain  John F. Vallee commanded this battery.
  • 5th Battery: Reporting from Winchester, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons, two 12-pdr mountain howitzers, and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  The battery was assigned to First Division, Twentieth Corps, and commanded by Captain George Q. Gardner. Participating in the Tullahoma Campaign, the battery moved out of Murfreesboro on June 24.
  • 6th Battery: With a report from Cartersville, Georgia, dated October 1864, this battery claimed two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.  As of June 30, 1863, this battery was with Seventh Division, Seventeenth Corps and part of the siege of Vicksburg.  Captain Henry Dillon commanded at the beginning of spring.  When Dillon became division artillery chief, Lieutenant Samuel F. Clark stood in as commander.
  • 7th Battery: At Memphis, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James rifles.  Lieutenant Galen E. Green remained in command of this battery, assigned to Third Division, Sixteenth Corps.  At the end of May, the battery was stationed in Jackson, Tennessee. They moved to Corinth, Mississippi on June 1.  But only remained their until July 1, when they moved to Memphis.
  • 8th Battery: At Winchester, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Assigned to First Division, Twentieth Corps. Captain Henry E. Stiles remained in command.  The battery accompanied the division on the Tullahoma Campaign.
  • 9th Battery: Fort Lyon, Colorado with four 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers. Captain Cyrus H. Johnson commanded this battery posted in the District of Colorado.
  • 10th Battery: Reporting at Stevenson, Alabama with six 6-pdr field guns, as of October 1863. Captain Yates V. Beebe’s battery was assigned to the Second Division, Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  From the beginning of the year up to September, the battery performed escort duties based out of Nashville and Murfreesboro.
  • 12th Battery: Another dated return has this battery at Dixon’s Station, Alabama on November 25, 1863.  However, for June 30, Captain William Zickerick and his battery’s four 10-pdr Parrotts were assigned to Seventh Division, Seventeenth Corps. Thus they fell in next to the 6th Wisconsin Battery at Vicksburg.
  • 13th Battery: No return.  As alluded to above, the 13th Battery did not muster until December 1863.  But the battery started forming in the summer.  A glance through the battery rolls indicate a handful of enlistments in July and August.
  • Company A, 8th Wisconsin: At Young’s Point, Louisiana with four 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and one 3.80-inch James rifle.  This is the regiment with “Old Abe” the bald eagle as a mascot.  To be honest, until reading this line I had no knowledge of any artillery manned by the regiment.  Perhaps captured weapons impressed for the siege of Vicksburg?  Captain Josiah B. Redfield commanded Company A.
  • Detachment, 30th Wisconsin:  On the Missouri River with six 6-pdr field guns.  The 30th Wisconsin served by detachments at posts in Wisconsin and the Dakota Territories at this time of the war.  Colonel Daniel J. Dill commanded the regiment.  In May, a detachment under Lieutenant-Colonel Edward M. Bartlett supported Brigadier-General Alfred Sully’s expedition up the Missouri River.  Bartlett’s command guarded boats and supplies. Given the placename provided and the nature of the mission, a good possibility that detachment had the guns identified here.

With that lengthy discussion to identify just who these fourteen lines represented, let’s put some weight to the matter.  Starting with some smoothbore shot, shell, case, and canister:

0227_1_Snip_WI

Look at all those numbers!

  • 2nd Battery: 120 shell and 52 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; 160 case for 12-pdr field guns (likely a transcription error, and should be on the howitzer column).
  • 5th Battery: 96 shot, 32 shell, 96 case, and 40 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 65 shell, 159 case, and 49 canister for 12-pdr howitzer (field or mountain?).
  • 6th Battery: 77 shot, 145 case, and 124 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 21 shell, 89 case, and 18 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 7th Battery: 186 shot, 248 case, and 87 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 8th Battery: 32 shot, 96 shell, 64 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 9th Battery: 400 shot, 320 case, and 80 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 150 shells, 190 case, and 62 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 10th Battery: 569 shot, 480 case, and 120 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Company A, 8th Infantry: 269 shot, 44 case, and 636 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 48 case and 156 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons (or are those transcription errors and should be on the howitzer columns?)
  • 30th Infantry: 476 shot, 266 case, and 238 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

Regardless if the 12-pdr ammunition reported by the 8th Infantry was for Napoleons of howitzers, we see a rather substantial quantity of canister.  Such might indicate these were weapons assigned for use in the siege lines on guard points.

Four batteries reported Hotchkiss projectiles for rifled guns:

0227_2_Snip_WI

Yes I said four.  Three of those batteries appear on this page.  The other, we’ll see on the “orphan” columns on the next page:

  • 6th Battery: 80 shot and 26 bullet shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 80 percussion shell, 160 fuse shell, and 450 bullet shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 8th Battery: 150 canister, 486 fuse shell, and 94 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

I’ll break down the next page by section for clarity.  First the stray Hotchkiss columns:

0228_1A_Snip_WI

Two lines:

  • 7th Battery: 80 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Company A, 8th Infantry: 39 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Turning next to the James projectiles:

0228_1B_Snip_WI

One battery:

  • 6th Battery: 116 shell and 66 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Next the Parrott columns:

0228_1C_Snip_WI

A heavy set of numbers here:

  • 1st Battery: 2,208 shell and 1,183 case for 20-pdr Parrotts.
  • 2nd Battery: 384 shell and 96 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 5th Battery: 142 shell, 168 case, and 79 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 12th Battery: 321 shell, 244 case, and 136 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Note that 1st Battery had no guns on the report.  Yet, they’d need a steamboat or two for the shells and case.  Someone left something out of the reports…

But we are not done with the Parrott batteries.  They also used Schenkl projectiles in those calibers:

0228_1D_Snip_WI

  • 1st Battery: 466 shot for 20-pdr Parrott.
  • 2nd Battery: 314 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 5th Battery: 9 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 12th Battery: 116 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.

No more entries for the Schenkl columns:

0228_2_Snip_WI

But a lone entry for Tatham’s canister:

  • 6th Battery: 62 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

That brings us to the small arms:

0228_3_Snip_WI

By battery:

  • 2nd Battery: Twenty Army revolvers and 153 horse artillery sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Twenty-three cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery: Thirty Army revolvers and twenty cavalry sabers.
  • 8th Battery: Sixteen Navy revolvers and four cavalry sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Forty-five navy revolvers and nineteen cavalry sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Fifteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 12th Battery: Eight cavalry sabers.

No real surprises here with the small arms, with quantities similar to that reported the previous quarter… where quantities are reported!

But that brings up an interesting contrast to consider.  We have seen many lines for batteries without proper documentation.  Wisconsin, with just two lacking (I don’t count the 13th Battery here, as it didn’t exist formally), is much better than most of the sections.  We have two batteries – one in Tennessee and one in Virginia – with no data to consider.  Of course, we can project reasons for this upon the situation.  After all, the war had priority… paperwork could wait.

Yet, the 30th Wisconsin Infantry, with no “real” artillerists and scattered all over the western plains far away from the Ordnance Department, managed to provide a return for compilation.  The inconsistencies of reporting in the 1860s.

Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Ohio Independent Batteries, Part 2

Picking up where we left off with the last post, we proceed through Ohio’s independent batteries for the second quarter of 1863.  Looking at the “lower half” of those:

0209_1_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt2

As mentioned last week, there were twenty-six numbered independent batteries.  Only twenty-five appear on this list.  The last, the 26th Independent Battery, was Company F, 32nd Ohio Infantry.  And we’ll see them tallied on a later page of the summaries.  For now, we have the 13th through the 25th:

 

  • 13th Battery: “Not in service.”  This battery ceased to exist, officially, in April 1862.
  • 14th Battery: Reporting, as of August, 1863, at Corinth, Mississippi with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance rifles. However, at the end of June, the battery part of the District of Jackson (though at Lynnville, Tennessee), Thirteenth Corps.   Lieutenant Homer H. Stull was the commander “in the field” with the battery.  But Stull died in May.  Captain Jerome B. Burrows returned later in the spring.
  • 15th Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 6-pdr field guns.  Captain Edward Spear, Jr. remained in command.  The battery was in Fourth Division, Sixteenth Corps, and serving in the siege of the city.
  • 16th Battery: Reporting on September 25, 1863 as at Carrollton, Louisiana with one  6-pdr field gun, one 12-pdr Napoleon, and three 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain (promoted that spring) Russell P. Twist remained in command.  The battery was with Twelfth Division, Thirteenth Corps.  As such it was involved with the Vicksburg siege at the end of June 1863.
  • 17th Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with six 10-pdr Parrotts. The battery was assigned to Tenth Division, Thirteenth Corps.  Captain Ambrose A. Blount remained in command through the much Vicksburg Campaign, but resigned on July 2.  Lieutenant Charles S. Rice was promoted to replace Blount.
  • 18th Battery: Reporting at Tullahoma, Tennessee with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain Charles Aleshire’s battery was in First Division, Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.
  • 19th Battery: As of January 1864, reporting at Knoxville, Tennessee with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  The battery remained at Lexington, Kentucky through the first weeks of June.  After which, Captain Joseph C. Shields’ battery was involved with the pursuit of Morgan.  The battery was officially in the District of Central Kentucky.   Later, in July, the battery was placed in First Division, Twenty-third Corps.
  • 20th Battery: Reporting, in June 1864, at Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  The armament is fine.  But for June 1863 the battery was involved with the Tullahoma Campaign, and thus somewhere near Hoover Gap at the end of the quarter.  The battery remained under Captain [John T.] Edward Grosskopff  and assigned to assigned to Second Division, Twentieth Corps.
  • 21st Battery: No report.  The battery remained at Camp Dennison, Ohio, presumably still with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain James W. Patterson, commanding.  The battery was involved with the pursuit of Morgan in July.
  • 22nd Battery: No report.  After organizing, the battery moved briefly to Wheeling, West Virginia (to counter resistance to the draft), with only two guns.  In mid-June the battery moved back to Camp Chase, Ohio, where two more guns were assigned.  Caliber not reported.  Commanded by Captain Henry M. Niel.
  • 23rd Battery: “Not in service.” This battery was formed from the 2nd Kentucky Infantry and later became the 1st Kentucky Independent Light Battery. Only mentioned here due to “placeholder” status.
  • 24th Battery:  No report. Not mustered until August 1863.  However, the battery does appear as assigned to the Department of Ohio with Lieutenant James W. Gamble assigned command of recruits gathered at Camp Dennison.
  • 25th Battery: Reporting from Little Rock, Arkansas, in May 1864, with two 3-inch Ordnance rifles and four 3.67-inch rifles (replacing four 6-pdr smoothbores from the previous quarter).  In June 1863 the battery moved from Rolla to Pilot Knob, Missouri.  There the battery became part of the force that would advance on Little Rock in August.  Captain Julius L. Hadley was in command.

So of thirteen numbers, eight were posted to active departments.  Three were forming up.  And two were just administrative placeholders.

Turning to the smoothbore ammunition on hand:

 

0211_1_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt2

Five batteries reporting:

  • 14th Battery: 148 shot, 48 shell, 150 case, and 50 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 15th Battery: 233 shot, 123 case, and 220 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 16th Battery: 46 shot, 90 case, and 26 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 61 shot, 54 shell, 106 case, and 26 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 19th Battery: 74 shot, 251 shell, 293 case, and 234 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 20th Battery: 62 shot, 41 shell, 34 case, and 34 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Moving to the rifled projectiles, first the Hotchkiss patents:

0211_2_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt2

Five lines:

  • 14th Battery: 147(?) canister, 385 percussion shell, and 276 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 16th Battery: 190 shot and 120 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 18th Battery: 246 canister, 115 percussion shell, 694 fuse shell, and 493 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 20th Battery: 148(?) canister, 214 percussion shell, and 365 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 25th Battery: 410 shot, 360 percussion shell, and 40 fuse shell for 3.67-inch rifles.

Notice the 25th Battery did not report Hotchkiss rounds for their 3-inch rifles.

Continuing to the next page, there are a couple of stray Hotchkiss columns and Dyer’s patent:

0212_1A_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt2

Hotchkiss first:

  • 16th Battery: 104 Hotchkiss canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 25th Battery: 160 Hotchkiss canister for 3.67-inch rifles.

Dyers:

  • 25th Battery: 172 Dyer’s shrapnel for 3-inch rifles.

Moving over to the James columns:

0212_1B_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt2

Just one:

  • 16th Battery: 50 shell and 450 case for 3.80-inch rifles.

Then on to the Parrott projectiles:

0212_1C_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt2

A lonely entry:

  • 17th Battery: 240 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

This begs the question as to what Blount’s battery was firing at Vicksburg.

One line from the Schenkl columns:

0212_2_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt2

  • 25th Battery: 159 shell and 80 canister for 3.67-inch rifles.

The 25th had a variety of projectiles for the rifled 6-pdrs, but apparently only shrapnel for the 3-inch rifles!

Lastly the small arms:

0212_3_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt2

By battery:

  • 14th Battery: Thirty Army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • 15th Battery: Eight cavalry sabers.
  • 16th Battery: Twenty-five Navy revolvers and twenty-two cavalry sabers.
  • 17th Battery: Nine Army revolvers.
  • 18th Battery: Thirty Army revolvers, three cavalry sabers, and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • 19th Battery: Thirty Navy revolvers and twelve cavalry sabers.
  • 20th Battery: Twenty-five Army revolvers and twenty-nine horse artillery sabers.
  • 25th Battery: Six “Rifled muskets, foreign manufacture”, twenty-six Navy revolvers, and fourteen cavalry sabers.

From the previous quarter, the 25th Battery reported Belgian rifles.

Next we will look at the 1st Ohio Light Artillery’s batteries.

 

Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Ohio Independent Batteries, Part 1

Ohio, like New York, had both a regimental system for artillery and independent batteries.  With the summaries for the second quarter of 1863, for some reason the Ordnance Department clerks opted to list the independent batteries before those of the 1st Ohio Light Artillery Regiment.  Yet another accounting anomaly to pester historians with OCD.  Looking at the summary, we find twenty-five of the twenty-six independent batteries were allocated a line:

0209_1_Snip_Ohio_IND_All

The 26th Independent Battery?  It was indeed in service at this time of the war, but under a different name.  But we’ll see them listed a little later… and then discuss their interesting story.

For part one, let us focus on the first twelve independent batteries:

0209_1_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

Nine of the first twelve filed returns.  Though several of those were not received by Washington until 1864.

 

  • 1st Battery: No report. Captain James R. McMullin commanded this battery, supporting the Third Division, Eighth Corps. The battery moved from Kanawha Falls, to Charleston, West Virginia near the end of June.  Sketches of the unit’s service indicate the battery had four guns at this time.  Not sure as to the type and caliber.
  • 2nd Battery: From an April 1864 return, this battery was at Ship’s Island, Mississippi with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James rifles.  Lieutenant Augustus Beach commanded this battery assigned to Twelfth Division (later Third Division), Thirteenth Corps.  The battery participated in the Vicksburg Campaign, and was in the lines at Vicksburg at the end of June 1863.
  • 3rd Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.   The battery was assigned to Third Division, Seventeenth Corps.  Captain William S. Williams remained in command.
  • 4th Battery:  Reported, as of October 1863, at Iuka, Mississippi, with two (or three) 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.   However, Captain Louis Hoffman’s battery was assigned to First Divsision, Fifteenth Corps.  And they participated in the Vicksburg Campaign with that formation.
  • 5th Battery:  No location given.  Battery reported two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Commanded by Lieutenant Anthony B. Burton.  The battery served in Fourth Division, Sixteenth Corps through the Vicksburg Campaign.  During the siege, the battery operated a 42-pdr rifle and an 8-inch siege gun captured from the Confederates.
  • 6th  Battery:  Reporting from Hillsboro, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Cullen Bradley remained in command of the battery, which was assigned to First Division, Twenty-First Corps.  The battery participated in the Tullahoma Campaign.  Hillsboro is roughly half-way between Murfreesboro and Chattanooga.
  • 7th Battery: No return.  In the previous quarter, the battery reported four 3.80-inch James Rifles.  The battery was assigned to Fourth Division, Sixteenth Corps.   Captain Silas A. Burnap remained commander.  During the siege of Vicksburg, the battery guarded the rear of the Federal lines.
  • 8th Battery: Reporting in January 1864 as at Vicksburg, Mississippi.  But no guns listed.   Commanded by Captain James F. Putnam, this battery was assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Corps.  During the siege of Vicksburg, the battery manned 30-pdr Parrotts (those not being considered “field guns” may explain the absence of guns on the summary).
  • 9th Battery: Guy’s Gap, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery was commanded by Captain Harrison B. York and assigned to the Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  The battery was among the forces arrayed to protect the Army of the Cumberland’s supply lines.
  • 10th Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Under Captain Hamilton B. White, the battery remained with Sixth Division, Seventeenth Corps.  For a time during the siege of Vicksburg, the battery occupied Fort Ransom. but the end of June found them protecting the Federal rear along the Big Black River.
  • 11th Battery: No report. Was part of the Seventh Division, Seventeenth Corps. On paper, Captain Frank C. Sands was commander.  But with Sands serving as division artillery chief, Lieutenant Fletcher E. Armstrong commanded. The battery through the Vicksburg Campaign though suffered heavily due to sickness.
  • 12th Battery: At Camp Barry, District of Columbia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Aaron C. Johnson commanded this battery.  In June, the battery was among several swapped out of the Army of the Potomac for fresh batteries.  They reported to the Artillery Camp of Instruction.

 

So we see, among these twelve batteries, a focus on Vicksburg, Mississippi.  With of course a couple employed in Tennessee, one in West Virginia, and one just missing the Gettysburg Campaign.

Moving to the ammunition, first we look at the smoothbore rounds:

0211_1_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

With 6-pdr field guns, 12-pdr field howitzers, and Napoleons on hand, this is a busy page:

  • 2nd Battery: 74 shell, 135 case, and 69 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 70 shot, 40 case, and 56 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 4th Battery: 49 shell, 13 case, and 46 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 5th Battery: 4 shot, 235 case, and 155 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 155 shell, 64 case, and 69 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 6th Battery: 48 shot, 52 shell, 76 case, and 80 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 9th Battery: 104 shot, 153 shell, 310 case, and 226 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Moving to the rifled projectiles, we find a wide array of makes and calibers.  Starting with the Hotchkiss patent types:

0211_2_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

Hotchkiss for both the James and Ordnance rifles:

  • 2nd Battery: 100 fuse shell and 90 bullet shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 3rd Battery: 112 percussion shell and 113 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 64 shot and 216 percussion shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 5th Battery: 79 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 9th Battery: 85 canister, 145 fuse shell, and 155 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 30 shot and 160 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery:  492 fuse shell and 403 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

I’ll break down the next page in sections for easier handling.  Starting with the extended Hotchkiss columns and Dyer’s patent:

0212_1A_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

Hotchkiss patent:

  • 3rd Battery: 49 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 309 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Dyer’s:

  • 12th Battery: 120 canister for 3-inch rifles.

Then moving to the James patent projectiles:

0212_1B_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

Four batteries reporting:

  • 2nd Battery: 100 shot and 400 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 3rd Battery: 15 shot and 35 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 5th Battery: 4 shot, 112 shell and 95 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 103 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

Only one battery reported Parrott rifles:

0212_1C_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

So we find one battery reporting Parrott projectiles:

  • 6th Battery: 440 shell, 347 case, and 60 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

But do remember 8th Battery used 30-pdr Parrotts at Vicksburg, though not listed in the summary.

Tuning to the last page, let us break the projectiles into two sections.  First the Schenkl patent:

0212_2A_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

Three lines:

  • 4th Battery: 143 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 64 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery: 167 shell for 3-inch rifles.

Moving to the last columns, we have Tatham’s canister on hand with two batteries:

0212_2B_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

  • 2nd Battery: 143 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 94 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

One might expect a variety of projectiles used by the batteries at Vicksburg, given the extended supply lines.  But 12th Battery, at Camp Barry, had three different patent types of 3-inch projectiles.  And they were right in the Ordnance Department’s back yard!

Last we have the small arms:

0212_3_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

By battery:

  • 2nd Battery: Eight cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Twenty-three Navy revolvers and eight cavalry sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Twenty-five Army revolvers, fifty-two cavalry sabers, six horse artillery sabers, and sixteen foot artillery sabers.
  • 5th Battery: Seven Navy revolvers and sixteen cavalry sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Two Army revolvers and six cavalry sabers.
  • 12th Battery: Four cavalry sabers and twenty horse artillery sabers.

The 4th Battery demonstrated a fondness for edged weapons.

We’ll look at the second half of the Ohio independent batteries in the next installment.