Distribution of Vessels, South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, January 1, 1865

During the war the commanders of the Navy’s operating squadrons provided periodic reports on the assignments of vessels in their respective commands.  Rear-Admiral John Dahlgren did so twice a month (with some variance, but more or less on the 1st and 15th of each month).  As was the practice, he submitted a report on January 1, 1865.  The report was the first since the fall of Savannah.  So there were adjustments due to the changing situation and mission.  Obviously, with no need to blockade Savannah and no threat from rams from that port, Dahlgren could reallocate his forces.  Considering the operations that followed in the first months of 1865, it’s worth a look at the Navy’s dispositions on the first day of the year.

The first grouping to look at is the area from the South Carolina border to Charleston:

NavalStationsJan1_SC1

As of January 1, no vessel patrolled Murrell’s Inlet.  The furthest north assignment was the steamer USS Canadaigua covering Winyah Bay, approaches to Georgetown, and Cape Romain.  The sailing vessels USS George Mangham and USS James S. Chambers covered Bull’s Bay.  Of course, north of the state line was the jurisdiction of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron.  There was a significant naval force operating off Cape Fear against the Confederate defenses there.  But that falls outside the scope of my post.

Laying outside the bar of Charleston, the blockade consisted of the steamers USS James Adger, USS Wamsutta, USS Nipsic, USS Mary Sanford, USS South Carolina, USS Flambeau, USS Memphis, and USS Potomska.  The tugs USS Laburnum, USS Azalea, and USS Sweet Brier also operated outside the bar.  These vessels formed the primary force to intercept blockade runners inbound to Charleston.

Inside the bar, with the mission to block either runners or rams from exiting the harbor, was the strongest elements of the squadron.  This force included seven monitors – USS Patapsco, USS Montauk, USS Nahant, USS Passaic, USS Nantucket, USS Lehigh, and USS Catskill (under repairs).   The tugs USS Gladiolus, USS Catalpa, USS Hydrangea, USS Jonquil, USS Geranium, and USS Oleander supported the monitors and patrolled the ship channels.  Other vessels inside the bar off Charleston were the sailing vessels USS John Adams, USS Orvetta, USS Sarah Bruen, and USS Sea Foam.  The tender USS Home was also in the waters off Morris Island.

Also off Morris Island, but operating in support of the Army, were the gunboats USS Wissahickon and USS Commodore McDonough, along with the mortar schooners (abbreviated M.S. for my map) USS T.A. Ward, USS Dan Smith, and USS C.P. Williams.:

NavalStationsJan1_SC2

South of Charleston, several vessels covered the waterways of South Carolina.  The sailing ship USS St. Louis covered the North Edisto.  The gunboat USS Stettin and schooner USS Norfolk Packet covered St. Helena Sound.

At Port Royal were the steamers USS Philadelphia and USS Pawnee; the tugs USS Arethusa, USS Carnation, USS Larkspur, and USS O.M. Pettit; and the sailing vessel USS Houghton.  In addition the steamers USS Mingoe and USS Pontiac, along with tugs USS Daffodil and USS Dandelion, were operating up the Broad River in direct support of Army operations there.  Other vessels listed at Port Royal were tenders and hulks, which included the old ship of the line USS New Hampshire and the old blockade runner USS Chatham.

Also at Port Royal, but not available due to servicing and repairs (and thus not tallied on my maps), were the monitor USS Sangamon; steamers USS Cimarron, USS Ottawa, and USS Winona; tugs USS Acacia, USS Amaranthus, USS Iris, USS Camelia, and USS Clover;  and the sailing ships USS Braziliera and USS George W. Rogers.

Covering the coast of Georgia, the squadron was now able to spread itself thin:

NavalStationsJan1_GA

Posted to the Savannah River was the steamer USS Sonoma and mortar schooner USS Racer.   The mortar schooner USS John Griffin was posted to Wassaw Sound.  The steamer USS Flag and mortar schooner USS Para policed the waters of Ossabow Sound.  The bark USS Fernandina covered St. Catherine’s Sound.  The steamer USS Lodona‘s assignment was Sapelo Sound.  The USS Saratoga was in Doboy Sound.   The bark USS Ethan Allen plyed the waters off St. Simon’s Island.  And the USS Dai Ching covered St. Andrew’s Sound.  The latter vessel, one of Dahlgren’s light draft steamers, was due to move north and cover South Carolina waters.

The brig USS Perry provided support to Army posts at Fernandina, Florida.  further south in Florida (and off my map), the steamers USS Norwich and USS E.B. Hale operated in the St. Johns River.

Add to these forces the various armed transports operated by the Army, for whom there is scant accounting in the official records.  All considered, a formidable force ranging from ironclads to armed tugs confronted the Confederate forces along the southern Atlantic coastline.

NOTE: Several of the sailing vessels had been rated as mortar schooners earlier in the war.  In some cases, with the mortars removed, those vessels served as blockaders.  I’ve tallied those former mortar schooners as sailing blockaders for this post.  So if you sense there is some mis-match of the ratings, keep that in mind.

(The Distribution of vessels of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, January 1, 1865, is recorded in ORN, Series I, Volume 16, pages 154-5.)

October 13-17, 1864: Another Navy raid along the Georgia coast

In to the fall of 1864, the Federal Navy remained active along the Georgia coastline.  Having established a pattern through the summer months, the blockaders continued with raids into the tidal extents covering the Satilla and other rivers near Brunswick, Georgia.  The crews of the USS Braziliera and USS Mary Sanford made such a raid on October 13-15, 1864.  The initial objective of this raid was not to destroy any supplies or works, but one of emancipation.  In his report on the action, Acting Master William T. Gillespie, commanding the Braziliera, wrote:

On the night of the 13th instant I went in charge of an expedition up the White Oak River, with two boats from my vessel and one from the Mary Sanford.  We succeeded in securing 50 negroes belonging to J. Morrison, a planter.  During the time two of my men, in some manner, became detached from me. I waited, and sent two officers to search for them, as long as I considered it prudent.

Other than the two missing men, this initial objective of Gilliespie’s raids was a complete success.  The party then returned to the Mary Sanford, which was laying off Penniman’s Mills in the Satilla River.

1864OctSatilliaRaids

Gilliespie then set out on a second raid.  Acting Master Zackeus Kempton of the Mary Sanford provided details of the second outing:

Having learned [from the escaped slaves] that there was a large quantity of corn and rice stored at the town of Jeffersonton, on the river 12 miles above Penniman’s Mills, in transit to Savannah, for the Confederate Government, taking with me Captain Gillespie, his pilot, and boats, at 2:30 p.m. got underway and proceeded up the river.  While passing Yellow Bluff was fired upon by a company of cavalry that was secreted behind trees and in the grass. They were driven from their hiding place in five minutes with canister and shrapnel, and as they were not over 200 yards from our guns they must have been punished severely.  I regret to state that the fourth shot fired at us instantly killed Peter Collins, our pilot, the ball passing through his body near the heart. The killing of Mr. Collins is the only casualty that happened during the fire of the enemy.  We passed above the bluff about a mile.  Having lost our pilot, I was obliged to abandon further proceedings and return down the river.

Kempton’s party passed Yellow Bluff a second time on the way back without incident and safely made the Mary Sanford.

In regard to the two missing sailors, Gillespie added:

On the 17th Edward Sheridan, one of the men, returned and reported Charles Thompson, the other man, a prisoner in the hands of the Confederates. The cause of this misfortune originated in these two men having found some liquor. When Thompson became intoxicated he went back to the house after plunder. Sheridan made the best of his way to the vessel in a canoe he found in the marshes.

Yes, another drunken sailor story for the records….

Throughout the sesquicentennial, I’ve brought up minor incidents such as this, particularly from the lesser known and followed fronts.  My purpose in doing so has been to shed light on the scope of the war beyond the major campaigns, and to some extent demonstrate how these minor affairs fit into the bigger picture.  In the case of the Navy’s raids along the Georgia coast, we see that even up into the last months of the war, emancipation factored into the military operations.  Depriving the Confederacy of fifty (47, by Kempton’s count) slaves, and by the same move giving freedom to those in bondage, was a military gain for the Federals.  As we consider the course of “Civil War to Civil Rights,” we must look at episodes such as occurred on October 14, 1864 as waymarks along that journey.  Emancipation was, as implemented, a military operation.  There are reasons it had to be such… and we would do well to understand, as it sets up the next steps in the trip towards what is today.

But for the sailors on the Satillia, they were less concerned with the war’s objectives that day.  They felt the loss of their pilot:

We anchored for the night at the mouth of White Oak River.  On the morning of the 15th instant we returned down the river, and round to St. Simon’s, landed the contrabands at that place, and buried the corpse of Mr. Collins in due form.  Mr. Collins was a brave officer, and died at his post.  His death is very much lamented by the officers and crew….

And looking towards the next round of operations along the coast, Kempton added, “My officers, men, and myself are all anxious for a pilot, so that we can raid on these rivers when an opportunity offers.”

(Citations from ORN, Series I, Volume 16, pages 15-16.)

 

 

The USS Braziliera’s Georgia raids of late September 1864

As summer wound down in 1864, the U.S. Navy continued its raids along the Georgia coast.  The bark USS Braziliera, operating near Brunswick, Georgia, was once again sending parties up the rivers in search of war-supporting activities.  This round of excursions into the backwaters started on September 14, 1864, as noted in the ship’s log:

September 14, 1864 – At 1:30 a.m. an expedition left the ship for Belle Point.  Three boats, with armed crews, in charge of Mr. [Jeremiah] Bennett, with the following officers: Mr. [Charles] Austin, Mr. [Isaac] Severns, and Mr. [Peter] Collins, accompanied by two refugees, Mr. Farrell and Mr. Spaulding as pilots.  At 6 a.m. the captain left the ship to go on board the schooner Mary. The Mary got underway. At 8 a.m. saw a flag of truce in a small boat with two negroes coming toward the ship from the mainland.  At 8:40 they came alongside and reported coming from Appling County. At 9:45 saw a dense volume of smoke issuing from Belle Point house.  At 9:45 saw flames coming out of the roof.  At 10:10 the boats reported retiring. At 11:07 saw and heard the Mary fire one gun.  At 12:30 p.m. the expedition returned. Mr. Bennett reported having burned 1,300 pounds of sea-island cotton and destroyed a picket station; brought on contraband. At 12:50 the schooner Mary came to anchor near the ship; the captain returned on board. At 8 p.m. the captain and the pilot left the ship, bound for Turtle River on an expedition, with Messrs. Borden and Farrell and 28 men. At 8:15 the Mary got underway and proceeded up the Turtle River with the boats.

A busy day to say the least.  Note the use of locals as guides on the expedition.  The names Spaulding and Farrell appeared during the earlier summer raids, though full names were not mentioned.  It is not clear, however, if these were escaped slaves or whites. Regardless, with their assistance, the Federals deprived the southerners of 1,300 pounds of cotton.  The location of Belle Point was just north of Brunswick:

1864SeptRaidsA

In regard to the negroes that came in that morning, Appling County is northwest of Brunswick, but further inland along the Altamaha River.  I would presume those were escaped slaves.  But it is an indication of how far inland was the draw of “contrabands” in search of Federal lines.

Two days later, the sailors were back out on another expedition.  This time, with Mr. Farrell as the pilot, the raiders used the Mary as their base to operate some 30 miles up the Turtle River.  They reached Cabbage Bluff and skirmished with Confederate pickets.  The expedition destroyed some boats and returned with a contraband.

On September 18, the Mary’s crew sent out her boats again.  And again Spaulding and Farrell provided their services as guides.  But foul weather forced the expedition back to the ship.  After their return the ships moved down to St. Andrew’s Sound and stood off Jekyl Point.  The last raid of this series left the ships on the afternoon of September 20, heading up the Satilla River.  It would return two days later, but not all together:

September 22 – At 12:25 the captain and pilot returned on board in the race boat. At 1:06 Mr. Austin returned on board in the whaleboat.  At 8:05 p.m. saw a light at the mouth of Jekyl Creek supposed to be our first cutter.  Sent Mr. Spaulding on shore.  Mr. [Nelson] Borden reports having brought down one refugee family, consisting of one woman and five children, which he put on boad the USS Mary Sanford at St. Andrew’s.  While getting the family off, three men got lost in the marshes, and while searching for and getting them he was attacked by a large force of rebel cavalry. He got the three men, and finding the enemy too strong he retreated to the boat and got off safely, exchanging several shots.

A little excitement in the end, but no injuries to either side noted.

Other than the 1,300 pounds of cotton, there was not much material damage done in these raids at the end of the summer.  Perhaps, given several weeks of raiding, the Federals had finally cleared out any facilities or materials worth “pillaging.”  But the logs are clear on one matter.  Even as the war entered its final months, contrabands were risking their lives to make it into Federal lines.

(Citations from ORN, Series I, Volume 15, pages 673-4.)

“During the last ten days my boats have made several excursions”: More raids on the Georgia coast, 150 years ago

During the last days of August and into the first week of September, 1864, the Federal Navy continued raids into the “Marshes of Glynn” … I could not resist that Sidney Lanier reference… in Glynn County, Georgia.  From August 26 to September 6, crew of the USS Braziliera, stationed off Brunswick in the Turtle River, took their launches out into the backwaters in search of salt kettles and other targets.  Acting Master William T. Gillespie summarized the actions:

During the last ten days my boats have made several excursions inland destroying salt works, consisting of 10 kettles of 700 gallons each, 12 kettles of 500 gallons each, 20 pans 4 feet by 6 feet, and 300 bushels of salt; liberating 30 negroes and 2 white families.

Took J.A. Lang and J.D. Denson, prisoners; they belong to the Third Georgia Militia.

The salt works were situated some 18 miles up Turtle River, on the creeks leading into Buffalo swamp. My officers and men have penetrated some 40 miles inland between the Altamaha and Satilla rivers, meeting no opposition excepting the militia. Credit is due my people for the energy with which these boat expeditions have been prosecuted. The enemy’s force now in this county amounts to 100 Confederate solders and 75 militia.

The range of Gillespie’s raids included Wilson’s Creek, nearly on the south branch of the Altamaha, down to White Oak River off the Satilla:

1864BrazilieraRaids1

The log extract from September 1 demonstrates the range and nature of the excursions:

September 1. – St. Andrew’s Sound – At 3 a.m. Mr. Bennett left the ship with three armed boats and crews to go on an expedition. Mr. Longstreet, Mr. Severns, and the pilot accompanied the expedition. At 6:40 saw three boats up Wilson’s Creek, supposed to be the expedition that left at 3 this morning. At 10:41 Messrs. Bennett, Longstreet, and the pilot returned on board with the first cutter. At 10:52 the whaleboat returned. At 11:52 Mr. Severns returned with the gig. At 7:30 p.m. sent the second cutter on an expedition up White Oak River in charge of Boatswain’s Mate woods.

Wood’s boat did not return until September 4, bringing a refugee with him.

These extracts, along with the reports of other raids along the coast that summer, the case could be made that southern Georgia was ripe for a major Federal incursion.  Certainly Rear-Admiral John Dahlgren alluded to such in his reports to Washington.  Major-General John Foster, in command of the Department of the South, looked for such openings earlier in the summer.  But by September, Foster was under orders not to open any offensive operations.

Was Brunswick a worthy objective?  Consider – today the Sidney Lanier Bridge at Brunswick passes over the entrance to one of the busiest ports on the US east coast.  I’d submit that answer was “maybe,” if someone was in need of a port on the Georgia coast.  And as we know, there was need of such later in the year.

(Citations from ORN, Series I, Volume 15, pages 648-9.)