Looking at the summary for the 4th US Artillery for the 2nd quarter (ending in June) of 1863, we see ten of the twelve batteries posted returns (or more accurately, had their returns recorded by the Ordnance Department… assuming nothing here). Of those ten returns, all but one was received by the end of 1863. But only six offered a location for the battery as of the time of report. Is this the impact of active campaigning on the administrative reports? Let’s see….
Looking at these lines by battery:
- Battery A – Reported at Sulphur Springs, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The location is obviously reflecting the date when the report was actually filed, not where the battery was located on June 30 of the year. The battery was, on that date, marching through Maryland. Lieutenant Alonzo Cushing had but three more days in command of this battery, supporting Second Corps.
- Battery B – No location given, but with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Of course we know this battery, led by Lieutenant James Stewart, was supporting First Corps and was camped south of Gettysburg on June 30. And of course, the following day the battery would perform admirably on the field.
- Battery C – And no location given, but also reporting six 12-pdr Napoleons. In late May the battery transferred to the 1st Brigade (Regular), Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac. Lieutenant Evan Thomas remained in command. That brigade was moving up from Frederick, Maryland on June 30.
- Battery D – Yet another without location given, though with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. This battery remained at Suffolk, Virginia, assigned to First Division, Seventh Corps and commanded by Captain Frederick M. Follett.
- Battery E – No report. Lieutenant Samuel S. Elder’s was in the First Brigade, Horse Artillery assigned to the Cavalry of the Army of the Potomac, with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles assigned. Another battery with a location “on the march” and destined for the fields of Gettysburg.
- Battery F – Reporting at Kelly’s Ford, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Yes, another reflecting the “as of report” location. Lieutenant Sylvanus T. Rugg commanded this battery in support of Twelfth Corps. We can place them, also, among the columns moving through Maryland and southern Pennsylvania on June 30.
- Battery G – No report given for this quarter. Battery G was assigned to the Eleventh Corps artillery earlier in June. The battery location as of June 30 was on the road between Emmitsburg and Gettysburg, with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Lieutenant Marcus Miller went on recruiting duty and was replaced, briefly, by Lieutenant Bayard Wilkeson. But Wilkeson would be mortally wounded on July 1 while leading his battery at a poor position on what became known as Barlow’s Knoll. Lieutenant Eugene A. Bancroft succeeded in command.
- Battery H – At Murfreesboro, Tennessee with four 12-pdr field howitzers. Lieutenant Harry C. Cushing in command of this battery, assigned to Second Division, Twenty-First Corps.
- Battery I – Belle Creek, Kentucky with four 12-pdr Napoleons. Lieutenant Frank G. Smith commanded this battery, supporting Third Division, Fourteenth Corps. the location is a question mark. The battery was, at this time, with its parent formation around Murfreesboro.
- Battery K – Bridgeport, Maryland with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Another location which reflects the later reporting date. This battery, under Lieutenant Francis W. Seeley, was supporting Third Corps and was around Emmitsburg on June 30. Seeley was wounded on July 2 (so badly that he later resigned his commission), and Lieutenant Robert James assumed command.
- Battery L – No location offered, but with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 10-pdr Parrotts. Under command of Captain R. V. W. Howard, and assigned to First Division, Seventh Corps, in Southeast Virginia. .
- Battery M – At Murfreesboro, Tennessee reporting four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 24-pdr field howitzers. Lieutenant Francis L. D. Russell remained in command and the battery remained with Second Division, Twenty-First Corps. Of note, the battery upgraded from field howitzers to Napoleons.
So comparing what we know about each particular battery’s service to what was recorded administratively, there does appear to have been some disruption of paperwork at the end of the second quarter. Though I don’t think anyone would fault the officers for inattention to cyclic reports at this interval of the war. They were more concerned with the real business of artillery.
Turning to the ammunition pages, we start with the smoothbore columns… noting the need to extend those to support the “big howitzers” of Battery M:
A lot of Napoleons and howitzers, so a lot to discuss:
- Battery B: 360 shot, 236 shell, and 164 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons. However, a tally of 452 case for 6-pdr field guns is offered. I think this is a transcription error and should correctly be interpreted as case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Battery C: 163 shot, 186 shell, 388 case, and 196 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Battery F: 288 shot, 96 shell, 388 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Battery H: 219 shell, 342 case, and 146 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
- Battery I: 192 shot, 62 shell, 192 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Battery K: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Battery L: 96 shot, 32 shell, 96 case, and 33 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Battery M: 138 shot, 64 shell, 212 case, and 128 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 72 shell, 72 case, and 48 canister for 24-pdr field howitzers.
With so many of these batteries seeing action at Gettysburg, we might seek some insight as to what was on hand for the battle and what was used. But yet again we must exercise some caution with making conjectures. There is an “as of date” along with a “reporting date” and other variables to consider here. More than a grain of salt is required, in my opinion.
Moving to ammunition for the rifled guns, we start with Hotchkiss:
Two batteries reporting:
- Battery A: 120 canister, 36 percussion shell, 319 fuse shell, and 673 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
- Battery D: 83 canister, 100 percussion shell, 542 fuse shell, and 475 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
As there was no record for Battery E, we are left to wonder what Elder’s gunners had on hand.
Moving to the next page, we can focus specifically on the Parrott columns:
Just that one battery at Suffolk to consider here:
- Battery L: 474 shell, 340(?) case, and 96 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
None of these batteries reported Schenkl projectiles on hand. So we can move to the small arms:
- Battery A: Sixteen Army revolvers and twenty-five horse artillery sabers.
- Battery B: Twenty-two Navy revolvers and seven cavalry sabers.
- Battery C: Eighteen (?) Navy revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
- Battery D: Nine Army revolvers and 135 horse artillery sabers.
- Battery F: Thirteen Army revolvers and twenty horse artillery sabers.
- Battery H: Sixteen Army revolvers, six cavalry sabers, and fifteen horse artillery sabers.
- Battery I: Three Army revolvers and forty-five cavalry sabers.
- Battery K: Twelve Army revolves, one Navy revolver, and thirteen horse artillery sabers.
- Battery L: Fourteen Army revolvers and 117 horse artillery sabers.
- Battery M: Eight Army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
With so many of these batteries seeing action in the opening days of July, the figures are, again, tempting. While trivial of sorts, the number of small arms reflect weapons of war used by the batteries. In some cases, we might seek precision as to the use of those weapons. For instance, when Lieutenant Alonzo Cushing drew his revolver to order his men back to their posts on July 3, was that an Army revolver, as was reported with his battery? Colt or Remington? Or something the Lieutenant had come by outside of official channels?