Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – 1st New York Artillery

For the second quarter in a row, the clerks shifted entries around to allocate New York it’s own pages within the summaries:

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Our focus for this post is the top set of entry lines, for the 1st New York Light Artillery:

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Colonel Charles S. Wainwright commanded this regiment.  Wainwright, as we well know, commanded the artillery of First Corps. Lieutenant-Colonel Edward R. Warner was second in command within the regiment.  Regimental majors included Robert H. Fitzhugh, John A. Reynolds (Artillery Chief, Twelfth Corps), and Thomas W. Osborne (Artillery Chief, Eleventh Corps).  The remainder of the regimental staff included Edward L. Bailey, Quartermaster and Julius A. Skilton, Surgeon.

This being Wainwright’s regiment, we know a bit more about the “cooking” of the reports than other units.  We do know Wainwright’s staff consolidated these returns in the middle of January.  However, that process was incomplete, as we see three batteries failing to file.  And those three batteries were arguably within “hailing distance” of Wainwright, either being around Culpeper County (where he wintered) or at least up the railroad in Washington, D.C.   So let us look at the particulars:

  • Battery A: At Pottsville, Pennsylvania, on an April 1864 receipt date, with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Under Captain Thomas H. Bates, the battery was part of the Department of the Sesquehanna.
  • Battery B: At Brandy Station, Virginia with four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Albert S. Sheldon commanded this battery but was absent, recovering from his Gettysburg wound. Lieutenant Robert E. Rogers, from Battery C, commanded in his place. The battery transferred to the 1st Volunteer Brigade, Reserve Artillery, Army of the Potomac, in December.
  • Battery C: No return.  As assigned to Fifth Corps, Battery C wintered at Rappahannock Station.  The battery retained four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain Almont Barnes remained in command.
  • Battery D: Reporting from Brandy Station, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Supporting Third Corps, Captain George B. Winslow remained in command. With Winslow taking leave at the end of the year, Lieutenant Thomas H. Crego led the battery.
  • Battery E: No return.  With personnel attached to Battery L, Battery E was reorganized and recruited to strength over the winter.  Under Captain Henry W. Davis, the battery returned to the order of battle in May, 1864.
  • Battery F: No return.  At Camp Barry, Washington, D.C. with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain William R. Wilson remained in command.  The battery, assigned to the Artillery Camp of Instruction, was in the Twenty-second Corps.
  • Battery G: Reporting at Stevensburg, Virginia, with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Nelson Ames’s battery supported Second Corps, Army of the Potomac.
  • Battery H: At Culpeper, Virginia, and re-equipped with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Charles E. Mink remained in command of this battery, now under Wainwright’s Brigade in First Corps.  With Mink on leave, Lieutenant David F. Ritchie would lead the battery.
  • Battery I: Now at Bridgeport, Alabama, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Michael Wiedrich commanded this battery, assigned to Eleventh Corps.   The battery saw action in the battles to take Lookout Mountain in November then settled into winter quarters.
  • Battery K: Reporting at Brandy Station, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery remained with the battery assigned to Third Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve.  The 11th New York Independent Battery was attached to Battery K at this time, and manned two of the guns.  With Robert H. Fitzhugh was promoted to Major and Lieutenant Edward L. Bailey serving on regimental staff, command fell to Captain John E. Burton of the 11th Battery.  At the end of the year, the battery transferred out of the Army of the Potomac to Camp Barry and the Artillery Camp of Instruction.
  • Battery L: At Culpeper, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Listed on the order of battle as a combined Batteries E & L, Captain Gilbert H. Reynolds commanded.  The battery supported First Corps and camped adjacent to the Alexander House, where Wainwright maintained his headquarters.
  • Battery M: Reporting from Bridgeport, Alabama, in January 1864, with four 10-pdr Parrott rifles.  Captain John D. Woodbury returned to command of this battery in the fall, as it supported Twelfth Corps.

Looking to the ammunition on hand, we start with the smoothbores:

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  • Battery A: 192 shot, 64 shell, and 320 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery D: 288 shot, 96 shell, and 288 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery G: 262 shot, 93 shell, and 262 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 192 shot, 64 shell, and 192 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.

To the next page:

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  • Battery A: 136 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery D: 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery G: 144 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

To the right are tallies for Hotchkiss rifled projectiles:

  • Battery I: 281 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K:  260 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

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  • Battery I: 114 percussion fuse shell, 564 bullet shell, and 116 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K: 120 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 39 percussion fuse shell and 120 canister for 3-inch rifles.

To the next page were we find Parrott projectiles:

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  • Battery B: 354 shell, 297 case, and 95 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery M: 298 shell, 412 case, and 94 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

To the right are some Schenkl listings:

  • Battery B: 57 shell for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery K: 338 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 438 shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Schenkl on the next page:

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  • Battery K: 343 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 600 case for 3-inch rifles.

Turning to the small arms:

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  • Battery A: Seventeen Colt navy revolvers, sixty-eight Remington army revolvers, and eighty-five horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Sixteen Colt army revolvers and twenty cavalry sabers.
  • Battery D: Eight Colt army revolvers and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Eighteen Colt army revolvers and twenty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H: Twenty Colt navy revolvers, fifteen cavalry sabers, and five horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery I: Seven horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery K: Nine Colt army revolvers and eighteen cavalry sabers.
  • Battery L: Sixteen Colt navy revolvers and nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery M: Eight Colt army revolvers and two horse artillery sabers.

Turning next to the cartridge bags:

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  • Battery A: 582 cartridge bags for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery B: 460 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery I: 940 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K: 1,187 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M: 22 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Our last page is a busy one… try to keep up:

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  • Battery A: 3,500 navy pistol cartridges and 2,160 friction primers.
  • Battery B: 600 army pistol cartridges; 1,625 paper fuses; 1,300 friction primers, and 50 yards of slow match.
  • Battery D: 300 army pistol cartridges; 650 friction primers; twelve yards of fast match; twelve yards of slow match.
  • Battery G: 50 army pistol cartridges and 1,190 friction primers.
  • Battery H: 800 navy pistol cartridges; 584 friction primers, and 7 yards of slow match.
  • Battery I: 676 paper fuses; 1,000 friction primers; and 25 yards of slow match.
  • Battery K: 1,507 paper fuses; 2,960 friction primers; 5 yards of fast match; 10 yards of slow match; and 36 portfires.
  • Battery L: 50 navy pistol cartridges.
  • Battery M: 390 paper fuses; 720 friction primers; and 250 pistol percussion caps.

The twelve batteries of the 1st New York Light Artillery was among the hardest fighting in the war on either side.  We have a very good record, from the Official Records, letters, and post-war accounts, of the batteries’ wartime service.  And with their regimental commander’s diary preserved, we have some interesting insight into the administrative activities of the batteries.  What stands out here is two of the three “no report” batteries.  Battery E can be excused as being consolidated with Battery L.  But Battery C was just two stops up the railroad from Wainwright.  And Battery F was in Washington, where one would think formal reporting was encouraged, if not mandated.  And we know, from his diary, Wainwright was quick to mention when one of his subordinates were not performing to expectations.  I tend to think what we see here is evidence, though not of some lax administrative habits.  But rather evidence pointing back to the way the summaries were complied and used by the Ordnance Department, for their functions.  A filter, if you will, that we must consider when taking these raw numbers into account.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 3rd Regiment, US Regulars

As we’ve discussed in the entries for earlier quarters, a number of the 3rd Artillery’s batteries were assigned garrison duties in California.  Others in relatively quiet sectors.  But the 3rd was represented well in the Army of the Potomac and other active field armies.  Still, the nature of that collective service lead to a “spotty” summary statement.  For the 3rd quarter of 1863, we find only four lines reporting artillery on hand:

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Let us look at the administrative details for explanations:

  • Battery A: At Albuquerque, New Mexico with two 12-pdr field howitzers and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Same as the previous quarter.  Lieutenant John B. Shinn was in command of this battery.  Shinn’s promotion to captain would come in January of the next year.
  • Battery B: Given the annotation “Infy. Stores” at Camp Reynolds, on Angel Island, off San Francisco, California.  Lieutenant Louis Hasbrouk Fine was the senior officer with the battery at this time, but Captain (brevet Major) George E.P. Andrews, of the 3rd Artillery, was returning to that post from extended duties elsewhere.
  • Battery C: Simply “Army of the Potomac,” with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Part of the Second Brigade of the Horse Artillery, Army of the Potomac.  Still under Lieutenant William D. Fuller, the battery performed well in a sharp action on the Rapidan River, covering the cavalry, in mid-September.  Captain Dunbar R. Ransom, recovered from a wound suffered at Gettysburg, resumed command near the end of September.  The battery was still near Stevensburg, Virginia at the start of the Bristoe Campaign.
  • Battery D: At Alcatraz Island, California with the annotation “Infy. Stores.”  Captain William A. Winder, of the 3rd US Artillery, commanded the garrison of Alcatraz at this time of the war.  Under his command were Batteries D and I (Battery H having moved out of that post).
  • Battery E: No return. Serving in the Department of the South, under Lieutenant  John R. Myrick.  The battery had six 10-pdr Parrotts at this time.  In late September the battery transferred from Morris Island to Folly Island.
  • Battery F & K: No location given, but with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  This combined battery was assigned to the 1st US Regular Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac.  In September Lieutenant George F. Barstow replaced Lieutenant John G. Turnbull as the battery commander.
  • Battery G: Fort Turnbull, Connecticut  but without any assigned cannon. Lieutenant Lewis Smith held command of this battery, just completing reorganization.
  • Battery H: “Infy. Stores” with location as Fort Point, California.  Captain Joseph Stewart appears on records as the senior officer in the battery.
  • Battery I: Also “Infy. Stores” but on Alcatraz Island with Battery D.
  • Battery K: Annotated as “with Battery F”.  See that battery’s notes above.
  • Battery L & M: No location given, but with four 10-pdr Parrotts.  Captain John Edwards remained in command of this combined battery.  The battery was assigned to First Division, Ninth Corps.  This well-traveled battery returned from Mississippi in time to participate in the Knoxville Campaign.
  • Lieutenant: “Stores in Charge.”  This line tallied various implements and supplies, apparently assigned to a lieutenant of the regiment, but with no location indicated.
  • Band: Another “Stores in Charge” and listed at Fort Turnbull, Connecticut.

Of note, with those last two lines, the regimental commander, with his headquarters and staff, were stationed at Fort Turnbull at this time.  Colonel William Gates had served well over 45 years active duty by this point in his life.  Looking at his portrait, he strikes me as a “worn” man:

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Then again, maybe it is the scratchy photo negative.

He’d fought in the War of 1812, Seminole Wars, and the Mexican War.  Though his career was somewhat marred by the sinking of the SS San Francisco in 1853, carrying his regiment to California, and the loss of some 300 lives.

Moving to the ammunition, we have two batteries with smoothbores:

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And two reporting:

  • Battery A: 148 shot, 112 case, and 216 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 170 shell, 240 case, and 88 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery F & K: 192 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

As noted under the previous quarters, Battery A held on to ammunition for 6-pdrs it no longer had on charge.

Moving to the Hotchkiss rifled projectiles:

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Again, two lines.  But not a lot to talk about:

  • Battery A: 96 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery C: 30 canister for 3-inch rifles.

For the next page, we can focus on the Parrott projectile columns:

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  • Battery L & M: 559 shell, 289 case, and 133 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Moving right along, we have the Schenkl columns:

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Again, two batteries reporting:

  • Battery A: 254 shell and 288 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery C: 18 shell for 3-inch rifles.

Thus, if we work strictly off quantities reported, Battery C seems short of projectiles.

Turning to the last set of columns, we have the small arms:

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By battery:

  • Battery A: Thirteen breech loading carbines, eighty-six Army revolvers, two Navy revolvers, and eighty-nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery C: One breech loading carbine, twenty-five Navy revolvers, twenty-nine cavalry sabers, and 100(?) horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F & K: Four Army revolvers and fifteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Six cavalry sabers, eighty-eight horse artillery sabers, and twenty-four foot artillery swords.
  • Battery L & M: Twelve Navy revolvers and forty-eight horse artillery sabers.
  • The Band: Thirteen rifles.

Yes, the BAND with thirteen rifles!  Perhaps somewhere in the Army’s vast bureaucracy is a library of forms accounting for musical instruments – drums, fifes, horns, and such.  But this is “To the Sound of the Guns” and not Philip Sousa’s greatest hits!  So here we must ask why the band had a baker’s dozen rifles?  Perhaps Colonel Gates preferred a “fighting band”?   Or, at least one that looked sharp for formal affairs and ceremonial guard.  Toward that end, the band also reported thirteen sets of accouterments – cartridge boxes, cap pouches, belts, and bayonet scabbards.

As for the “Lieutenant” line, I find only one equipment bag listed.  But … let’s say it together…. “All government equipment must be accounted for!”

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 2nd Regiment, US Regulars

The 2nd US Artillery’s wartime service was varied – in terms of theater assignments and duties performed.  The batteries served as horse artillery, field artillery, and garrison artillery.  They saw service in Virginia, the Western Theater, and the Gulf Coast.  For the third quarter of 1863, we find nine returns from the twelve batteries.  And two extra lines were thrown in under the regiment:

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Let us break down the service by battery:

  • Battery A – Reporting at Culpeper, Virginia as of October 31, 1863 with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  That location was valid for the end of September.  But, we know from the war’s chronology on Halloween of that year Battery A was in Fauquier County north of the Rappahannock, having returned from a brisk march on the Bristoe Campaign.  Lieutenant Robert Clarke (Battery M) replaced Lieutenant John H. Calef after Gettysburg.  The Battery remained with Second Brigade, Horse Artillery.
  • Battery B – With a report, as of December 1863, located at Stevensburg, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  I might could “sell” this location for the end of September 1863… or for December 1863.  But neither, I feel, tell the full story.  This was actually combined Batteries B and L (see below), assigned to First Brigade of the Horse Artillery, under Lieutenant Edward Heaton.
  • Battery C – New Orleans, Louisiana with four 12-pdr Napoleons (a reduction of two guns).  The battery was part of Nineteenth Corps (transferring from Fourth Division to Second Division as the corps reorganized). Lieutenant Theodore Bradley commanded at the start of the quarter.  But late in the summer Lieutenant John I. Rodgers returned from leave to resume command.
  • Battery D – At Warrenton, Virginia, according to a reporting date of November 1863, with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Battery D moved from Sixth Corps to the First Brigade, Horse Artillery at the end of the Gettysburg Campaign.  Lieutenant Edward D. Williston remained in command.
  • Battery E –  Nicholasville, Kentucky with four 20-pdr Parrott Rifles (vice six reported the previous quarter). This battery was part of the Second Division, Ninth Corps, which returned from Vicksburg.  After returning to Kentucky, the battery was assigned directly under the corps for reporting.  Lieutenant Samuel N. Benjamin remained in command, and also served as the Corps Chief of Artillery.
  • Battery F – Reporting from Memphis, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and six 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery remained with the District of Memphis, of the Sixteenth Corps. Lieutenant Albert M. Murray replaced Lieutenant Charles Green  in command.
  • Battery G – Reporting at Germantown, Virginia (in Fauquier County) with four 12-pdr Napoleons (report dated January 1864).  We can move past inquiries about the location, and accuracy, to focus on the assignment.   After Gettysburg, the battery moved from Sixth Corps to Second Brigade, Horse Artillery.  Lieutenant John H. Bulter remained in command.
  • Battery H – “Infty. Stores” with a location of Fort Haggerty, Virginia.  This is out of order.  Battery H was, at this time, in Pensacola, Florida assigned to Fort Barrancas, Florida as garrison artillery. Not until the spring of 1864 would the battery move to the Eastern Theater, and even then to Baltimore.  Captain Frank H. Larned was in command.
  • Battery I – No report.  During the Gettysburg Campaign, the battery was assigned to the Second Brigade, Defenses of Baltimore, in the Eighth Corps or Middle Department.  Lieutenant James E. Wilson (a different James Wilson than that in Battery C, 1st Artillery at this time) commanded through much of the summer. But in early September, a newly promoted 1st Lieutenant Wilson was ordered to report to his original battery – Battery G – in Virginia.   Captain Thomas Gray replaced Wilson.
  • Battery K – No report.  The battery garrisoned Fort Pickens, Florida under Captain Harvey A. Allen.
  • Battery L – We see a description “with Battery B”, as discussed above.
  • Battery M – A reporting date of October 31, 1863 has this battery at Gainesville, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Considering the movements of the Bristoe Campaign, this might be accurate.  Assigned to First Brigade, Horse Artillery, Lieutenant Alexander C.M. Pennington commanded.

Keep in mind, when considering the regimental officers the service of Captains John C. Tidball and James M. Robertson.  Tidball had accepted command of the 4th New York Heavy Artillery and departed his position with the Second Brigade, Horse Artillery.  Robertson commanded the First Brigade, Horse Artillery.

Now as for those additional lines:

  • Adjutant, 2nd Artillery:  No location but a reporting date of October 4, 1863.
  • U.S. Corps of Cadets, West Point, New York: The annotation is “inf stores.” Not sure if this entry was placed at this point on the summary because of an affiliation with the 2nd Artillery, or if was simply entered on an open line.  Regardless, no cannon reported.  No equipment was reported on the forms under any columns for this line.  So we can wonder if this was simply an act by the clerks seeking an accounting.

We will return to these lines later in our discussion.

Turing to the smoothbore ammunition, the summary is clean:

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The figures match to the batteries reporting smoothbores:

  • Battery C: 26 shot, 135 shell, 160 case, and 68 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery D: 224 shot, 113 shell, 224 case, and 32 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery F: 135 shot, 104 case, and 145 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 448 shot, 152 shell, 448 case, and 152 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 20 case and 17 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery G: 69 shot, 96 shell, 192 case, and 128 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

The only question is the presence of 12-pdr howitzer ammunition with Battery F.  But that battery was at the time serving in a garrison role.  And the accumulation of additional stores might thus be explained.

Moving to the rifled rounds, first we see Hotchkiss:

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Four batteries reporting:

  • Battery A:  300 percussion shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery B & L:  95 canister and  290 percussion shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E: 103 bullet shell for 20-pdr (3.67-inch) Parrott.
  • Battery M: 161 canister for 3-inch rifles.

On the next page, we see more projectiles for those 20-pdr Parrotts:

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But those are of three different makes:

  • Battery E: 50 Hotchkiss cannister, 150 Parrott shell, and 160 Schenkl shot for 20-pdr (3.67-inch) Parrott.

The last page of projectiles cover the other Schenkls:

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Two reporting:

  • Battery A: 70 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery B & L: 554 shells for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M: 538 shell and 218 case for 3-inch rifles.

So we see a mix of Hotchkiss and Schenkl in the horse artillery batteries, probably to the dismay of General Henry Hunt.

Last, we look at the small arms reported:

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By battery:

  • Battery A: Eleven Army revolvers, fifty Navy revolvers, eight cavalry sabers, and seventy-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B & L: Six Army revolvers, fifteen cavalry sabers, and one horse artillery saber.
  • Battery C: Eight Army revolvers and thirty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery D: Thirteen Army revolvers and one horse artillery saber.
  • Battery E: Fifty Army revolvers, eight cavalry sabers, and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F: Thirty-five Army revolvers, fourteen cavalry sabers, and forty-eight horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Twelve Army revolvers and thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery M: 112 Army revolvers, two Navy revolvers, and twenty-five horse artillery sabers.
  • Adjutant, 2nd Artillery: Twenty-four cavalry sabers.

Looking beyond the armaments, let’s take a look at the other stores reported by the Adjutant.  Matching with the number of sabers reported, the Adjutant also had twenty-four saber belts, waist belts, and plates.  And, with full accounting for all government property, the adjutant had one “packing box” on hand.

I hope that packing box was put to good use!