Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery

The 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery (43rd Pennsylvania Volunteers) consisted of nine batteries.  One of those nine, Battery I, did not muster until near the war’s end.  And among the batteries on the rolls for the end of the third quarter of 1863, two were consolidated with other batteries in the regiment.  Colonel Robert M. West remained in command of the regiment, but was serving as garrison commander at Yorktown, Virginia.

Reviewing the summary, at first glance the regiment seems complete.  The Ordnance Department received at least something from seven of eight batteries:

0289_1_Snip_PA1

But this is somewhat deceptive.  Only four of the lines report cannon on hand.  Thus there are gaps to reconcile, starting right from the top:

  • Battery A: No return.  Captain John G. Simpson’s battery was assigned to Getty’s Division, Seventh Corps, at Portsmouth, Virginia.  All part of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.  I believe the battery retained four 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery B: Reporting from Bristoe Station, Virginia, with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain James H. Cooper remained in command.  And the battery remained with First Corps, Army of the Potomac.
  • Battery C: At Maryland Heights, Maryland, with no artillery indicated.  For the previous quarter the battery reported six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain Jeremiah McCarthy remained in command.  The battery was among those transferred out of the Army of the Potomac in June, and assigned to Twenty-second Corps, Defenses of Washington, at Camp Barry.  But the battery moved forward to Maryland Heights as part of Lockwood’s Division (Later the Maryland Heights Division), which by August was part of the Department of West Virginia.  Most sources have this battery consolidated with Battery D on October 23.  McCarthy was discharged on October 8.
  • Battery D: Just an annotation of “Consolidated with Baty. C.” Like Battery C, Battery D left the Army of the Potomac in June and was assigned duty at Camp Barry.  In August, the battery transferred to the Department of West Virginia, and served at Harpers Ferry.  Lieutenant Andrew Rosney was the ranking officer with the battery at that time.
  • Battery E: At Williamsburg, Virginia with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Thomas G. Orwig commanded this battery, assigned to the Yorktown garrison, Department of Virginia and North Carolina.
  • Battery F: Indicated at Culpeper, Virginia, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain R. Bruce Ricketts commanded a combined Batteries F and G.  After Gettysburg, the battery transferred to Second Corps’ artillery brigade.
  • Battery G: The annotation “Consolidated with Battery F” tells the story.  Although some sources considered this an “attachment” instead of consolidation. Lieutenant Belden Spence was the ranking officer remaining with the battery.
  • Battery H: At Camp Barry, D.C. with four 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Andrew Fagan commanded this battery, which arrived at Camp Barry in June 1863. The battery remained there through the spring of 1864, assigned to the Light Artillery Camp of Instruction.

Battery I would not muster until March 1865, and thus escapes our attention here.

Turning to the ammunition, with the smoothbore columns first:

0291_1_Snip_PA1

Two batteries with Napoleons reporting:

  • Battery E: 176 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 80 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 182 shot, 52 shell, 162 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Then the Hotchkiss page:

0291_2_Snip_PA1

Again, two batteries to consider:

  • Battery B: 127 canister, 34 percussion shell, 242 fuse shell, and 335 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery F: 120 canister, 120 (?) fuse shell, and 200 (?) bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.  Those last two numbers appear faint, as if erased.  So we must wonder if those quantities were “retracted” for some reason.

No Dyer’s, James’, or Parrott’s patent projectiles reported.  So we move to Schenkl:

0292_2_Snip_PA1

  • Battery B: 79 shell and 18 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery F: 120 shell and 640 case for 3-inch rifles.

This brings us to the small arms:

0292_3_Snip_PA1

By battery as reported:

  • Battery B: Sixteen navy revolvers and seventeen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery E: Eight navy revolvers and fourteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F: Eleven army revolvers, eight navy revolvers, one cavalry saber, and nineteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H: Fourteen navy revolvers and twenty-three horse artillery sabers.

That wraps up a short discussion of what was a small regiment from Pennsylvania.  But in addition to this regiment, Pennsylvania’s summary for this quarter included thirteen more lines.  Those covered a battery from the 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery, eleven independent batteries, and an artillery section in the 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry.  So we have more to examine before completing Pennsylvania’s section.

 

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Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 5th Regiment, US Regulars

At the start of July, Colonel (Brevet Brigadier-General) Harvey Brown commanded the regiment.  An 1818 graduate of West Point, Brown served in the Black Hawk, Seminole, and Mexican American Wars.  At the start of the Civil War, he turned down a volunteers commission with a star, opting instead for the colonelcy of the newly formed 5th US Artillery.

harvey_brown

Success at Santa Rosa Island, Florida, defending Fort Pickens, in October 1861 earned Brown a brevet to Brigadier-General and duty commanding the defenses of New York.  And in July, Brown led troops suppressing the New York Draft Riots.  But at the start of August, Brown came up on the retirement list.  Though his retirement date was August 1, Cullum’s Register indicates Brown was “awaiting orders” and “was retained until the close of the war in the command of Ft. Schuyler, and on other duties.”

For ten days (August 1 through 10), Lieutenant-Colonel George Nauman held temporary command.  Colonel Henry S. Burton was formally named to command the 5th on August 11, thus completing the transition.

Despite this change of command, for the third quarter of 1863, the 5th US Artillery offered a laudably complete set of returns, as reflected in the summaries:

0233_1_Snip_5thUS

An entry for every battery.  And a line for the adjutant to boot!

  • Battery A: At Portsmouth, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Lieutenant James Gilliss’ battery remained with Getty’s Division, in the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.
  • Battery B:  Reporting at Martinsburg, West Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Under Lieutenant Henry A. Du Pont, the battery was rushed to the Department of the Susquehanna during the Gettysburg Campaign. As the campaign closed, the battery remained as unassigned artillery in the Department of West Virginia.
  • Battery C: At New York City, with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Though still allocated to the 1st Brigade of the Artillery Reserve, the battery was detached to New York after Gettysburg.  Lieutenant Gulian V. Weir remained in command of this battery, though Captain Dunbar R. Ransom accompanied to command all artillery dispatched to quell the Draft Riot.  By the end of September, the battery was at Camp Barry, Washington, D.C.  Later in the fall, the battery rejoined the Army of the Potomac with Lieutenant Richard Metcalf in command (with Wier going to Battery L).
  • Battery D: Reporting from Culpeper, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts.  Lieutenant Benjamin F. Rittenhouse remained at the post he assumed on July 2, after Lieutenant Charles Hazlett’s death at Little Round Top. The battery supported Fifth Corps.
  • Battery E: At Chambersburg, Pennsylvania with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Lieutenant James W. Piper was in command.  Dispatched in June to Pennsylvania, the battery remained in the Department of the Susquehanna.
  • Battery F: At Warrenton, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts.  Lieutenant Leonard Martin remained in command this battery.  The battery was assigned to Sixth Corps.
  • Battery G: Port Hudson, Louisiana with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Lieutenant  Jacob B. Rawles remained in command of this Nineteenth Corps battery.
  • Battery H: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  This was “flip” from the previous quarter, but an accurate adjustment of the records.  Captain George A. Kensel became artillery cheif for First Division, Fourteenth Corps.  In his place Lieutenant Howard M. Burnham commanded.  Burnham was killed when the battery was overrun on September 19.  Lieutenant Joshua A. Fessenden stood in his place. At Chickamauga, the battery lost two officers, 25 men, battery wagon, forge, and all their caissons.  Refitting in Chattanooga, the battery had sufficient limbers and caissons for the Napoleons, but only enough limbers for one Parrott.
  • Battery I: Reporting at Camp Marshall, D.C. with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.    Lieutenant Charles C. MacConnell remained in command of this battery, which was transferred from the Army of the Potomac for refitting and replacements.  Most references indicate the battery was assigned to Camp Barry.  And at least for a month Battery I was combined with Battery L for training.  In November, the battery was combined with Battery C.
  • Battery K: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons. Lieutenant David H. Kinzie, remained in command.  The battery transferred, with the rest of the Twelfth Corps, from Virginia to Tennessee in October.
  • Battery L: Also reporting at Camp Marshall, D.C., though Camp Barry is listed on returns, and with two 6-pdr field guns. Lieutenant Edmund D. Spooner’s battery recovering from the disaster of Winchester, earlier in June.  Spooner would soon head west to take command of Battery H at Chattanooga. (Wier of Battery C transferred over to Battery L.)
  • Battery M: At Stonehouse Mountain, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain James McKnight’s battery transferred from Yorktown to the Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac, in late July 1863.  I like this placename, as it prompts me to search through correspondence with Bud Hall.  Stone House Mountain (note the space) appears on Captain William H. Paine’s excellent map of the Culpeper area.  It is  close to Griffinsburg, west of Culpeper Courthouse.
  • Adjutant: Reported from Fort Hamilton, were the headquarters was located.  I’d like to put a name to this line.  Lieutenant Henry A. Dupont had been the regimental adjutant up until July, when he took command of Battery B.  However, Heitman’s Register indicates he was still officially the adjutant.  Lieutenant Thomson P. McElrath was the regimental quartermaster, and also appeared on correspondence from August and September 1863 as adjutant.

Overall, these are the cleanest set of administrative details and reported cannon from any regimental summary thus far.

The smoothbore ammunition table is, as we would expect, full:

0235_1_Snip_5thUS

Seven batteries reporting:

  • Battery A: 192 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 192 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery C: 61 shot and 112 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery E: 192 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery G: 290 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 11(?) canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 142(?) shot, 64 shell, 171(?) case, and 100 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L: 96 shot, 56 case, and 48 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery M: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Only two batteries with 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  So not many Hotchkiss lines to account for:

0235_2_Snip_5thUS

  • Battery B:  209 canister, 296 percussion shell, and 164 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery I: 50 canister for 3-inch rifles.

For the next page, we can focus down on the Parrott columns:

0236_1A_Snip_5thUS

Three batteries reporting quantities:

  • Battery D: 193 shell, 360 case, and 160 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery F: 480 shell, 480 case, and 144 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery H:  54 shot, 240 shell, and 94 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

The last page of rifled projectiles has Schenkl types:

0236_2_Snip_5thUS

We see a mix of 3-inch and 10-pdr calibers… which differed by a tenth of an inch:

  • Battery B: 221(?) shell and 513 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery D: 599 shell for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery F: 120 shell for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery I: 318 case for 3-inch rifles.

With ammunition out of the way, we move to the small arms:

0236_3_Snip_5thUS

By battery:

  • Battery A: Twenty-seven Army revolvers and sixty-four horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Fourteen Army revolvers and 135 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery C: Three Army revolvers, one Navy revolver, and nineteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery D: Thirteen Navy revolvers, fourteen cavalry sabers, and thirty-six horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery E: Twelve Army revolvers and 107 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F: Nineteen Army revolvers and twenty-six horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Twenty-one (?) horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H: Sixteen Navy revolvers, eight cavalry sabers, and thirty-nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery I: Nine Army revolvers and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery K: Fifty-two Army revolvers and sixteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery L: Nothing….. for the second straight quarter.
  • Battery M: Twenty-four Navy revolvers and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • Adjutant: Twenty-seven horse artillery sabers.

In addition, the adjutant reported six nose bags, twenty-seven saber belts, eight bridles, five currycombs, six girths, six halters, five horse brushes, five lariats, four picket pins, six Model 1859 pattern saddles, six sweat-leathers, two surcingles, six artillery-type saddle blankets, six sets of spurs, and six screw-drivers.  And as mentioned above, Lieutenant P. McElrath was likely the officer accounting for those items – either as the adjutant or the quartermaster.  And once again…. all government property was accounted for.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 4th Regiment, US Regulars

In the third quarter, 1863 summaries, the ordnance clerks allocated thirteen lines for the Fourth US Artillery.  Of those lines, a full twelve were based on received returns.  Battery E had no recorded return.  Of the twelve recorded lines, all but three were marked received during the fall months of that year.  Three were not received until January of 1864.  Thus, we have a relatively complete set of records to discuss.

Yes, I did say thirteen lines.  But the regiment was authorized twelve batteries.  Ah, but the regimental adjutant was given a line:

0233_1_Snip_4thUS

Looking at each battery in turn, there are several changes to discuss with the administrative details and cannon assigned:

  • Battery A: Reporting, on October 28, at Gainesville, Virginia with four 12-pdr Napoleons. Following the death of Lieutenant Alonzo Cushing at Gettysburg, several different officers, and one non-commissioned officer, led the battery… some for just the briefest of battlefield moments.  For brevity, I’ll cite Lieutenant Horatio B. Reed in command of the battery for the Bristoe Campaign.  Two other significant changes took place after Gettysburg.  The battery replaced its 3-inch Rifles with Napoleons.  Further, in the weeks after Gettysburg the battery transferred to the First Brigade, Horse Artillery.
  • Battery B: “In the field” with six 12-pdr Napoleons. The very capable Lieutenant James Stewart remained in command of this battery.  And the battery remained in Colonel Charles Wainwright’s brigade, of the First Corps.  So their “in the field” location for September 30 was Culpeper County.
  • Battery C:  Reporting at Washington, D.C (with a date of January 22, 1864) with four 12-pdr Napoleons. The location raises questions, as the battery remained with the Regular Brigade, Artillery Reserve.  With Lieutenant Evan Thomas reassigned to staff duties, Lieutenant Charles L. Fitzhugh held command.
  • Battery D: Reporting at Portsmouth, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.    Captain Frederick M. Follett’s battery supported Seventh Corps.
  • Battery E: No report.  Lieutenant  Samuel S. Elder’s was in the First Brigade, Horse Artillery assigned to the Cavalry of the Army of the Potomac, with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles assigned.  We can thus place this battery “in the field” and on duty along the Rapidan during those days before the Bristoe campaign.
  • Battery F: Reporting, on December 1, at Stevenson, Alabama with six 12-pdr Napoleons. This veteran battery moved with the Twelfth Corps from Virginia to reinforce Chattanooga, in the aftermath of Chickamauga.  Lieutenant Edward D. Muhlenberg, having been replaced in his role as Corps Artillery Chief, resumed battery command.
  • Battery G: I like this line –  Reporting on November 19 at Lookout Mountain, Tennessee with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Lieutenant Eugene A. Bancroft remained in command.  Battery G supported the Eleventh Corps.  As with Battery F, above, they were sent to Tennessee as reinforcements.  If we interpret the reporting date literally, we can place the battery below Lookout Mountain.  The battery would support an assault on the mountain five days later.
  • Battery H: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with three 12-pdr field howitzers. Lieutenant Harry C. Cushing’s battery lost a howitzer and many horses at Chickamuaga.  And they expended a lot of ammunition.  Battery assigned to Second Division, Twenty-First Corps.
  • Battery I: Also at Chattanooga, this battery reported four 12-pdr Napoleons. Lieutenant Frank G. Smith commanded this battery, supporting Third Division, Fourteenth Corps.  Smith reported leaving the field at Chickamauga, on September 20, with only six rounds.
  • Battery K: Reporting at Culpeper, Virginia, with six 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery remained with Third Corps.  Badly wounded at Gettysburg, Lieutenant Francis W. Seeley was recuperating.  In his place, Lieutenant Robert James held command.
  • Battery L: At Portsmouth, Virginia, with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 10-pdr Parrotts.  Under command of Captain Robert V. W. Howard, and assigned to First Division, Seventh Corps, in Southeast Virginia. .
  • Battery M: At Chattanoooga, Tennessee reporting four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 24-pdr field howitzers.  Lieutenant Francis L. D. Russell remained in command and the battery remained with Second Division, Twenty-First Corps.  In his report for Chickamauga, Russell noted his losses were “…2 men killed, 6 wounded, 14 horses killed and wounded, and 3 caissons abandoned.”
  • Adjutant: Reporting at Fort Washington, Maryland.  Of course with no artillery, but we will see an accounting of other arms and equipment.

We don’t often consider the service details of the regular’s regimental headquarters, as those rarely figured into the field formations.  However, with the adjutant mentioned, let us consider the duty of the 4th US Headquarters and Staff.  At this time of the war, they were assigned to the Defenses of Washington.  Colonel Charles S. Merchant, having served more than 45 years at that time, retired from active service.  Colonel Horace Brooks, West Point class of 35 and with 28 years of service, took command.

Moving from the administration, we turn to the reported ammunition for the regiment.  Starting with the smoothbore types:

0235_1_Snip_4thUS

And there was a lot to report:

  • Battery A: 160 shot, 64 shell, 176 case, and 112 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery B: 192 shot, 192 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery C: 97 shot, 51 shell, 256 case, and 108 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery F: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery G: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 221 shell, 234 case, and 116 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery I: 161 shot, 42 shell, 154 case, and 66 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery K: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L: 96 shot, 32 shell, 96 case, and 32 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery M: 10 case for 12-pdr Napoleons; 54 shell, 48 case, and 30 canister for 24-pdr field howitzers.

The uniform quantities reported by Batteries F, G, and K seem too perfect.  Almost as if, perhaps, the officers simply estimated what they should have on hand, by regulation.  But that’s just my speculation.

Quantities for Batteries H, I, and M (particularly the latter) seem to reflect expenditures in battle at Chickamauga.

We have but one 3-inch battery to consider, and thus not a lot on the Hotchkiss page:

0235_2_Snip_4thUS

Just Battery D:

  • Battery D: 15 canister, 342 fuse shell, and 330(?) bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

We will break down the next page by section for clarity.  First the Dyer’s patent columns:

0236_1A_Snip_4thUS

Again D Battery:

  • Battery D: 68 Dyer’s canister for 3-inch rifles.

One battery reported Parrotts:

0236_1B_Snip_4thUS

Battery L, down at Portsmouth:

  • Battery L: 484 shell, 250 case, and 96 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

Turning to the Schenkl projectiles:

0236_2_Snip_4thUS

Battery D completed its assortment of types:

  • Battery D: 100 shell and 155 case for 3-inch rifles.

That brings us to the small arms:

0236_3_Snip_4thUS

By battery:

  • Battery A: Eighteen Army revolvers and eighteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Twenty-one Navy revolvers and nine cavalry sabers.
  • Battery C: Thirteen Navy revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery D: Nine Army revolvers, 135 horse artillery sabers, and one foot artillery saber.
  • Battery F: Thirteen Army revolvers, nineteen horse artillery sabers, and one foot artillery saber.
  • Battery G: Three Army revolvers, four Navy revolvers, and twelve horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H: Sixteen Army revolvers and fifteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery I: Two Army revolvers and twenty-nine cavalry sabers.
  • Battery K: Twelve Army revolvers, one Navy revolver, one cavalry saber, and nineteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery L: Fourteen Army revolvers and 116 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery M: Eight Army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • Regimental Adjutant: Three Army revolvers and twenty-nine horse artillery sabers.

The adjutant also reported thirty-one sword belts and plates.  And once again, all government property was accounted for!

 

Summary Statement: December 31, 1862 – 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery

Let us move a little to the east and look at the reported condition and status of the Pennsylvania light artillery batteries at the end of 1862.  The Keystone State provided over 360,000 men to the Federal cause.  There were 215 numbered regiments formed from that pool of men.  Most of those were infantry regiments, of course.  However cavalry and artillery regiments were assigned numbers in that range before re-designation.  Such was the case for the 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery Regiment.  It began as the 14th Pennsylvania Reserves (NOTE: not an “infantry regiment” but just a “regiment”) in May 1861 and morphed into the 43rd Pennsylvania Regiment. This formation became the 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery with eight batteries (A through H), later that year. Battery I was added in 1865, and thus escapes our attention today.   The regiment’s service through the first half of the war was in Virginia, and mostly associated with the Army of the Potomac.  I’m stepping past some of the particulars for the sake of brevity here to reach December 1862.  All but two of these batteries were with the Army of the Potomac at the time:

0075_Snip_Dec62_1_PA_1

And my what a wonderful summary we have.  Eight batteries with eight returns showing!

  • Battery A: At Portsmouth, Virginia with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Well, Lieutenant John G. Simpson’s battery was actually in camp with Third Division, First Corps, at Belle Plain.  The Portsmouth location was valid for January 1864, when the return was received in Washington.
  • Battery B: Belle Plain, Virginia with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Another Third Division, First Corps battery.  Captain James H. Cooper commanded.
  • Battery C: No location given, but with four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Jeremiah McCarthy led this battery, assigned to Third Division, Sixth Corps and likely camping near White Oak Church.
  • Battery D: At White Oak Church, Virginia with four 10-pdr Parrotts.  As with Battery C, also assigned to Third Division, Sixth Corps.  Captain Michael Hall commanded.
  • Battery E: No location given, but with four 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Thomas G. Orwig commanded this battery, assigned to the Artillery Reserve of Fourth Corps, and posted at Yorktown.
  • Battery F: At Belle Plain, with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Lieutenant R. Bruce Ricketts commanded this battery, which supported Second Division, First Corps.
  • Battery G: Also at Belle Plain and with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Likewise, another battery, commanded by Captain Frank P. Amsden, assigned to Third Division, First Corps.
  • Battery H: At Yorktown, Virginia with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Andrew Fagan commanded this battery, which was part of the Artillery Reserve, Fourth Corps.

So with all batteries reporting, we should have a clean set of information on projectiles?  Well, not so fast:

0079_Snip_Dec62_1_PA_1

Given the type of guns indicated on the first page, we should only see ammunition for 12-pdr Napoleons on this page.  But we have some entries under the 12-pdr howitzer columns – both field and mountain – for Battery E (stationed at Yorktown and Gloucester Point at the time).

  • Battery A: 239 shot, 181 case, and 92 canister for 12-pdr Napoleon.
  • Battery E:  176 shot for 12-pdr Napoleon; 64 shell and 192 case for 12-pdr field howitzers; and 80 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • Battery H:  182 shot, 54 shell, 162 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleon.

There are some possibilities here to explain Battery E.  This may be a rather conspicuous transcription error, at either end.  Or perhaps a miss-identification of the type of fixed ammunition by some battery officer taking inventory.  Another possibility, since the battery was on garrison duty, is the rounds counted included those for weapons not directly assigned to the battery.  And of course, 12-pdr howitzer rounds, for either the field or mountain type, work under the “if it fits down the bore” rule.  However this return was received in Washington in January 1865, when Battery E was in the Petersburg lines. So we might speculate on this all day.

Moving to the rifle projectiles, we find everything fits neatly into two calibers – 3-inch and 10-pdr. Starting with the Hotchkiss-types:

0079_Snip_Dec62_1_PA_2

These projectiles are where we expect them:

  • Battery B: 20 canister and 220 bullet shell in 3-inch bore.
  • Battery G: 223 shell and 333 bullet shell for their 3-inch rifles.

The Pennsylvania batteries reported quantities of Dyer’s and Parrott’s projectiles:

0080_Snip_Dec62_1_PA_1

  • Battery G: 97 shell, 87 shrapnel, and 80 canister of Dyer’s patent for 3-inch rifle.
  • Battery C: 278 Parrott case shot for their 10-pdr rifles.
  • Battery D: 60 shell and 65(?) case shot of Parrott-patent in 10-pdr.

Over to the Schenkl columns:

0080_Snip_Dec62_1_PA_2

Two entries here:

  • Battery B: 285 Schenkl shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery C: 145 Schenkl shell and 96 Schenkl canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

My first impression is that the rifled batteries of the 1st Pennsylvania were short, or maybe under-reporting, ammunition quantities.  Battery B, for instance, had twenty canister on hand.  Dividing the shell and case shot equitably between four guns, we’d see only 71 shells and 55 “bullet shell” for each tube.

Lastly, we turn to the small arms:
0080_Snip_Dec62_1_PA_3

By battery:

  • Battery A: Eight Navy revolvers and nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Sixteen Navy revolvers and seventeen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery C: Seventeen Army revolvers and fourteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery D: Seventeen Navy revolvers and twelve horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery E: Eight Navy revolver, twenty-four cavalry sabers, and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F: Eighteen Army revolvers and four horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Eleven Navy revolvers and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H: Seventeen Army revolvers and twenty-three horse artillery sabers.

I think that reflects a healthy allotment of small arms for the batteries.  Not a lot of pistols or sabers.  But enough to meet needs which might arise.  And no long guns.

Next we will turn to the independent batteries of Pennsylvania.