Summary Statement, 1st Quarter, 1863 – Ohio’s Independent Batteries, Part 1

Ohio designated twenty-six batteries as “independent” numbered units during the Civil War.  As with our look at the previous quarter, we’ll split those into halves to facilitate detailed discussion (… and well.. also because the section is split across two pages in the summaries!).  So the first fourteen appear as such:

0132_1_Snip_OhioInd1

With ten of those reporting:

  • 1st Battery: No report. Captain James R. McMullin commanded this battery, supporting the Third Division, Eighth Corps, and posted to Kanawha Falls, West Virginia. The battery had 3-inch Ordnance Rifles at this time.
  • 2nd Battery: Reporting at Helena, Arkansas with  two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. At the start of the winter, Captain Newton J. Smith commanded this battery assigned to Twelfth Division (later Third Division), Thirteenth Corps.  Lieutenant Augustus Beach replaced Smith near the beginning of spring.
  • 3rd Battery: At Berry’s Landing, Louisiana with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.   Berry’s Landing was a placename upstream of Helena, Arkansas, not in Louisiana!  In this case, the battery was around Lake Providence at the end of winter 1863.  So it is likely there were two such placenames in use.  Was assigned to Third Division, Seventeenth Corps.  Captain William S. Williams commanding.
  • 4th Battery:  At Milliken’s Bend, Louisiana with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Captain Louis Hoffmann’s battery assigned to First Divsision, Fifteenth Corps.
  • 5th Battery:  At Memphis, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Commanded by Lieutenant Anthony B. Burton.  Briefly assigned to the Seventeenth Corps at the start of the winter months. Later, in January, moved with the rest of the division (Fourth) to Sixteenth Corps.
  • 6th  Battery:  Reporting from Murfreesboro, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons (replacing 6-pdrs) and four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Cullen Bradley remained in command of the battery, which was assigned to First Division, Twenty-First Corps with the reorganizations that winter.
  • 7th Battery: Memphis, Tennessee with four 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Like the 5th Battery, the 7th was briefly listed in the Seventeenth Corps until the Forth Division transferred to the Sixteenth Corps.   Captain Silas A. Burnap remained commander.
  • 8th Battery: No report.  Commanded by Captain (promoted)  James F. Putnam, this battery was assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Corps.
  • 9th Battery: Brentwood, Tennessee (between Franklin and Nashville) with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Commanded by Captain Harrison B. York and assigned to the Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.
  • 10th Battery: Lake Providence, Louisiana with four 3.80-inch James Rifles. At the start of January 1863, this battery,  under Captain Hamilton B. White, was in Sixth Division, Sixteenth Corps.  But that division moved to the Seventeenth Corps later in the month.  You need a cheat sheet to follow Grant’s old Thirteenth Corps reorganizations!
  • 11th Battery: No report. Was part of the Seventh Division, Sixteenth Corps at the start of January.  When the division transferred to the Seventeenth Corps, the battery went along. By the end of spring, Lieutenant Fletcher E. Armstrong was in command.
  • 12th Battery: At Aquia Creek, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Aaron C. Johnson commanded this battery assigned to the Eleventh corps.
  • 13th Battery: No report. Losing all its guns at Shiloh, this battery ceased to exist after April 1862.
  • 14th Battery: Jackson, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance rifles. The battery part of the District of Jackson (though at Lynnville, Tennessee), Thirteenth Corps at this time, under Lieutenant Homer H. Stull.

What I like about this set of batteries is the variation among gun tubes assigned.  We see some 6-pdrs and field howitzers still on hand.  A lot of James Rifles.  But the Napoleons, Parrotts, and Ordnance Rifles beginning to replace the older weapons. An interesting mix for the middle of the war.

Turning to smoothbore projectiles:

0134_1_Snip_OhioInd1

Like a canister blast pattern!

  • 2nd Battery: 41 shell, 113 case, and 77 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 120 shot, 143 case, and 59 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 4th Battery: 110 shell, 105 case, and 92 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 5th Battery: 40 shot, 267 case, and 93 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 57 shell, 147 case, and 82 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 6th Battery: 118 shot, 52 shell, 76 case, and 80 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 9th Battery: 180 shot, 243 shell, 446 case, and 310 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 14th Battery: 148 shot, 48 shell, 150 case, and 58 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Moving to rifled projectiles, we start with the Hotchkiss types:

0134_2_Snip_OhioInd1

We can split this page between the James Rifles (majority) and the Ordnance Rifles (two battery).  Starting with Hotchkiss projectiles for James rifles:

  • 2nd Battery: 60 shot, 127 percussion shell, and 310 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 3rd Battery: 58 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 55 shot and 240 percussion shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 66 shot for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 39 shot and 71 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

Now the two batteries with Hotchkiss for 3-inch Ordnance Rifles:

  • 12th Battery: 171 percussion shell, 497 fuse shell, and 407 bullet shell in 3-inch.
  • 14th Battery: 148 canister, 160 percussion shell, 160 fuse shell, and 340 bullet shell in 3-inch.

For simplicity, let’s break the next page into batches.  Starting with some “trailing columns” of Hotchkiss and those of Dyer’s Patent:

0135_1A_Snip_OhioInd1

One line for Hotckiss left:

  • 10th Battery: 389 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

And likewise for Dyer’s:

  • 12th Battery: 120 canister for 3-inch.

Moving to the James-patent projectiles, as we would expect there are many entries:

0135_1B_Snip_OhioInd1

  • 2nd Battery: 51 shot in 3.80-inch.
  • 3rd Battery: 63 shot and 210 shell in 3.80-inch.
  • 4th Battery: 170 shell in 3.80-inch.
  • 5th Battery: 55 shot, 151 shell, and 95 canister in 3.80-inch.
  • 7th Battery: 60 shell and 100 canister in 3.80-inch.
  • 10th Battery:  203 shell in 3.80-inch.

Moving to the right, one battery with Parrotts, so….

0135_1C_Snip_OhioInd1

  • 6th Battery:  440 shell, 347 case, and 60 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

Turning to the next page…

0135_2_Snip_OhioInd1

Just a few entries for Schenkl shells:

  • 3rd Battery: 122 shells for 3.80-inch.
  • 7th Battery: 320 shells for 3.80-inch.
  • 10th Battery: 176 shells for 3.80-inch.

Where we see James rifles in use, we often see Tatham’s Canister:

  • 2nd Battery: 144 canister in 3.80-inch.
  • 3rd Battery: 78 canister in 3.80-inch.
  • 4th Battery: 90 canister in 3.80-inch.
  • 7th Battery: 80 canister in 3.80-inch.

I find interesting that among these batteries with James rifles, there is a mix of shells from different patent types.  And with the canister, we see the 7th Battery reported both James’ and Tatham’s on hand – thus alluding to differences with the two types.

We close with the small arms:

0135_3_Snip_OhioInd1

By battery reporting:

  • 2nd Battery: Three Army revolvers and twelve cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Twenty-three Army revolvers, eight cavalry sabers, and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Twenty-five Army revolvers, fifty-five cavalry sabers, six horse artillery sabers, and eighteen foot artillery sabers.
  • 5th Battery: Seven Navy revolvers and sixteen cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery: Ten Army revolvers and seven horse artillery sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Five Army revolvers and thirteen cavalry sabers.
  • 14th Battery: Thirty Army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.

Notice the 12th Battery, posted in Virginia, reported no small arms on hand. I would expect the battery to have some arms on hand, but not many.

Summary Statement: December 31, 1862 – Ohio Independent Batteries, Part 1

We saw last week that the 1st Ohio Light Artillery Regiment’s batteries were pulling duty, as of the end of 1862, with two armies – the Army of the Potomac and the Army of the Cumberland.  In contrast, the independent batteries saw more varied service from the standpoint of assignment as of that point on the timeline.  During the war, there were twenty-six designated independent batteries from Ohio, along with a few National Guard batteries brought on active duty for short duration (falling outside our survey of the moment), according to Dyer’s Compendium.  The summary for fourth quarter, 1862 offered reports for some of the first twenty of those:

0067_Snip_Dec62_2_Ohio_1

To avoid a flurry of “Too long, didn’t read” remarks, let us focus on the first half of those.  So looking closely at the 1st through 10th Ohio Independent Light Batteries, we have this snip to work with:

0067_Snip_Dec62_2_Ohio_1A

Of these, the clerks skipped the 3rd and 8th Batteries.  However, of those listed, only the 1st’s details are absent.  And all but two of those reporting had the paperwork in Washington by the end of 1863.  With those, we have:

  • 1st Ohio Independent Battery: No return. Captain James R. McMullin commanded this battery, supporting the Kanawha Division, then in (what is today) West Virginia. Earlier in the fall, the battery fought at South Mountain with six James Rifles. However it is likely the battery re-equipped with 3-inch Ordnance Rifles shortly afterward.
  • 2nd Ohio Independent Battery: At Helena, Arkansas with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain Newton J. Smith commanded this battery, which was assigned to the District of Eastern Arkansas at the time.
  • 3rd Ohio Independent Battery: Not listed. Was part of Third Division, Right Wing, Thirteenth Corps, at Memphis in December 1862.  Captain William S. Williams commanding.
  • 4th Ohio Independent Battery:  At Greenville, Mississippi with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain Louis Hoffmann’s battery was also with General Frederick Steele’s force at Helena in December 1862.  The battery was involved with an expedition to Greenville in April 1863, when the report was filed.
  • 5th Ohio Independent Battery:  At Holly Springs, Mississippi with two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Assigned to the Fourth Division, Right Wing, Thirteenth Corps (soon to be in the Seventeenth Corps).  Commanded by Lieutenant Anthony B. Burton.
  • 6th  Ohio Independent Battery: I interpret the location to say “Thomas’s East Line.”  And I think that refers to the battery’s location at Chattanooga, Tennessee for the September 1863 reporting date.  Feel free to look that over so we might get it right.  The battery reported two 6-pdr field guns and four 10-pdr Parrotts. As of December 31, 1862, the battery was in the field at Stones River supporting First Division, Left Wing, Fourteenth Corps.  Captain Cullen Bradley commanded the battery, which suffered the loss of two killed, two wounded, and one captured in the battle.  Bradley reported firing 500 rounds.
  • 7th  Ohio Independent Battery: Tallahatchie, Mississippi with four 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Also assigned to Fourth Division, Right Wing, Thirteenth Corps.  Commanded by Captain Silas A. Burnap.
  • 8th  Ohio Independent Battery: Not listed. This battery was part of Sherman’s force at Chickasaw Bayou, commanded by Lieutenant  James F. Putnam.
  • 9th  Ohio Independent Battery: Tullahoma, Tennessee with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Another case where the location (and possibly other particulars) refer to the battery’s state at the time of the report’s receipt in Washington.  As of December 1862, the battery was commanded by Captain Harrison B. York and was part of the Third Division, Army of Kentucky. It would soon join the Army of the Cumberland, as part of the Reserve Corps.
  • 10th  Ohio Independent Battery: Young’s Point, Louisiana with four 3.80-inch James Rifles.  The location may be valid for a reporting date later in 1863.  In December 1862, this battery was under Captain Hamilton B. White and in Sixth Division, Left Wing, Thirteenth Corps, among those operating in Northern Mississippi.

So we see varied service – batteries in West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas (and later Louisiana also).

For smoothbore ammunition, here is the appropriate section:

0069_Snip_Dec62_2_Ohio_1

By battery, they reported:

  • 2nd Battery:  All for 12-pdr field howitzer – 41 shell, 113 case, and 77 canister.
  • 4th Battery:  For their 12-pdr field howitzers – 162 shell, 105 case, and 92 canister.
  • 5th Battery:  For 6-pdr field guns – 40 shot, 267 case, and 93 canister.  For the 12-pdr field howitzers – 57 shell and 82 canister.  There is an entry for 147 12-pdr Napoleon spherical case, but I would guess this was a transcription error, and should be under the 12-pdr field howitzer case column.
  • 6th Battery:  For 6-pdr field guns – 175 shot and 72 canister.
  • 9th Battery: For 12-pdr Napoleons – 84 shot, 289 shells, 484 case, and 310 canister.

Moving to the rifled projectiles, starting with the Hotchkiss type:

0069_Snip_Dec62_2_Ohio_2

All of these were for the reported James Rifles, 3.80-inch caliber:

  • 2nd Battery:  100 shot, 127 percussion shell, and 190 fuse shell.
  • 4th Battery: 169 shot and 106(?) percussion shell
  • 7th Battery: 40 shot.
  • 10th Battery:  39 shot and 71 fuse shell.

Moving over to the next set of columns, we see one more entry for Hotckhiss, along with James and Parrott types:

0070_Snip_Dec62_2_Ohio_1

Note to self:  In the future try to split these sections up a bit to make them easier to read and flow better….Let me break these down by type:

Hotchkiss, continued:

  • 10th Battery:  389 Hotchkiss-type canister for 3.80-inch James Rifles.

James:

  • 2nd Battery:  100 James-patent shot for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 304 James-patent shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 5th Battery:   55 shot, 150 shell, and 95 canister in James-patent for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 100 James-patent 3.80-inch canister.

Parrott:

  • 6th Battery: 310 shell, 217 case, and 80 canister Parrott projectiles for 10-pdr rifles.

The last page of the rifled projectiles lists Schenkl’s and Tatman’s:

0070_Snip_Dec62_2_Ohio_2

Schenkl, all 3.80-inch James Rifle caliber:

  • 7th Battery: 340 shells.
  • 10th Battery: 176 shells.

Tatham’s, all 3.80-inch James Rifle caliber:

  • 2nd Battery: 144 canister.
  • 4th Battery: 90 canister.
  • 7th Battery:  80 canister.

Just an off-the-cuff observation, but these Ohio batteries had quite a quantity of canister of all types.

Finally the small arms:

0070_Snip_Dec62_2_Ohio_3

No long arms, not a lot of pistols, but a fair allocation of edged weapons:

  • 2nd Battery: Three Army revolvers and twelve cavalry sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Forty cavalry sabers and six horse artillery sabers.
  • 5th Battery: Seven Navy revolvers and fifty-six cavalry sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Fourteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 7th Battery: Eleven Army revolvers and seven horse artillery sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Five Army revolvers and twelve cavalry sabers.

That’s the first half of the Ohio Independent Batteries.  Should have the second half of that section posted in the next few days.