Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Massachusetts batteries

Entering the fall of 1863, the volunteer light batteries from Massachusetts served either in the Eastern Theater or the Department of the Gulf.  All told, the Bay State provided sixteen light batteries to Federal service during the war (save one or two thirty-day batteries at the start of the war).  At the end of the third quarter, 1863, fourteen of those had mustered.  However, the clerks at the Ordnance Department “shorted” that count:

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With the addition of the 15th Battery, this is an improvement over the previous quarter.  While we can excuse the absence of the 14th and 16th Batteries, which would not form until the winter of 1864, the 13th Battery should be on this list.  I’ll list all sixteen here, with placeholders, for sake of complete coverage:

  • 1st Battery: At Culpepper [sic], Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery remained with the Artillery Brigade, Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac. and Captain William H. McCartney remained in command.  More precisely, the battery was with the corps near Stone-House Mountain, on the right end of the Federal deployment in Culpeper County at that time.
  • 2nd Battery: No return. Captain Ormand F. Nims commanded this battery, assigned to Nineteenth Corps, Department of the Gulf.  The battery may have retain six 6-pdr rifled field guns mentioned earlier in the year. Following the surrender of Port Hudson, the battery transferred to the corps artillery reserve (having been assigned to Fourth Division during the siege), and returned to Baton Rouge.  At the end of September, the battery transferred again, this time to the Cavalry Division of the corps.  The battery saw field service in the Teche Campaign later in the fall.
  • 3rd Battery: Reporting at Warrenton Junction, Virginia with six 6-pdr field guns.   This is obviously an error, as the battery held 12-pdr Napoleons (no batteries then assigned to the Army of the Potomac had 6-pdrs this late in the war).  Assigned to the Artillery Brigade, Fifth Corps. With Captain Augustus Martin in command of the brigade, Lieutenant Aaron F. Walcott remained in charge of the battery.  We might quibble over the location and say the battery was in Culpeper at the end of September.
  • 4th Battery: Reporting from “Camin Grove Bayou” in Louisiana (a transcription I am struggling with).  The battery had four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch ordnance rifles.  Under Captain George G. Trull, the battery remained with Third Division, Nineteenth Corps.   The battery moved around much during the summer and early fall with stays at Port Hudson, Donaldsonville, Baton Rouge.  They were at Fort Brashear, outside Morgan City, Louisiana at the end of September.  The battery would participate in the Teche Expedition in October.
  • 5th Battery: Reporting at Centreville, Virginia with six 3-inch rifles.  Captain Charles A. Phillips remained in command, and the battery assigned to the Fifth Corps.  The location should be Culpeper, but reflects a later reporting date.
  • 6th Battery: At Algiers, Louisiana with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 12-pdr field howitzers. The battery was assigned to First Division, Nineteenth Corps, commanded by Captain William W. Carruth.  When Carruth mustered out on October 3rd, Lieutenant Edward K. Russell (2nd Battery, above) transferred to command.  Then in December, Lieutenant John F. Phelps, of the battery, took command.  Phelps would be promoted to Captain with commission back dated to October 3.  During their stay at Algiers, the battery was reequipped and reduced to four guns.
  • 7th Battery: At Camp Barry, D.C., with six 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  This battery had an eventful summer, though not one for winning battle streamers.  Battery assigned to First Division, Seventh Army Corps,  and commanded by Captain Phineas A. Davis at the start of the summer.  At the start of July, the battery was among the forces employed for an expedition from White House to the South Anna River. On July 20, the battery was sent to Camp Marshall, in D.C.  And from there dispatched by steamer to New York City, camping on Madison Square, to suppress the draft riots.  On September 11, the battery returned to Washington, going to Camp Barry.  Davis accepted a promotion, and left the battery to Lieutenant Newman W. Storer (who was soon made captain).
  • 8th Battery: No return.  Mustered out the previous November at the end of a six-month enlistment.
  • 9th Battery: Culpeper, Virginia with four 12-pdr Napoleons. Remaining with the First Volunteer Artillery Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Captain John Bigelow commanded, but was recovering from wounds.  Lieutenant Richard S. Milton filled in his place.
  • 10th Battery:  At Warrenton Junction, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. When French’s Division came to the Army of the Potomac, the battery moved with its parent organization into Third Corps.  Captain J. Henry Sleeper commanded. The location is presumably associated with the November date of return.  At the end of September, the battery was with the corps, just west of Culpeper.
  • 11th Battery: No return.  This battery mustered out of service in May 1863. Though it did see some use suppressing draft riots in the mid-summer months.  Captain Edward J. Jones commanded. The battery would muster back into service, under Jones, in January 1864.
  • 12th Battery:  At Port Hudson, Louisiana, with four 6-pdr field guns (down two 3-inch rifles from the previous quarter). Listed in the artillery reserve of the Nineteenth Corps. After serving by detachments during the Port Hudson campaign, the battery consolidated back in New Orleans in late July.  It was stationed at Tivoli Circle (you know… were once a statue to a Confederate leader stood) at the end of September.  Captain Jacob Miller remained in command.
  • 13th Battery: Not listed. The 13th Battery suffered heavily in their first year of service.  They’d lost sixty horses in the transit to New Orleans (that included a six week stay at Fort Monroe). And what horses they had when arriving at New Orleans were re-assigned to other batteries. Put to work on the Port Hudson siege lines, sickness and disease brought the battery down to fifty men by the end of August.  At that time, Captain Charles H. J. Hamlin returned home to recruit more men.  In his place, Lieutenant Ellis L. Motte was in command of a detachment, assigned to the 2nd Battery (above).
  • 14th Battery: Not listed.  Battery did not begin recruiting until January-February 1864.
  • 15th Battery: At Bayou St. John, Louisiana with no reported artillery.  Captain Timothy Pearson’s battery arrived in Louisiana in April.  But their equipment and horses was re-allocated to other batteries at that time.  The men served at posts around New Orleans as garrison artillery until the end of December.
  • 16th Battery: Not listed.  Battery did not begin recruiting until January-February 1864.

Turning to the ammunition, we look at the smoothbore first:

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Lots of those to go around:

  • 1st Battery: 286 shot, 93 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 3rd Battery: 192 shot, 96 shell, 387 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleon (at least the clerks got the ammunition in the right columns!)
  • 4th Battery: 269 shell, 147 case, and 55 canister for 12-pdr Napoleon.
  • 6th Battery: 41 shot, 163 shell, 251 case, and 60 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 96 shell, 128 case, and 32 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 9th Battery: 182 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 54 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 12th Battery: 4 shot and 175 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

Moving over to the Hotchkiss rifled projectiles:

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Four reporting:

  • 4th Battery: 39 canister, 265 percussion shell, and 60 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 5th Battery: 138 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 120 canister, 236 percussion shell, and 120 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 500 shot, 115 canister, 110 percussion shell, and 220 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

No reported quantities on the next page:

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But there were Schenkl projectiles to account for:

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Three batteries:

  • 5th Battery: 140 shell and 930 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 720 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 15 shell and  240 case for 3-inch rifles.

Lastly, the small arms columns:

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By battery:

  • 1st Battery: Eight Navy revolvers, nine cavalry sabers, and five horse artillery sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: One Army revolver, eight cavalry sabers, and twenty-four horse artillery sabers.
  • 4th Battery: One breechloading carbine, seven Army revolvers, and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • 5th Battery: One Army revolver and twenty-seven horse artillery sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Fourteen Army revolvers, ten Navy revolvers, and thirty (?) cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery: Fifteen Navy revolvers and twenty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Eight Army revolvers and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Sixteen Navy revolvers and nineteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 12th Battery: Eighteen Army revolvers and thirty-six (?) horse artillery sabers.
  • 15th Battery: Fifty rifles (type unspecified), fourteen Navy revolvers, and twenty-two horse artillery sabers.

We will discuss the Heavy Artillery from Massachusetts in a later post.  But for now that’s the summary of the numbered batteries.

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Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Louisiana Heavy Artillery

Moving down the pages in the summary statements for the third quarter of 1863, we have a placeholder entry for Louisiana:

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Just that one line:

  • 1st Heavy Artillery:  No location given.  Just the notation for infantry stores.

Good to see the clerks at the Ordnance Department were holding to procedures and at least accounting for the artillery units then in service.  It would not be out of the normal practice for a heavy artillery unit to have a blank summary.  Much of the time, the heavy artillery pieces were assigned to the installation (be that a fort or other).  And the regiment was then only left to account for small arms… in this case covered under “infantry stores”.  I don’t have copies of the infantry summary statements, but presumably we’d find an entry for this regiment detailing muskets, other weapons, and accouterments.

But “this regiment” deserves a full explanation here.  If we consult Dyer’s Compendium, we find a listing for the regiment as:

1st REGIMENT HEAVY ARTILLERY (AFRICAN DESCENT).
Organized at New Orleans, La., November 29, 1862. Attached to Defences of New Orleans and duty as Garrison Artillery till November, 1863. Designation of Regiment changed to 1st Corps de Afrique Heavy Artillery November 19, 1863, which see.

As the name implies, this was a colored unit, formed from African-Americans then in New Orleans and other locations under Federal control.

Cross referencing those names against the returns from the Official Records (notably, the order of battle for the Department of the Gulf) we find subordinates of this regiment begin appearing in May 1863.  At that time, Company B was part of the Defenses of New Orleans, under Captain Soren Rygaard (the printed Official Records say “Loren” but his enlistment papers and other documents read “Soren”).  By August, the returns added Company C, with Rygaard now commanding a battalion of the regiment’s soldiers.

Rygaard had immigrated from Jutland, Denmark.  He was working as a merchant in New York when the war broke out.  In early 1863 he signed on as a private in Battery E, 3rd US Artillery.  But I don’t see that he ever joined that battery in the field.  Instead, he shows up next in New Orleans, accepting a discharge for commission in the 1st Louisiana Regiment of Heavy Artillery.  He was promoted to captain in early summer.  At that time there were but two companies of the regiment formed.   In September, the regiment consisted of three companies, numbering over 300 men.  Rygaard even put in a request for appointment to Colonel of the regiment.

So at the cut-off time for quarterly returns, Rygaard commanded what parts of the regiment were on duty, essentially a battalion.  And that battalion served as part of the defenses of New Orleans, with no field artillery or associated equipment worthy of mention in the summary.

However, as indicated in Dyer’s, changes were coming for this regiment… and not only a designation change.  On November 7, 1863, Special Orders No. 278 from Headquarters, Department of the Gulf came out, and read in part:

Company C, First Louisiana Heavy Artillery, under command of Capt. Loren Rygaard, commanding battalion stationed at Camp Parapet, New Orleans, having been reported by the commander of the Defenses of New Orleans in such a state of insubordination as to indicate unmistakably the incapacity or criminal action of the officers of the company, and that the conduct and character of the company is such as to make the men composing it unworthy to bear arms, Capt. Loren Rygaard, commanding battalion, and the following-named officers composing Company C, First Louisiana Heavy Artillery, viz, Capt. N. L. Rich, Senior First Lieut. H. C. Rawson, Junior First Lieut. M. J. Kenyon, Junior Second Lieut. F. Walton, are hereby dismissed the service of the United States, and the company will be immediately disarmed and sent under guard to Port Hudson, where the men will be placed at hard labor on the public works, under the direction of the commanding officer of the post, until further orders.

The quartermaster’s department will furnish the necessary transportation.
Senior Second Lieut. James M. Lawton, Company C, First Louisiana Heavy Artillery, not having served with the company during its insubordination, is honorably discharged the military service of the United States.

So no colonelcy for Rygaard.  He was discharged shortly after these orders were issued.

But the regiment remained.  In April, the 1st Corps de Afrique Heavy Artillery was brought in line with the naming convention for the US Colored Troops, thus becoming the 7th Heavy Artillery (USCT) in early April.  However, that designation was already in use by a USCT regiment then forming from contrabands from Alabama.  So in May, the Louisiana regiment was given another new designation – the 10th Heavy Artillery (USCT).  They would remain at New Orleans right up to the end of the war.  In April 1865 the regiment participated in several expeditions to speed the closure to the war.

While not a storied regiment with many battle honors, the 10th Heavy Artillery (USCT) reflects yet another aspect to the service of colored troops in the Civil War.  I do hope that some day a diligent researcher will come along to better illuminate the history of this regiment.

(Citations from Dyer’s Compendium, Part 3, Page 1213; and OR, Series I, Volume 24, Part I, Serial 41, page 791.)

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Indiana’s batteries, Part 3

Looking to the bottom of the Indiana section for the third quarter, 1863, we find five entries set aside from the independent batteries:

0249_1_Snip_IND_Pt1 Looking closer, those are two entry lines for the 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery and three sections from other arms:

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As we have not detailed the “heavies” often enough within the summaries, let us take those first two lines as license to formally discuss the 1st Indiana Heavy.  The “Jackass Regiment” mustered as the 21st Indiana Infantry in July 1861.  Assigned to the defenses of Baltimore, the regiment was among those sent on the New Orleans Expedition at the start of 1862.  In February 1863, the regiment was re-designated heavy artillery in light of its posting to fortifications around Louisiana.  Colonel John Keith Commanded the regiment.  Eight companies of the regiment served in the siege of Port Hudson.  With the fall of that river bastion, the regiment’s batteries were assigned to different posts in the Department of the Gulf.

In the last quarter, the summaries listed Batteries (or properly, “Companies”) A and E, both with 20-pdr Parrotts, serving at Port Hudson and Baton Rouge, respectively. For this quarter, we find Batteries E and L.  And the latter had a mix of big Parrotts and 12-pdr Napoleons.  Looking at the whole of the regiment:

  • Company A: No return.  Captain Eden H. Fisher remained in command, but resigned in November. Captain Harvey B. Hall was the replacement.  The battery was likely at Baton Rouge at the end of September.
  • Company B: No return.  Garrison artillery at New Orleans.  Captain James Grimsley commanded.
  • Company C: No return.  Captain Elihu E. Rose in command.
  • Company D: No return.  Captain William S. Hinkle’s command.
  • Company E:  No location given, but with four 20-pdr Parrotts. Captain James W. Hamrick in command.
  • Company F: No return.  Captain Francis W. Noblet’s battery.
  • Company G: No return.  Garrison artillery at New Orleans.  Captain Edward McLaflin was in command, but was absent from the battery, commanding a detachment from the regiment at Baton Rouge.
  • Company H: No return.  Captain James W. Connelly in command.
  • Company I: No return.  Captain Richard Campbell’s command.
  • Company K: No return.  Garrison artillery at New Orleans.  Under Captain Clayton Cox.
  • Company L: Reporting at New Orleans, Louisiana with three 12-pdr Napoleons and two 20-pdr Parrotts.  Captain Isaac C. Hendricks commanded.  The battery was assigned to an ad-hoc command under Major-General Cadwallader Washburn assembling at New Orleans that fall.
  • Company M: No return.  Garrison artillery at New Orleans.  This battery mustered in the early fall.  Captain Samuel A. Strong was in command.

I believe many of those for which a location is not indicated were at the time part of the detachment of the regiment at Baton Rouge.  Furthermore, I’d point out that several of these batteries would support the Red River Campaign in 1864, hauling 20-pdr and 30-pdr Parrotts along.

Below the two lines for the 1st Indiana Heavy are three lines for sections from cavalry or infantry regiments:

  • 1st Indiana Cavalry:  Artillery stores. At Pine Bluff, Arkansas with three 10-pdr Parrotts. As mentioned for the previous quarter, the detachment of this regiment then serving in Arkansas had a three gun section under Lieutenant Samuel Lefler, Company B.  The section fought well in an action at Pine Bluff on October 25, that fall.
  • 6th Indiana Cavalry: A lieutenant-colonel reporting artillery stores.  No location given.  Two 12-pdr mountain howitzers. Lieutenant-Colonel Courtland C. Matson and six companies of this regiment were assigned garrison duties in eastern Kentucky at this time of the war, and part of the Twenty-Third Corps.  The regiment, which was formed from the 71st Infantry in 1862 and reorganized as cavalry in the winter of 1863, arrived in Kentucky in August.
  • 87th Indiana Infantry: A lieutenant-colonel reporting artillery stores.  At Vicksburg, Mississippi with one 6-pdr field gun.  The only lieutenant-colonel in the regiment at the time as Thomas Sumner.  The 87th was assigned to Third Brigade, Third Division, Fourteenth Corps.  And from that we have to ask about the location given here, as that formation (and the regiment indicated) was at this time in Chattanooga.  And if we look at the reporting date – June 24, 1864 – we know the 87th was taking in Kennesaw Mountain at that time. So this entry is questionable from left to right. But the handwriting is clear – 87th Infantry and Vicksburg!  One or the other has to be incorrect.

Moving past that rather substantial question mark, we consider the ammunition reported.  Smoothbores first:

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Three lines reporting, and matching to the cannon mentioned on the first page:

  • Company L, 1st Heavy: 121 shot, 62 shell, 196 case, and 53 canister for 12-pdr Napoleon.
  • 6th Cavalry: 128 case and 124 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 87th Infantry:  23 shot, 48 case, and 40 canister for a 6-pdr field gun.

Looking to the rifled projectiles, we find no Hotchkiss, James, Schenkl, or Tatham’s.  But there are some Parrott rounds for those Parrott rifles:

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Three reporting:

  • Company E, 1st Heavy: 210 shell for 20-pdr Parrott.
  • Company L, 1st Heavy: 30 shot, 195 shell, and 34 canister for 20-pdr Parrott.
  • 1st Cavalry: 78 shell and 123 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

We then turn to the small arms:

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Just one line to consider:

  • Company L, 1st Heavy: 50 rifles (type unspecified) and six horse artillery sabers.

So we close out the third quarter, 1863 summary for Indiana’s artillery with a very difficult question, about that entry for the 87th Indiana Infantry, marring an otherwise relatively clear set of entries.  I wish there were answers!

 

Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Heavy Artillery

Let me give the heavy artillery batteries, battalions, and regiments their due for this quarter of the summary.  While looking at each of the state sections, we’ve mentioned a few of these batteries.  But not the whole.  The omission, by those at the Ordnance Department, was mostly due to bureaucratic definitions than any overt action.

Briefly, the summary statements we are reviewing here are focused only on ordnance rated as “field artillery.” A further qualification is that only units assigned roles to use field artillery (as in for use as “mobile” artillery) are included.  So, IF a field howitzer was assigned to a fort’s garrison, AND that howitzer was considered part of the fort’s armament, and not part of the garrisoning unit’s property, THEN it was accounted for in a different set of sheets for accounting.  Such means a great number of field artillery pieces, not to mention the siege, garrison, and seacoast artillery, escapes mention in these summaries.  And we don’t have, to my knowledge, a full record for those anywhere in the surviving documents.  However, I would point out that in 1864 the Ordnance Department began using a common form to account for field, siege, garrison, and seacoast artillery.

But for the second quarter of 1863, that accounting is lacking in the known records.  We do have a handful of “heavies” that were assigned roles which required mobile artillery.  And those were mentioned as we proceeded through the summary.  For sake of completeness, let me list all the heavy units in service as of June 1863 and match those to summary lines where mentioned.  Keep in mind the varied service of these formations.  Traditionally, these were assigned to garrison fortifications.  But wartime contingencies would see the “heavies” employed as infantry or even cavalry were needed.  And those needs would evolve as the war continued.

By unit, ordered by state (these are regiments unless otherwise noted):

  • 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery:  As mentioned earlier, Batteries B and M served with the Army of the Potomac, in 2nd Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve.  They, and their 4.5-inch rifles, were left behind and missed Gettysburg (though were active in the pursuit which followed).  The remainder of Colonel Henry L. Abbot’s regiment served in Third Brigade of the Defenses South of the Potomac (DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-Second Corps), defending Washington, D.C.  Regimental headquarters were at Fort Richardson.
  • 2nd Connecticut Heavy Artillery: Serving at this time as the 19th Connecticut Infantry (designation would change in November 1863) under Lieutenant Colonel Elisha S. Kellogg, and assigned to Second Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-Second Corps.  Companies B, F, and G manned Fort Ellsworth; Company A assigned to Redoubt A (in that sector); Company D to Redoubt B; Companies C and K to Redoubt C; and Companies E, H, and I were in Redoubt D.
  • 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery: Assigned to the Department of the Gulf, the regiment was in First Division, Nineteenth Corps (having converted from the 21st Indiana Infantry earlier in the year).  We discussed Batteries A and E and their work at Port Hudson.  Colonel John A. Keith commanded, with detachments at Baton Rouge and New Orleans.
  • 1st Maine Heavy Artillery: Second Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps under Colonel Daniel Chaplin.  Batteries assigned mostly to the defenses on the west side of Washington, and along the Potomac.
  • 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery: Assigned to First Brigade of the Defenses South of the Potomac – DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-Second Corps.  Colonel Thomas R. Tannatt commanded the regiment, and also commanded the brigade.
  • 2nd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery:  Authorized in May 1863, this regiment, under Colonel Jones Frankle, would not complete formation until later in the fall.
  • 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery Battalion: This battalion was formed with four previously independent batteries and served primarily at Fort Warren, Boston harbor.  The four companies were originally the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 5th unassigned heavy companies (becoming Companies A, B, C, and D respectively).  Major Stephen Cabot commanded this consolidated battalion.  In addition the 3rd and 6th unassigned companies also appear in the list of garrison troops around Boston.
  • 1st New Hampshire Heavy Artillery: This regiment, commanded by Colonel George A. Wainwright, would not officially form until later in July.
  • 2nd New York Heavy Artillery:  We discussed Colonel Joseph N. G. Whistler’s regiment while covering a lone entry for Battery L (which later became the 34th New York Independent Battery).  The 2nd New York Heavy was assigned to First Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, South of the Potomac.
  • 4th New York Heavy Artillery:  Under Colonel Henry H. Hall, this regiment formed the Fourth Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, Defenses South of the Potomac.  Detachments manned Fort Marcy and Fort Ethan Allen.
  • 5th New York Heavy Artillery:  Assigned to the defenses of Baltimore, Maryland, as part of the Middle Department.  Commanded by Colonel Samuel Graham, but with Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Murray in charge of two battalions then at Baltimore.  Another battalion, under Major Gustavus F. Merriam, appears on the returns for First Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, South of the Potomac.
  • 6th New York Heavy Artillery:  Assigned to the First Division, Eighth Corps.  Colonel J. Howard Kitching commanded.  The regiment was part of the Harpers Ferry garrison before the Gettysburg Campaign, and soon brought into the Army of the Potomac.
  • 7th New York Heavy Artillery: Second Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps under Colonel Lewis O. Morris (who also commanded the brigade).
  • 8th New York Heavy Artillery: Under Colonel Peter A. Porter, this regiment had garrison duty at Forts Federal Hill, Marshall, and McHenry around Baltimore, as part of Eighth Corps, Middle Department.  On July 10, the regiment moved forward to Harpers Ferry, staying there until August 3.
  • 9th New York Heavy Artillery: Second Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps under Colonel Joseph Welling.
  • 10th New York Heavy Artillery: This regiment was all of the Third Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps.  Commanded by Colonel Alexander Piper.  One battalion (four companies) moved from the defenses of New York to Washington in June, joining the rest of the regiment. Their service was mostly on the southeast side of the perimeter around the Anacostia.
  • 11th New York Heavy Artillery:  We discussed their saga in an earlier post.  Colonel William B. Barnes’ regiment was still forming when thrust into the Gettysburg Campaign.
  • 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th New York Heavy Artillery:  These regiments were all authorized by the spring of 1863, but in various states of organization at the end of June.
  • 3rd New York Heavy Artillery Battalion: Also known as the German Heavy Artillery.  Under Lieutenant-Colonel Adam Senges, and assigned to Second Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-Second Corps, on the south side of the Potomac.  This battalion was, later in the year, consolidated into the 15th New York Heavy Artillery, and came under Colonel Louis Schirmer.  For some reason, Schirmer’s name is associated with the command as early as June 1863.
  • 1st Ohio Heavy Artillery: Lieutenant-Colonel Chauncey G. Hawley’s command garrisoned Covington, Kentucky as part of Twenty-third Corps, Department of Ohio.
  • 2nd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery:  (the 112th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers.) Under Colonel Augustus A. Gibson and assigned to First Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac.  Regimental headquarters at Fort Lincoln.
  • 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery: We discussed Battery H and their “impressed” service at Gettysburg. While that battery was on detached service (Baltimore, then pushed out to guard the railroad), the remainder of the regiment served out of Fort Monroe providing detachments for garrisons in the Department of Virginia. Colonel Joseph Roberts commanded.
  • 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery: We looked at this regiment, assigned to the Department of the South, in detail earlier.  Colonel Edwin Metcalf commanded the regiment
  • 5th Rhode Island Heavy Artillery:  Colonel George W. Tew commanded this regiment, serving in North Carolina, and being reorganized from an infantry formation.
  • 1st Vermont Heavy Artillery:  Colonel James M. Warner commanded this regiment, assigned to First Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-second Corps.  Batteries garrisoned Forts Totten, Massachusetts, Stevens, Slocum, and others.
  • 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery:  Only Battery A of this regiment was mustered as of the end of June 1863. Captain Andrew J. Langworthy’s battery was assigned to the defenses of Alexandria, within DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-second Corps.
  • 1st Tennessee Heavy Artillery (African Descent): I mentioned this regiment briefly at the bottom of the Tennessee section. Colonel Ignatz G. Kappner commanded this regiment, at the time more of battalion strength, garrisoning Fort Pickering in Memphis. The regiment later became the 3rd US Colored Troops Heavy Artillery.
  • 2nd Tennessee Heavy Artillery (African Descent): Also mentioned in the Tennessee section, this regiment, under Colonel Charles H. Adams, was forming up in June 1863.  The regiment would later be designated the 4th US Colored Troops Heavy Artillery.
  • 1st Alabama Siege Artillery (African Descent): Organized from the contraband camps around LaGrange, LaFayette, and Memphis, Tennessee starting on June 20, 1863. Captain Lionel F. Booth appears to be the ranking officer in the regiment in those early months.  The regiment would later be designated the 6th US Colored Troops Heavy Artillery, and then later the 11th USCT Infantry.
  • 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery (African Descent):  Later in the year designated the 1st Corps de Afrique Heavy Artillery.  And still later in the war becoming the 10th US Colored Heavy Artillery.  And at times, the regiment appears on the rolls as the 1st Louisiana Native Guards Artillery (a name also associated with another USCT formation).  This regiment served throughout the war in the defenses of New Orleans, in the Department of the Gulf.

Yes, a lengthy post.  But this summarizes the status of over thirty regiments.  As you might deduce from reading the entries, the service of the “heavies” was weighted to the defenses of Washington, D.C.  However, the “heavies” also garrisoned places such as Baltimore, Boston, New Orleans, and other remote points.

Some other trends one might note – a good number of these regiments formed in the spring and summer of 1863.  We can, in some cases, link that to the draft and those seeking light service.  But at the same time, let us not “Shelby Foote” our way through these units.  At the time of mustering, the Army wanted troops for garrison defense.  And that was a valid requirement, given the posture at the time.

Lastly, it is important to also frame the context of the four USCT regiments listed above.  These were largely formed out of contraband camps.  And their duties were, for the most part, to provide garrison troops that would free up the white volunteers for service in the field.  But, as the course of events played out, one of those regiments would defend Fort Pillow in April 1864.

So much for easy duty in those heavy regiments!

Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Batteries from Massachusetts

We turn the page – page in the ledger, that is – with this installment on the summaries and find the next recorded state set is Massachusetts.

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There are a few administrative snags here which we must navigate around.  Three returns were not posted. And several of those posted offer incorrect locations.  And we have two “missing” batteries to mention. You will notice two themes here with the locations – Gettysburg and Port Hudson:

  • 1st Battery: Reported at Manchester, Maryland with six 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery was assigned to Artillery Brigade, Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac. Captain William H. McCartney commanded.  According to McCartney’s brief reports, the battery was “moving in a northerly direction through Maryland each day until July 2.”  He reported firing only four solid shot at Gettysburg.
  • 2nd Battery: No return. Captain Ormand F. Nims commanded this battery, assigned to the Fourth Division, Nineteenth Corps, Department of the Gulf.  The battery may have retain six 6-pdr rifled field guns mentioned earlier in the year. The battery was part of the force laying siege to Port Hudson in June 1863.
  • 3rd Battery: Indicated at Warrenton, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons from an August 24, 1863 posting date.  Assigned to the Artillery Brigade, Fifth Corps. When Captain Augustus Martin assumed command of the brigade, Lieutenant Aaron F. Walcott took command of the battery.  June 30 found the battery moving through Maryland with the parent formation.  Two days later, the battery was in action at Gettysburg.
  • 4th Battery: At Port Hudson, Louisiana with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch ordnance rifles.  This battery was assigned to the Third Division, Nineteenth Corps.   Captain George G. Trull was in command of the battery.  But the nature of service had sections detached (and under the lieutenants of the battery).  The previous quarter this battery’s guns were identified as 3-inch steel rifles. The most likely scenario is improper identification from the previous quarter, as often was the case with wrought iron guns.
  • 5th Battery: In Washington, D.C. with six 3-inch rifles.  That location does not match with any specific assignment for the battery.  After Chancellorsville, 5th Battery was reassigned to the First Volunteer Artillery Brigade (Lieutenant-Colonel Freeman McGilvery), Artillery Reserve.  Captain Charles A. Phillips remained in command.  So we’d place this battery near Taneytown, Maryland as of June 30.  Thrown into the Peach Orchard sector to shore up the lines on July 2, the battery was heavily engaged.  Phillips wrote,  “During the two days I fired 690 rounds; lost 1 officer, wounded; 4 men killed and 16 wounded, and 40 horses killed and a number disabled.”
  • 6th Battery: At Port Hudson with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 12-pdr field howitzers. The battery was assigned to First Division, Nineteenth Corps, under Captain William W. Carruth (however, Lieutenant John F. Phelps was listed as commander in the corps returns… and Carruth mustered out later in the fall).
  • 7th Battery: Indicated at White House, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  Assigned to First Division, Seventh Army Corps,  the battery was commanded by Captain Phineas A. Davis.  At the start of July, the battery was among the forces employed for an expedition from White House to the South Anna River.
  • 8th Battery: No return.  Mustered out the previous November at the end of a six-month enlistment.
  • 9th Battery: Warrenton Junction, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons, as of the August 23, 1863 report. The 9th Battery was assigned to the First Volunteer Artillery Brigade, Artillery Reserve in mid-June.  So their actual location for the end of the quarter was Taneytown.  Captain John Bigelow commanded.  Along with the brigade (and the 5th Battery), the 9th Battery was rushed towards the Peach Orchard on July 2.  When Bigelow was wounded, Lieutenant Richard S. Milton assumed command.
  • 10th Battery:  Report dated August 18, 1863 placed this battery at Sulphur Springs, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery supported French’s Division, Eighth Corps, Middle Department (which would soon be folded into the Army of the Potomac).  Sent to Harpers Ferry in mid-June, the battery was among those forces withdrawn to Frederick, Maryland at the end of the month. Captain J. Henry Sleeper commanded.
  • 11th Battery: Indicted as “not in service.”  This battery mustered out of service on May 25, 1863.  After turning in equipment, the battery returned to Massachusetts where it remained in the state militia.  Captain Edward J. Jones remained as commander.  That said, the battery did see “action” that July… suppressing riots in Boston.  The Battery would return to Federal service the following winter.
  • 12th Battery:  At Port Hudson, Louisiana, with four 6-pdr field guns and two 3-inch Ordnance rifles. Listed as unattached in the Nineteenth Corps.  Actually, this battery was split into sections at this phase of the war.  Captain Jacob Miller commanded the battery, from Fort Banks near New Orleans.  Sections of the battery were forwarded to Port Hudson in support of the siege of that place, under Lieutenant Edwin M. Chamberlin.

Not mentioned in this list, the 13th Massachusetts Light Artillery was not only in service but also “in action” at the end of June 1863.  Captain Charles H. J. Hamlin commanded.  After troublesome and delayed passage from Massachusetts, the battery arrived at New Orleans on May 10.  There, the 13th was assigned garrison duties, with its horses turned over to the 12th Battery (see above).  On June 5, the men of the battery moved by steamboat to Port Hudson.  There, they served in two detachments – one under Captain Hamlin, the other under Lieutenant Timothy W. Terry – manning siege mortars.  Not acclimatized, the men of the battery suffered heavily during the siege.

The 14th and 16th Massachusetts would not muster until months later.  But the 15th Massachusetts Light Artillery may be included here.  The 15th left Boston in March 1863, for New Orleans, under Captain Timothy Pearson.  The battery arrived in May, but turned in equipment and horses (needed for the other batteries).  For the remainder of the year, the 15th Battery served garrison duties around New Orleans and Lake Pontchartrain.

Moving past this lengthy administrative section, we turn to the ammunition.  These batteries reported a number of Napoleons.  No surprise we see a lot of 12-pdr rounds reported:

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Five batteries reporting:

  • 1st Battery: 287 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 3rd Battery: 192 shot, 96 shell, 387 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 4th Battery: 269 shell, 147 case, and 55 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 6th Battery: 198 shot, 106 shell, 150 case, and 58 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 90 shell, 136 case, and 40 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 9th Battery: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Notice the 12th battery reported no ammunition for the 6-pdrs.

Turning to the rifled projectiles, since we saw 3-inch Ordnance rifles on hand we can expect Hotchkiss rounds in the chests:

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Five batteries reporting quantities:

  • 4th Battery: 39 canister, 265 percussion shell, and 60 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 5th Battery: 121 canister and 322 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 168 canister, 188 fuse shell, and 486 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 115 canister, 110 percussion shell, 220 fuse shell, and 500 bullet shells for 3-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery: 30 shot, 34 canister, 60 percussion shell, 70 fuse shell, and 112 bullet shells for 3-inch rifles.

We don’t often see solid shot reported from the field. But the 12th Battery had thirty.

Moving to the next page, we find entries for Dyer’s patent projectiles:

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Three batteries reporting:

  • 5th Battery: 550 shrapnel for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 221 shrapnel for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 240 shrapnel for 3-inch rifles.

What may, or may not, be a correlation here, the three batteries were all Eastern Theater.  Though their service was varied.

We find those same three batteries reporting Schenkl projectiles:

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  • 5th Battery: 211 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 290 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 15 shell for 3-inch rifles.

To close out this lengthy examination, we turn to the small arms:

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  • 1st Battery: Eleven Army revolvers, twelve cavalry sabers, and five horse artillery sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: One Army revolver, eight cavalry sabers, and twenty-four horse artillery sabers.
  • 4th Battery: One breechloading carbine, seven Army revolvers, and thirty-six horse artillery sabers.
  • 5th Battery: One Army revolver and thirty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Ten Army revolvers and eight cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery: Eighteen Army revolvers and 142 horse artillery sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Fourteen Army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Seventeen Navy revolvers and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • 12th Battery: Eighteen Army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.

It seems the Massachusetts batteries received a healthy issue of horse artillery sabers. Perhaps proud products of Ames Manufacturing, of Chicopee, Massachusetts.

Summary Statement, 1st Quarter, 1863 – Vermont Batteries

For the fourth quarter of 1862, the batteries of Vermont got no love from the clerks at the Ordnance Department.  For the first of 1863, at least the batteries received mention:

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A small state, Vermont provided only two light batteries up to this point of the war (a third would be mustered in January 1864).  Both active batteries served in the Army of the Gulf.  Likewise, both would play parts in the campaign against Port Hudson, Louisiana later in the spring and into summer.  The receipt date for both batteries is within bureaucratic tolerance – August and May of the reporting year, respectively.

  • 1st Vermont Light Battery: Listed at New Orleans, Louisiana with six 3-inch rifles. In January, Captain George W. Duncan resigned. Captain George T. Hebard assumed command of this battery at the start of the spring.  The battery was assigned to Second Division, Nineteenth Corps.
  • 2nd Vermont Light Battery: Placed at Baton Rouge, Louisiana with six 3.67-inch rifles. Assigned to Third Division, Nineteenth Corps under Captain Pythagoras E. Holcomb.

When attempting to identify the specific type of cannon assigned to these batteries, I have to pause to offer simply the calibers reported.  I’m most certain the six 3.67-inch rifles of the 2nd Battery were Sawyer 6-pdr Steel Rifles.  But, we see here those are reported as bronze rifles.  With so many case where columns were “re-purposed” by the clerks, why not one more.

And for the 1st Battery, the weapons assigned were specifically identified as steel rifles. However, there is much inconsistency in the reports, correspondence, and records in regard to “steel rifles”.  Some times standard wrought iron Ordnance Rifles were so identified.  However, the identification leaves open the possibility that Sawyer rifles, or even Wiard rifles, in that caliber were used by the battery.  And that would be just a short list of possibilities.  The standard old 3-inch Ordnance Rifle would be the leading candidate.  But we might speculate, given 2nd Battery’s association with the Sawyer rifles, that 1st Battery also had weapons of that origin.

Moving past the speculation about the guns, let us find out what they fired.  No smoothbore weapons on hand, so no smoothbore projectiles.  So we skip forward to the Hotchkiss rounds:

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And allow me to add to that snip the continuation columns on the next page:

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The total tally for Hotchkiss projectiles looks as such:

  • 1st Battery: 120 canister, 444 percussion shell, and 625 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 939 fuse shell and 347 canister for 3.67-inch rifles.

The batteries did not report any Dyer’s, James’, or Parrott’s on hand.  Nor any Schenkl.  So we move directly to the small arms:

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Of the two:

  • 1st Battery: Eighteen Army revolvers and thirty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: Eight Army revolvers and fifty-eight cavalry sabers.

Aside from the precise identification of the cannons, the two Vermont batteries offer a simple report to interpret.

Summary Statement, 1st Quarter, 1863 – New York Independent Batteries (Part 2)

Continuing with the first quarter, 1863 summaries for the New York Independent Batteries, the second batch consists of batteries numbered 13 to 24:

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Compared to the first twelve batteries, the second set exhibits more variation in armament… just a little:

  • 13th Independent Battery: At Brook’s Station, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain  Julius Dieckmann commanded.  Battery assigned to First Division, Eleventh Corps.
  • 14th Independent Battery: No return.  As related for last quarter’s return, this was more a paper designation, which was never fully activated.  Personnel of the battery were distributed for service in other batteries at the time.  The battery  would not be officially struck until the fall of 1863.
  • 15th Battery:  Reporting at Falmouth, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.   The battery was assigned to the Artillery Reserve, under Captain Patrick Hart.
  • 16th Battery: In Camp Barry, Washington, D.C. with six 10-pdr Parrott Rifles. Originally Dickinson’s Light Artillery, this battery was under Captain Frederick L. Hiller and posted to the Artillery Camp of Instruction.  The battery would transfer to Seventh Corps in April.
  • 17th Battery: Minor’s Hill, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain George T. Anthony’s battery was part of Abercrombie’s Division, defending Washington.
  • 18th Battery: At Opelousas, Louisiana with six 20-pdr Parrotts.  Assigned to Second Division, Nineteenth Corps at the time.  Captain Albert G. Mack retained command. The battery was around New Orleans at the start of spring 1863.  Opelousas was their location the following summer, corresponding to the report’s receipt date of August 1864.
  • 19th Battery: Another battery in Camp Barry, Washington, D.C. Reporting six 12-pdr Napoleons.   Posted to the Camp of Instruction under Captain William H. Stahl.
  • 20th Battery: No report. Captain  B. Franklin Ryer’s battery was assigned to Fort Schuyler, New York.
  • 21st Battery: Indicated at Port Hudson, Louisiana with four 3-inch steel guns. Actually, in the spring of 1863, this battery was in New Orleans, under Captain  James Barnes, on garrison duty.  I am at a loss to definitively identify the 3-inch steel guns. Perhaps, Sawyer 3-inch rifles?
  • 22nd Battery: Indicated as “Attached to Ninth Artillery.”  By February the battery became Company M, 9th New York Heavy Artillery.
  • 23rd Battery: Washington, North Carolina with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The redesignation from Battery A, New York Rocket Battalion was not official until February 1863. Captain Alfred Ransom was in charge of this battery, assigned to the Eighteenth Corps, Department of North Carolina.
  • 24th Battery: At Plymouth, North Carolina with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Likewise, Battery B of the Rocket Battalion was not “officially” the 24th Battery until February 1863.  This battery was under Captain J. E. Lee and was also assigned to the Eighteenth Corps.

Turning to the ammunition reported, first the smoothbore types:

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All 12-pdr ammunition:

  • 17th Battery: 269 shot, 107 shell, 236 case, and 144 canister for 12-pdr Napoleon.
  • 19th Battery: 268 shot, 88 shell, 272 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleon.
  • 24th Battery:  194 shot, 91 shell, 288 case, and 168 canister for 12-pdr Napoleon.

Notice that I am “calling” the 24th Battery’s shells as a data entry error – to be 12-pdr field gun shells, vice those for 12-pdr field howitzers.

Moving to the rifled projectiles, first the Hotchkiss:

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Four batteries reporting quantities:

  • 13th Battery: 120 canister, 120 percussion shell, 340 fuse shell, and 720 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 15th Battery: 365 percussion shell and 720 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 21st Battery: 80 canister, 480 percussion shell, and 240 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 23rd Battery: 197 canister, 129 percussion shell, 269 fuse shell, and 564 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

Moving to the next page of projectiles…

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Let us break this down into sections for clarity.  We find some Dyer’s projectiles reported:

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One entry:

  • 15th Battery: 120 Dyer’s canister for 3-inch rifles.

And over to the Parrott columns:

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Two lines here:

  • 16th Battery: 456 shell, 625 case, and 135 canister, of Parrott-type, for 10-pdr Parrott rifles.
  • 18th Battery: 302 shell, 336 case, and 308 canister, Parrott patent, for 20-pdr Parrott rifles.

And one column on this page for Schenkl, but let us combine that line with those on the next page:

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Just one battery reporting Schenkl:

  • 18th Battery: 100 Schenkl shot and 230 Schenkl shell for 3.67-inch bore, which corresponds to 20-pdr Parrotts.

Moving lastly to the small arms:

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By battery:

  • 13th Battery: Fifteen Navy revolvers and twenty-five horse artillery sabers.
  • 15th Battery: Eighteen Navy revolvers and sixteen cavalry sabers.
  • 16th Battery: Fourteen Army revolvers and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • 17th Battery: Twenty Army revolvers and thirty (?) horse artillery sabers.
  • 18th Battery: Four Springfield .58 caliber rifles, three Army revolvers, and twelve horse artillery sabers.
  • 19th Battery: Twenty Army revolvers and fifty horse artillery sabers.
  • 21st Battery: Eighteen Army revolvers and eighteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 23rd Battery: Sixty Army revolvers and seventy-five cavalry sabers.
  • 24th Battery: Fifty-three Army revolvers.

So we find those former rocket batteries assigned to North Carolina with a larger quantity of small arms than expected.  Might be a reflection of the unit’s previous organization.  Might be due to the assigned garrison duties.

Next we will look at the last set of these New York Independent Batteries, 25th and above.