Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – 1st Ohio Light Artillery

The 1st Ohio LIGHT Artillery…. which needs to be emphasized, as there was a 1st Ohio Heavy Artillery.  The “heavy” regiment spent most of the war in garrison locations across Kentucky and Tennessee.  The “light” regiment, on the other hand, was active in the field supporting armies in both eastern and western theaters. Colonel of the regiment was James Barnett, who also doubled as the Chief of Artillery, Department/Army of the Cumberland.

For the second quarter of 1863, the clerks in Washington complied reports from nine of twelve batteries:

0217_1_Snip_Ohio_1st

And, as a bonus, we have a line for the 32nd Ohio Infantry and their four cannon.  As mentioned while discussing the independent batteries, the clerks opted to misplace what would become the 26th Independent Battery with the 1st Ohio Light.

Putting that on hold for the moment, let us look at the administrative details for the 1st Ohio Light:

  • Battery A: Reported, as of August 1864, at Tullahoma, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain Wilbur F. Goodspeed remained in command of this battery assigned to Second Division, Twentieth Corps, Army of the Cumberland.
  • Battery B: “In the field” with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.   Remaining under Captain William E. Standart, this battery was part of Second Division, Twenty-First Corps (with Standart also serving as division chief of artillery). The battery remained at Cripple Creek, Tennessee until June 24, when it moved with the rest of the division on the Tullahoma Campaign.
  • Battery C: At Elk River, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain Daniel K. Southwick commanded the battery asigned to Third Division, Fourteenth Corps.  The battery supported its parent division on the Tullahoma Campaign.
  • Battery D: No report. Battery D was, as of the June 30 reporting date, in the field supporting the Cavalry of the Army of the Cumberland, on the Tullahoma Campaign.  One section, under Captain Andrew J. Konkle supported Second Brigade, First Division, of the corps.  Another, under Lieutenant Nathaniel M. Newell, supported First Brigade, Second Division.   with three 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  This report covered just one section, under Lieutenant Nathaniel M. Newell, with the Second Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  The battery was armed with 3-inch Ordnance rifles.
  • Battery E: No report. This battery was assigned to Second Division, Reserve Corps, still recovering from heavy losses the previous winter at Stones River.  It was posted to Nashville through the spring.  Lieutenant Stephen W. Dorsey remained in command of the battery.  Later in July, the battery moved forward to Chattanooga.  Captain Warren P. Edgarton, of the battery, was in command of the Nashville garrison artillery.
  • Battery F: No report. Captain Daniel T. Cockerill remained in command of this battery, part of Second Division, Twenty-first Corps. Consolidated reports, complied at the department, indicate the battery had six 12-pdr Napoleons and five 3.80-inch James Rifles (!).
  • Battery G: At Decherd, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Alexander Marshall’s battery assigned to Second Division, Fourteenth Corps.  As such, they were involved with the Tullahoma Campaign.
  • Battery H: At Brownsville, Maryland (likely a location associated with the August 7th report date) with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Although Captain James F. Huntington held the command billet, Lieutenant George W. Norton lead the battery in the field.  Transferred to the 3rd Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac in late spring.  Thus, instead sitting at the base of South Mountain on June 30, Battery H was north of Frederick, Maryland.
  • Battery I: At Emmitsburg, Maryland with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Hubert Dilger’s battery was assigned to Eleventh Corps.  Dilger and his battery would do good work supporting the left of the corps on July 1.
  • Battery K: Bridgeport, Alabama, with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain William L. De Beck resigned on May 11, 1863, and was replaced by Captain Lewis Heckman.  This battery supported Eleventh Corps.  On July 1, the battery went into action just on the edge of Gettysburg (corner of Carlisle Street and Lincoln Avenue today).  Heckman reported firing 113 rounds that day, “mostly canister”, in an effort to delay the Confederate advance. The battery lost two men killed, eleven men wounded, nine horses, and two pieces.  The location is valid for later in the fall when the battery, along with the rest of the Eleventh Corps, reinforced Chattanooga.
  • Battery L: “In the field” with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Frank C. Gibbs had command of this battery, supporting Fifth Corps.  The battery played a vital role defending Little Round Top on July 2, 1863.
  • Battery M: Stevenson, Alabama with two 3-inch guns and four 3.80-inch James rifles. Captain Frederick Schultz commanded this battery, assigned to Second Division, Fourteenth Corps.  Thus, instead of being just south of Bridgeport, Alabama, as indicated on this line, the battery was further north, near Hoover’s Gap, on June 30, 1863.

As mentioned, one line from outside the regiment:

  • Company F, 32nd Infantry: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with two 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  Company F, 32nd Ohio was originally formed in August 1861.  In July 1862, the company was detached for service as artillery and known as “Potts’s Ohio Battery” after it’s first commander, Captain Benjamin F. Potts.  The battery served in the Shenandoah and was caught up in the surrender at Harpers Ferry in September 1862.  The battery was exchanged, along with the rest of the regiment, on January 21, 1863.  The 32nd was then assigned to Third Brigade, Third Division, Seventeenth Corps, then in operations against Vicksburg.   At Champion’s Hill, the brigade captured a Confederate battery.  The division commander, Major General John A. Logan, knowing of the unit’s artillery service, assigned the captured guns to Company F.  Under Captain Theobold D. Yost, they were called “Yost’s Captured Battery” and were posted opposite Fort Hill in the Vicksburg siege lines.  After the siege, the battery was broken up, with men assigned to other batteries.  However, in December 1863, the battery was officially reformed as the 26th (Independent) Ohio Battery.  The exact identification of the guns assigned to the battery during the siege, being captured from Confederates, is open for interpretation.

From top to bottom, including the battery formed from the 32nd, we see all these batteries experienced active field service that summer.

Moving to the ammunition pages, we see a busy section for smoothbore projectiles:

0219_1_Snip_Ohio_1st

A pyramid of rounds:

  • Battery A: 56 shot, 64 shell, 108 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery B: 40 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery C: 13 shot, 42 case, and 46 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 96 shot, 82 shell, 96 case, and 32 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery G: 77 shot for 6-pdr field guns; 211 shot, 64 shell, 128 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 143 case and 46 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery I: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery K: 192 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L: 300 shot, 102 shell, 280 case, and 117 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Company F, 32nd Infantry: 17 shell and 20 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Two flags to consider with this list.  Battery C didn’t have 6-pdrs at this stage of the war, having turned those in sometime in January.  But the rounds, theoretically, could be fired from their James rifles.  So those might have simply been residual ammunition left over from earlier service… or service ammunition set aside for special use with the rifles.

Battery G had no use at all for 6-pdr rounds.  And use of howitzer rounds in Napoleons would be puzzling.  So this escapes any simple conjecture.

Moving to the rifled projectiles, we consider the Hotchkiss columns:

0219_2_Snip_Ohio_1st

Two calibers in play here – 3-inch and 3.80-inch:

  • Battery A: 90 shot for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery B: 20 bullet shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery C: 109 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery G: 77 canister, 96 percussion shell, and 120 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles; Also 121 percussion shell for 3.80-inch rifles!!!
  • Battery K: 98 canister and 643 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M: 56 canister, 115 percussion shell, and 40 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles; And 75 shot, 56 fuse shell, and 180 bullet shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Company F, 32nd Infantry: 107 fuse shell and 451 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

As Battery G had no use for James caliber projectiles, the quantities of that caliber on hand may have been a transcription error by the clerks.  But where to put 121 percussion shells, I don’t know.

The next page offers a mix of Hotchkiss, Dyer’s, and James projectiles.

0220_1A_Snip_Ohio_1st

Taking these in turn, first the “left over” Hotchkiss columns:

  • Battery A: 140 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery G: 148 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery M: 94 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Here again we see Battery G with James-caliber projectiles… but no James rifles on hand.

Dyer’s projectiles:

  • Battery G: 96 shrapnel for 3-inch rifles.

We don’t often see Dyer’s projectiles issued to batteries in the western theater.

James’ projectiles:

  • Battery C: 102 shot and 61 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

Turning to the Shenkl columns on the next page:

0220_2_Snip_Ohio_1st

Five batteries reported quantities:

  • Battery A: 318 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery B: 240 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery C: 239 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery H: 349 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M: 278 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

Two batteries reported Tatham’s canister:

  • Battery B: 180 canister for 3.80-inch.
  • Battery M: 66 canister for 3.80-inch.

Lastly we move to the small arms:

0220_3_Snip_Ohio_1st

By battery:

  • Battery A: Three Navy revolvers, two cavalry sabers, and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Twenty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery C: Just eight horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Nine Navy revolvers and twelve cavalry sabers.
  • Battery H: Twenty Army revolvers and thirty-eight horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery I: Twelve Navy revolvers and thirty-four horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery K: Twelve Army revolvers and twelve horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery L: Nineteen Navy revolvers and thirty-four (?) foot artillery sabers.
  • Battery M: Seven Army revolvers and three (?) cavalry sabers.

Closing out the Ohio batteries, we find that at the closing date for the second quarter, 1863, all of the 1st Light Regiment were well employed.  And we must also add the fine work by Company F, 32nd Ohio Infantry to that list.

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Summary Statement, 1st Quarter, 1863 – 1st Ohio Light Artillery

O-H!  I-O!  All the Buckeyes are standing up making letters with their arms now…..

Referring back to the fourth quarter, 1862 summaries, we noted the 1st Ohio Light Artillery Regiment was equipped with some of the less preferred cannons.  We also found the regiment split between the Armies of the Cumberland and Potomac:

0132_1_Snip_Ohio1

Given the reorganizations that winter, we have dots to connect for the administrative columns:

  • Battery A: At Murfreesboro, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.  According to the unit history, the battery held two 12-pdr howitzers and a pair of Napoleons through the winter months.  On March 22th, they received four new James Rifles, turning in the howitzers. Captain Wilbur F. Goodspeed resumed command during the winter.  Under reorganizations, the battery went to Second Division, Twentieth Corps, Army of the Cumberland.
  • Battery B: Reporting at Nashville, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Remaining under Captain William E. Standart, this battery was part of Second Division, Twenty-First Corps, Army of the Cumberland. And as such, was actually at the forward outpost position (with the rest of the division) “up on Cripple Creek”…Tennessee.
  • Battery C: At Lavergne, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons (replacing two 6-pdr field guns from the previous report) and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain Daniel K. Southwick remained commanded this battery. Under reorganizations, it was assigned to the Third Division, Fourteenth Corps.
  • Battery D: Wintering at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, with three 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  This report covered just one section, under Lieutenant Nathaniel M. Newell, with the Second Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  Captain Andrew J. Konkle was the batter commander, but his name does not appear on reports until later in the spring, with a section assigned to First Division of the same Cavalry Corps.  Konkle reported ill through the winter, leaving him unable to perform manual labor and the basis for an invalid pension claim after the war.
  • Battery E: No report. Captain Warren P. Edgarton’s battery was initially assigned to Second Division, Twentieth Corps.   This battery suffered heavily, losing its guns, at Stones River. As such, it was posted to Nashville through the winter months.  Edgarton became the artillery commander of the Nashville garrison.  Lieutenant Stephen W. Dorsey assumed command of the battery, which was later assigned to the Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.
  • Battery F: No report. Lieutenant Norval Osburn assumed on the field at Stones River. Later in the winter Captain Daniel T. Cockerill recovered from his wounds and returned to command.  The battery served in Second Division, Twenty-first Corps. For the previous quarter, reporting two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. But consolidated reports indicate the battery had six 12-pdr Napoleons and five 3.80-inch James Rifles (!).
  • Battery G: At Murfreesboro with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles (completely re-equipped after Stones River).  Captain Alexander Marshall’s battery assigned to Second Division, Fourteenth Corps.
  • Battery H: At Falmouth, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain James F. Huntington resumed command of this battery.  The battery supported Third Division, Third Corps, Army of the Potomac.
  • Battery I: Reporting at Stafford Court House, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Hubert Dilger’s battery were part of Third Division, Eleventh Corps.
  • Battery K: No report.  Commanded by Captain William L. De Beck, this battery supported First Division, Eleventh Corps.  I believe they were armed with 12-pdr Napoleons at this time.
  • Battery L:  At Stafford, Virginia with Six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Frank C. Gibbs had command of this battery, supporting Second Division, Fifth Corps.
  • Battery M: Also at Murfreesboro and reporting one 6-pdr field gun, two 3-inch steel guns, and three 3.80-inch James Rifles (considerably different from the previous quarter, but still a mixed battery).  Captain Frederick Schultz commanded this battery, assigned to Second Division, Fourteenth Corps.

Two tangents to recognize with the administrative details and cannons reported.  As mentioned before the Army of the Cumberland’s reorganization from one corps (with wings) into multiple corps caused considerable re-alignment through the winter.  Secondly, those same batteries, while not quite up to the level of those in the east, were phasing out the less efficient 6-pdr guns and 12-pdr howitzers.  The James Rifles, however, persisted.

With the winter refitting of the batteries in mind, consider the quantities and types of smoothbore ammunition reported on hand:

0134_1_Snip_Ohio1

Excepting Batteries D and H, every reporting battery had some smoothbore ammunition on hand:

  • Battery A: 56 shot, 64 shell, 108 case, and 72 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery B: 40 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery C: 15 shot, 42 case, and 46 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 96 shot, 32 shell, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleon.
  • Battery G: 77 shot and 148 canister for 6-pdr guns; 168 shot, 64 shells, 128 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; then 143 shell and 46 canister for 12-pdr howitzers.
  • Battery I: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L: 312 shot, 112 shell, 296 case, and 136 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery M: 64 shot, 105 case, and 27 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

So Battery B only had canister for its 6-pdrs.  Battery C retained 6-pdr ammunition, at least at the end of the quarter, after turning in two 6-pdrs.  But those are small issues compared with Battery G, which had substantial amounts of ammunition for guns it had lost earlier.

Turning to the rifled projectiles, there are first the Hotchkiss:

0134_2_Snip_Ohio1

Two calibers to consider – 3-inch and 3.80-inch:

  • Battery A:  90 shot for 3.80-inch James.
  • Battery C: 102 shot, 379 fuse shell, and 96 bullet shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • Battery D: 54 canister and 60 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery G: 77 canister, 96 percussion shell, 120 fuse shell, and 96 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery H: 96 canister, 450 percussion shell, and 754 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M:  56 canister, 115 percussion shell, 40 fuse shell, and 180 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles; 75 shot and 56 bullet shell for 3.80-inch James.

A couple more Hotchkiss entries on the next page, along with one for James projectiles:

0135_1A_Snip_Ohio1

The last two Hotchkiss columns:

  • Battery A: 60 Hotchkiss canister for 3.80-inch James.
  • Battery M: 94 Hotchkiss canister for 3.80-inch James.

And just one column of James-patent:

  • Battery C: 61 James shells for 3.80-inch James.

Moving to the last page of rifled projectiles:

0135_2_Snip_Ohio1

Schenkl:

  • Battery A: 440 Schenkl shells for 3.80-inch James.
  • Battery B: 240 Schenkl shells for 3.80-inch James.
  • Battery C: 403 Schenkl shells for 3.80-inch James.
  • Battery M:  102 Schenkl shells for 3.80-inch James.

And Tatham:

  • Battery B: 200 canister for 3.80-inch James.
  • Battery M: 42 canister for 3.80-inch James.

Lastly, we move to the small arms:

0135_3_Snip_Ohio1

By battery:

  • Battery A: Three Navy revolvers and two cavalry sabers.
  • Battery B:  Three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery C: Eight horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Nine Navy revolvers and twelve horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H: Twenty Army revolvers and fourty-eight horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery I: Twelve Navy revolvers and fourty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery L: Eighteen Navy revolvers and thirty-seven horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery M: Seven Army revolvers and eight cavalry sabers.

Those eastern batteries seemed to carry more small arms than their western counterparts.