Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery

The 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery (43rd Pennsylvania Volunteers) consisted of nine batteries.  One of those nine, Battery I, did not muster until near the war’s end.  And among the batteries on the rolls for the end of the third quarter of 1863, two were consolidated with other batteries in the regiment.  Colonel Robert M. West remained in command of the regiment, but was serving as garrison commander at Yorktown, Virginia.

Reviewing the summary, at first glance the regiment seems complete.  The Ordnance Department received at least something from seven of eight batteries:

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But this is somewhat deceptive.  Only four of the lines report cannon on hand.  Thus there are gaps to reconcile, starting right from the top:

  • Battery A: No return.  Captain John G. Simpson’s battery was assigned to Getty’s Division, Seventh Corps, at Portsmouth, Virginia.  All part of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.  I believe the battery retained four 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery B: Reporting from Bristoe Station, Virginia, with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain James H. Cooper remained in command.  And the battery remained with First Corps, Army of the Potomac.
  • Battery C: At Maryland Heights, Maryland, with no artillery indicated.  For the previous quarter the battery reported six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain Jeremiah McCarthy remained in command.  The battery was among those transferred out of the Army of the Potomac in June, and assigned to Twenty-second Corps, Defenses of Washington, at Camp Barry.  But the battery moved forward to Maryland Heights as part of Lockwood’s Division (Later the Maryland Heights Division), which by August was part of the Department of West Virginia.  Most sources have this battery consolidated with Battery D on October 23.  McCarthy was discharged on October 8.
  • Battery D: Just an annotation of “Consolidated with Baty. C.” Like Battery C, Battery D left the Army of the Potomac in June and was assigned duty at Camp Barry.  In August, the battery transferred to the Department of West Virginia, and served at Harpers Ferry.  Lieutenant Andrew Rosney was the ranking officer with the battery at that time.
  • Battery E: At Williamsburg, Virginia with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Thomas G. Orwig commanded this battery, assigned to the Yorktown garrison, Department of Virginia and North Carolina.
  • Battery F: Indicated at Culpeper, Virginia, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain R. Bruce Ricketts commanded a combined Batteries F and G.  After Gettysburg, the battery transferred to Second Corps’ artillery brigade.
  • Battery G: The annotation “Consolidated with Battery F” tells the story.  Although some sources considered this an “attachment” instead of consolidation. Lieutenant Belden Spence was the ranking officer remaining with the battery.
  • Battery H: At Camp Barry, D.C. with four 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Andrew Fagan commanded this battery, which arrived at Camp Barry in June 1863. The battery remained there through the spring of 1864, assigned to the Light Artillery Camp of Instruction.

Battery I would not muster until March 1865, and thus escapes our attention here.

Turning to the ammunition, with the smoothbore columns first:

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Two batteries with Napoleons reporting:

  • Battery E: 176 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 80 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 182 shot, 52 shell, 162 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Then the Hotchkiss page:

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Again, two batteries to consider:

  • Battery B: 127 canister, 34 percussion shell, 242 fuse shell, and 335 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery F: 120 canister, 120 (?) fuse shell, and 200 (?) bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.  Those last two numbers appear faint, as if erased.  So we must wonder if those quantities were “retracted” for some reason.

No Dyer’s, James’, or Parrott’s patent projectiles reported.  So we move to Schenkl:

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  • Battery B: 79 shell and 18 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery F: 120 shell and 640 case for 3-inch rifles.

This brings us to the small arms:

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By battery as reported:

  • Battery B: Sixteen navy revolvers and seventeen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery E: Eight navy revolvers and fourteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F: Eleven army revolvers, eight navy revolvers, one cavalry saber, and nineteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H: Fourteen navy revolvers and twenty-three horse artillery sabers.

That wraps up a short discussion of what was a small regiment from Pennsylvania.  But in addition to this regiment, Pennsylvania’s summary for this quarter included thirteen more lines.  Those covered a battery from the 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery, eleven independent batteries, and an artillery section in the 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry.  So we have more to examine before completing Pennsylvania’s section.

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Maryland’s Federal Batteries

For the previous quarter, Maryland’s section of the summary contained three battery listings – Battery A, Battery B, and the Baltimore Battery.  However, I mentioned at the bottom of the administrative portion of two additional batteries, being mustered but not yet in existence at the end of June 1863.  Those were Battery A (Second) and Battery B (Second).  Often referred to as the “Junior” batteries.  We find those listed in the third quarter:

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The story of these “Junior” batteries deserves at least a short explanation.  With Abraham Lincoln’s Proclamation #102, issued on June 15, 1863, the call went forward Maryland, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio to provide volunteers for enlistments of six months to meet the emergency caused by the Confederate invasion.  We discussed the artillery side of Pennsylvania’s response in an earlier post.  Maryland’s quota in this was 10,000 men and included the two “Junior” batteries. Both batteries mustered into service on July 14.  And they would serve their six month hitches around Baltimore.

I cannot translate what was actually written in the “Regiment” column for lines 59 and 60.  But the company letters are clear.  These batteries were on active service during the quarter.  And as we see from the summary, were issued cannon.  Thus, at the end of September 1863 Maryland had five batteries reporting:

  • Battery A / 1st Battery: Indicated with the Army of the Potomac, with four (down from six)  3-inch Ordnance Rifles   Captain James H. Rigby remained in command. When the Fourth Volunteer Brigade of the Reserve Artillery was broken up on July 17, Rigby’s Battery transferred to the Third Volunteer Brigade.  As of the end of September that year the battery was in Culpeper County.
  • Battery B / 2nd Battery: Reported at Maryland Heights, Maryland, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  In mid-July, the Captain Alonzo Snow’s battery was among the forces reoccupying Harpers Ferry.  The battery was assigned to the Second Brigade, Maryland Heights Division.
  • Baltimore Independent Battery: Showing at Baltimore, Maryland, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  As mentioned in the previous quarter, this battery lost its guns at Winchester in June.  Captain Frederick W. Alexander remained in command with the battery reforming at Baltimore, being reequipped with rifles rather quickly in July.  The battery appears in Brigadier-General Erastus Tyler’s division, Northwestern Defenses of Baltimore.
  • Battery A (Junior): Reporting at Baltimore, Maryland with six 3-inch rifles (likely Ordnance Rifles).  As detailed above, the battery mustered in mid-July.  Captain John M. Bruce commanded.  The battery was also part of Tyler’s division.  The battery is often listed simply as “Junior Battery” on returns.
  • Battery B (Junior): At Camp Wharton (?), Maryland with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  The place name is not familiar to me, but I do know the battery was in the defenses of Baltimore.  Also seen on returns as the Eagle Battery.  Captain Joseph H. Audoun commanded.  As with the other Junior Battery, the Eagle Battery was assigned to the defenses of Baltimore, and part of Tyler’s division.

Turning to the ammunition reported, only one battery with smoothbore rounds on hand:

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  • Battery B (Junior): 296 shot, 104 shell, 304 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

But a lot of 3-inch rifles, meaning a lot of Hotchkiss entries:

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  • Battery A: 80 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery B: 182 canister, 188 percussion shell,  and 547 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Baltimore Battery: 121 canister, 120 percussion shell, 4 fuse shell, 10 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery A (Junior): 120 canister, 120 percussion shell, 240 fuse shell, and 720 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

These batteries had no rounds indicated on the next page:

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But the batteries did report quantities of Schenkl on hand:

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  • Battery A: 317 shell and 396 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery B: 253 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Baltimore Battery: 240 shell and 710 case for 3-inch rifles.

Lastly, we turn to the small arms:

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By battery:

  • Battery A: Eight Army revolvers, twenty cavalry sabers, and sixteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Ten Army revolvers and twenty-one cavalry sabers.
  • Baltimore Battery: Twenty-four Army revolvers and thirty-two horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery A (Junior): Twenty Army revolvers and twenty cavalry sabers.
  • Battery B (Junior): Twenty Army revolvers and twenty cavalry sabers.

Consider that in July 1863 of the five Maryland batteries, two were just brought into existence and another had lost nearly all its equipment.  Those three batteries were constituted, or reconstituted as the case may be, within a matter of weeks.  That tells us much about the depth of the Federal war machine…. not to mention how many spare cannon were around just waiting to be issued.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Indiana’s batteries, Part 2

We started on the last post working down this long list of Indiana batteries:

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In that last post, we discussed the first dozen independent batteries.  Picking up there, we have independent batteries 13 through 26:

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Yes, a baker’s dozen plus one.  But with those fourteen batteries, we actually have less numbers to consider as only half provided returns.  So a lot of administrative holes to resolve:

  • 13th Battery: No return.  Captain Benjamin S. Nicklin’s battery remained at Gallatin, Tennessee, garrisoning Fort Thomas, in the Army of the Cumberland.
  • 14th Battery: No return.  Lieutenant Francis W. Morse remained in command.  The battery started the summer in Jackson, Tennessee.  In June, the battery transferred to the railroad town of LaGrange and remained there for the remainder of the summer.  Presumably still with three 6-pdr field guns and one 3-inch Ordnance Rifle, the battery was part of the Sixteenth Corps’ many garrison commands.
  • 15th Battery: At Oak Springs, Tennessee with six 3-inch rifles.  Captain John C. H. von Sehlen commanded this battery, assigned to Fourth Division, Twenty-Third Corps and part of the campaign moving on Knoxville.   The report location is likely related to the November reporting date.
  • 16th Battery: A return of Fort Washington, Maryland without any guns listed.  There is a faint note “Infy Stores” under the regiment column.  Lieutenant Charles R. Deming’s battery were part of the Washington Defenses.
  • 17th Battery: No return.  At the end of the Gettysburg Campaign, Captain Milton L. Miner’s battery became part of the Maryland Heights Division, Department of West Virginia.  The battery reported six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles in previous quarters.
  • 18th Battery:  No Return. Captain Eli Lilly’s battery supported Wilder’s Brigade, Fourth Division, Fourteenth Corps.  The battery brought six 3-inch rifles and four 12-pdr mountain howitzers to Chickamauga.  The mountain howitzers supported the 72nd Indiana on September 20, and one of those was lost in the fighting.  Lilly reported the lost of two men killed and eight wounded;  six horses (plus one wounded); and expending 778 rounds.  A shame we don’t have a return from this… unique… and storied battery.
  • 19th Battery: Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee with three 12-pdr Napoleons and one 3-inch Rifles (not under the usual Ordnance Rifle column). This was a return dated January 1864.  But the location is valid.  Captain Samuel J. Harris’s battery was also part of Fourth Division, Fourteenth Corps and went into action at Chickamuaga with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  On September 19, Harris was “disabled by a contusion” to his right side and turned command over to Lieutenant Robert S. Lackey.  During the fighting that disabled Harris, the battery lost a Napoleon and limber.  On the 20th, Lackey kept the battery in the fight, but would have one surviving Napoleon (axle straps) and a 3-inch rifle disabled.  While the Napoleon was brought off the field, the rifle’s axle came completely off and was had to be left behind.  Harris provided a very detailed statement of lost men, equipment and material after the battle.  In addition to the guns, the battery suffered two killed, 16 wounded, and two missing men.  The battery had fifteen horses lost or killed and six wounded. Harris accounted for four lost pistols, three sabers, seven sponges, four sponge buckets, two prolongs, among other items. The battery expended 350 3-inch rifle rounds and 750 12-pdr in the battle.  Harris recovered and remained in command of the battery.
  • 20th Battery:  At Nashville, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James rifles.  Captain Milton A. Osborne’s battery was assigned to the artillery reserve posted to Nashville, under the Army of the Cumberland. In October, the battery was among the forces pushed out to secure the railroad lines out of Nashville.
  • 21st Battery:  No return.  Captain William W. Andrew’s battery was the third Indiana battery assigned to Fourth Division, Fourteenth Corps.  However, Lieutenant William E. Chess field the battery’s report from the battle and appears to have lead the battery in the action.  They took six 12-pdr Napoleons into action, but lost one (and limber).  Chess recorded firing 10 shot, 168 case, 104 shell, and 160 canister – giving us some indication of the range at which this battery was engaged, and what targets they fired upon, during their part of the battle.
  • 22nd Battery: At Bowling Green, Kentucky with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Under Captain Benjamin F. Denning, this battery was assigned to the Second Division, Twenty-Third Corps, Army of the Ohio.  Through the fall, the battery served at both Bowling Green and Russellsville, Department of Southwestern Kentucky.
  • 23rd Battery:  Reporting at Jonesboro (?), Tennessee with six 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Captain James H. Myers’ battery came across the Ohio River in September and was assigned to the “Left Wing” of Twenty-Third Corps.  Moving by way of the Cumberland Gap, the battery was among the forces operating around Morristown at the start of October.
  • 24th Battery: No return. Under Captain Joseph A. Sims, this battery moved from the Third Division to the Fourth Division in Twenty-Third Corps in August.  Though that move was basically part of the alignment of forces for the campaign on Knoxville.
  • 25th Battery:  No return. The 25th would not organize until the late summer of 1864.  So this is simply a placeholder line.
  • 26th Battery or Wilder’s: At Concord, Tennessee (just west of Knoxville) with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles, with a report date of March, 1864.  Recall this battery was first organized by (then) Captain John T. Wilder, later colonel of the famous “Lightning Brigade.”  The battery was captured at Harpers Ferry in 1862 and then reorganized.  Though given the 26th as a designation, throughout its service the battery was better known as Wilder’s.  Captain Hubbard T. Thomas commanded the battery, assigned to the Twenty-Third Corps.  The battery participated in the Knoxville Campaign in East Tennessee.  The location given in the return, however, likely reflects its winter garrison assignment.

As with the first batch of batteries, we see the “mark” of Chickamauga here reflected with lost cannon and in some cases missing reports.

Making what we can of the small number of returns, we start with the smoothbore ammunition:

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Three to consider:

  • 19th Battery: 20 shot, 8 shell, 72 case, and 52 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 20th Battery: 189 shot, 150 case, and 35 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 22nd Battery: 98 shot, 119 shell, 144 case, and 121 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Note, the 19th Battery had but 152 rounds for their three Napoleons in the aftermath of Chickamauga.  That is if we take the report as precise for the moment in time.

Moving to the Hotchkiss columns:

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Four reporting:

  • 15th Battery: 460 canister, 402 fuse shell, and 1246 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 20th Battery: 145 percussion shell and 392 bullet shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 23rd Battery: 365 percussion shell, 315 fuse shell, and 95 bullet shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 26th Battery (Wilder’s): 520 canister, 260 percussion shell, 574 fuse shell, and 426 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

So we see those batteries sent into eastern Tennessee had ample ammunition on hand.

A couple more Hotchkiss entries on the next page:

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Two reporting:

  • 20th Battery: 150 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 23rd Battery: 210 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

But none of these fourteen batteries had Schenkl projectiles or Tatham’s canister on hand:

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So we move on to the small arms:

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Looking at these by battery:

  • 15th Battery: Twenty-eight Army revolvers and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • 19th Battery: Fourteen percussion pistols and fourteen horse artillery sabers.  I think the pistols are a transcription error, as the battery reported nineteen Army revolvers in the previous quarter.
  • 20th Battery: Twenty-two Army revolvers.
  • 22nd Battery: Thirty-two horse artillery sabers.
  • 23rd Battery: Thirty Navy revolvers and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • 26th Battery (Wilder’s): Nineteen horse artillery sabers.

Moving from the independent batteries from Indiana for this quarter, we still have five entries “below the line” to consider.  We’ll pick those up in the next installment.