Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery

Below the list of batteries for the 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery is a lonely line for one battery – Battery (or more aptly, Company) H, 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery:

0289_1_Snip_PA3

Interpreting that line:

  • Battery H, 3rd Artillery: At Baltimore, Maryland with four 10-pdr Parrotts.

Captain William D. Rank commanded this battery, the “light” battery of the regiment.  As alluded to for the previous quarter’s entry, this battery was inadvertently caught up in the Gettysburg campaign. And for the record, the battery was not included in that previous quarter’s summary.  Rather it warranted mention as one overlooked by the Ordnance Department.

Battery H was originally recruited to round out Colonel (well really Major) Herman Segebarth’s battalion of “marine artillery” stationed at Fort Delaware.  Battery H was among those formed in the winter of 1862.  Later in the fall, the battalion was joined with batteries from Colonel Joseph Roberts’ battalion heavy artillery to form the 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery (152nd Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers).  And from that regiment, Battery H was detailed to serve at Baltimore, while most of the regiment was sent to Fort Monroe.  Battery H performed duties with the other garrison artillery there around Baltimore.

On May 6, 1863, Battery H reorganized as light artillery to support cavalry detachments in the Middle Division.  Battery H sent a section of two guns in support of the 1st Delaware Cavalry posted to defend the Baltimore & Ohio bridge over the Monocacy in June.

When word came of the Confederate movements into Maryland, the detachment was supposed to fall back to the Relay House, near the Thomas Viaduct.  But before the detachment could reach that point, the section was instead directed to accompany Gregg’s cavalry division from the Army of the Potomac.  The battery fired in support of the cavalry on July 2, from a position along the Hanover Road.  And then on July 3, went into position to support the Second Corps.

After the battle, the section moved to Frederick and then returned to its garrison assignment at Baltimore.  Which we see indicated on the return.  However, here’s the rub…. most sources indicate the battery had two 3-inch rifles (presumably Ordnance rifles, as there were no other weapons of that caliber in general service for the Federals in July of 1863).   But we see, clearly, the battery had four 10-pdr Parrotts on hand as of November 1863.  Furthermore, when one examines that monument at Gettysburg up close, the relief depicts a Parrott:

ECB 12 Apr 08 327

Now we might contend the section had 3-inch Ordnance rifles on those fateful days in July 1863, only to turn them in later for Parrotts.  Or perhaps it was only that section with the wrought iron guns.  Or, given the wonderful artwork on the monument, the battery had Parrotts on the field at Gettysburg.  Likely some Gettysburg historian has traced down the details of this small bit of trivia.  I would simply point out the battery reported Parrotts on hand four months after the battle.

As for ammunition, the battery had only Parrott rounds on hand:

0292_1_Snip_PA3

  • Battery H: 395 shell, 320 case, and 80 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

The other pages are posted on Flickr for those who wish to verify a stray tally went unnoticed.

As for small arms, the battery was equipped:

0292_3_Snip_PA3

Just edged weapons:

  • Battery H: Twenty-three horse artillery sabers.

But what of the other batteries/companies of the 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery?  Well… here are some of them on parade at Fort Monroe:

03828v

Most of the regiment was at Fort Monroe.  An August 31, 1863 return has nine batteries at Fort Monroe under direct command of Colonel Joseph Roberts, regimental commander. But let me list those individual batteries for reference here:

  • Battery A: Captain John S. Stevenson was promoted to Major in August, and replaced by John Krause, promoted on September 22.  The company was at Fort Monroe.
  • Battery B: Captain Franz Von Schilling in command.  Stationed at Fort Monroe.
  • Battery C: Captain George K. Bowen.  At Fort Monroe.
  • Battery D: Lieutenant Edwin A. Evans, prompted to captain in October. Stationed at Fort Monroe.
  • Battery E: Captain Samuel Hazard, Jr.  At Fort Monroe.
  • Battery F: Captain John A. Blake.  The company served as prison guards at Camp Hamilton, just outside Fort Monroe.
  • Battery G: Captain Joseph W. Sanderson.  At Fort Monroe.
  • Battery H:  As detailed above, under Captain Rank and serving at Baltimore.
  • Battery I: Captain Osbourn Wattson.  At Fort Monroe.
  • Battery K: Captain Eugene W. Scheibner.  At Fort Monroe.
  • Battery L: Captain Joseph B. Bispham.  At Fort Monroe.
  • Company M: Under Captain Francis H. Reichard and stationed at Fort Delaware.  This company appears to be the last to recruit up to full strength.  By December, the company was at Fort Monroe.

Now before we characterize the 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy as some regiment that just lay about the fortifications for the war, let me say their service from the fall of 1863 to the end was varied.  Detachments of the regiment served in a “naval brigade” formed to man and support gunboats operating on the James and other waterways in coastal Virginia and North Carolina.  These saw much action keeping Federal supply lines open.  Twenty-two of the regiment were captured when their armed steamer Bombshell was sunk during the battle of Plymouth, North Carolina, on April 18, 1864.

Other detachments from the regiment secured and operated lighthouses along the Virginia coast and waterways.

Batteries D, E, G, and M served in the Army of the James during the Petersburg Campaign, on the Bermuda Hundred front, mostly supporting siege batteries.  Battery E, in particular, manned Fort Converse which secured the bridge over the Appomattox. And Battery I served as headquarters guard for the Army of the James.

In short, while only Battery H can claim to have seen the “big elephant” by way of circumstances that brought them to Gettysburg, the rest of the 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery did contribute to the war effort.

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Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Heavy Artillery

Let me give the heavy artillery batteries, battalions, and regiments their due for this quarter of the summary.  While looking at each of the state sections, we’ve mentioned a few of these batteries.  But not the whole.  The omission, by those at the Ordnance Department, was mostly due to bureaucratic definitions than any overt action.

Briefly, the summary statements we are reviewing here are focused only on ordnance rated as “field artillery.” A further qualification is that only units assigned roles to use field artillery (as in for use as “mobile” artillery) are included.  So, IF a field howitzer was assigned to a fort’s garrison, AND that howitzer was considered part of the fort’s armament, and not part of the garrisoning unit’s property, THEN it was accounted for in a different set of sheets for accounting.  Such means a great number of field artillery pieces, not to mention the siege, garrison, and seacoast artillery, escapes mention in these summaries.  And we don’t have, to my knowledge, a full record for those anywhere in the surviving documents.  However, I would point out that in 1864 the Ordnance Department began using a common form to account for field, siege, garrison, and seacoast artillery.

But for the second quarter of 1863, that accounting is lacking in the known records.  We do have a handful of “heavies” that were assigned roles which required mobile artillery.  And those were mentioned as we proceeded through the summary.  For sake of completeness, let me list all the heavy units in service as of June 1863 and match those to summary lines where mentioned.  Keep in mind the varied service of these formations.  Traditionally, these were assigned to garrison fortifications.  But wartime contingencies would see the “heavies” employed as infantry or even cavalry were needed.  And those needs would evolve as the war continued.

By unit, ordered by state (these are regiments unless otherwise noted):

  • 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery:  As mentioned earlier, Batteries B and M served with the Army of the Potomac, in 2nd Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve.  They, and their 4.5-inch rifles, were left behind and missed Gettysburg (though were active in the pursuit which followed).  The remainder of Colonel Henry L. Abbot’s regiment served in Third Brigade of the Defenses South of the Potomac (DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-Second Corps), defending Washington, D.C.  Regimental headquarters were at Fort Richardson.
  • 2nd Connecticut Heavy Artillery: Serving at this time as the 19th Connecticut Infantry (designation would change in November 1863) under Lieutenant Colonel Elisha S. Kellogg, and assigned to Second Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-Second Corps.  Companies B, F, and G manned Fort Ellsworth; Company A assigned to Redoubt A (in that sector); Company D to Redoubt B; Companies C and K to Redoubt C; and Companies E, H, and I were in Redoubt D.
  • 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery: Assigned to the Department of the Gulf, the regiment was in First Division, Nineteenth Corps (having converted from the 21st Indiana Infantry earlier in the year).  We discussed Batteries A and E and their work at Port Hudson.  Colonel John A. Keith commanded, with detachments at Baton Rouge and New Orleans.
  • 1st Maine Heavy Artillery: Second Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps under Colonel Daniel Chaplin.  Batteries assigned mostly to the defenses on the west side of Washington, and along the Potomac.
  • 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery: Assigned to First Brigade of the Defenses South of the Potomac – DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-Second Corps.  Colonel Thomas R. Tannatt commanded the regiment, and also commanded the brigade.
  • 2nd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery:  Authorized in May 1863, this regiment, under Colonel Jones Frankle, would not complete formation until later in the fall.
  • 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery Battalion: This battalion was formed with four previously independent batteries and served primarily at Fort Warren, Boston harbor.  The four companies were originally the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 5th unassigned heavy companies (becoming Companies A, B, C, and D respectively).  Major Stephen Cabot commanded this consolidated battalion.  In addition the 3rd and 6th unassigned companies also appear in the list of garrison troops around Boston.
  • 1st New Hampshire Heavy Artillery: This regiment, commanded by Colonel George A. Wainwright, would not officially form until later in July.
  • 2nd New York Heavy Artillery:  We discussed Colonel Joseph N. G. Whistler’s regiment while covering a lone entry for Battery L (which later became the 34th New York Independent Battery).  The 2nd New York Heavy was assigned to First Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, South of the Potomac.
  • 4th New York Heavy Artillery:  Under Colonel Henry H. Hall, this regiment formed the Fourth Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, Defenses South of the Potomac.  Detachments manned Fort Marcy and Fort Ethan Allen.
  • 5th New York Heavy Artillery:  Assigned to the defenses of Baltimore, Maryland, as part of the Middle Department.  Commanded by Colonel Samuel Graham, but with Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Murray in charge of two battalions then at Baltimore.  Another battalion, under Major Gustavus F. Merriam, appears on the returns for First Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, South of the Potomac.
  • 6th New York Heavy Artillery:  Assigned to the First Division, Eighth Corps.  Colonel J. Howard Kitching commanded.  The regiment was part of the Harpers Ferry garrison before the Gettysburg Campaign, and soon brought into the Army of the Potomac.
  • 7th New York Heavy Artillery: Second Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps under Colonel Lewis O. Morris (who also commanded the brigade).
  • 8th New York Heavy Artillery: Under Colonel Peter A. Porter, this regiment had garrison duty at Forts Federal Hill, Marshall, and McHenry around Baltimore, as part of Eighth Corps, Middle Department.  On July 10, the regiment moved forward to Harpers Ferry, staying there until August 3.
  • 9th New York Heavy Artillery: Second Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps under Colonel Joseph Welling.
  • 10th New York Heavy Artillery: This regiment was all of the Third Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps.  Commanded by Colonel Alexander Piper.  One battalion (four companies) moved from the defenses of New York to Washington in June, joining the rest of the regiment. Their service was mostly on the southeast side of the perimeter around the Anacostia.
  • 11th New York Heavy Artillery:  We discussed their saga in an earlier post.  Colonel William B. Barnes’ regiment was still forming when thrust into the Gettysburg Campaign.
  • 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th New York Heavy Artillery:  These regiments were all authorized by the spring of 1863, but in various states of organization at the end of June.
  • 3rd New York Heavy Artillery Battalion: Also known as the German Heavy Artillery.  Under Lieutenant-Colonel Adam Senges, and assigned to Second Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-Second Corps, on the south side of the Potomac.  This battalion was, later in the year, consolidated into the 15th New York Heavy Artillery, and came under Colonel Louis Schirmer.  For some reason, Schirmer’s name is associated with the command as early as June 1863.
  • 1st Ohio Heavy Artillery: Lieutenant-Colonel Chauncey G. Hawley’s command garrisoned Covington, Kentucky as part of Twenty-third Corps, Department of Ohio.
  • 2nd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery:  (the 112th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers.) Under Colonel Augustus A. Gibson and assigned to First Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac.  Regimental headquarters at Fort Lincoln.
  • 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery: We discussed Battery H and their “impressed” service at Gettysburg. While that battery was on detached service (Baltimore, then pushed out to guard the railroad), the remainder of the regiment served out of Fort Monroe providing detachments for garrisons in the Department of Virginia. Colonel Joseph Roberts commanded.
  • 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery: We looked at this regiment, assigned to the Department of the South, in detail earlier.  Colonel Edwin Metcalf commanded the regiment
  • 5th Rhode Island Heavy Artillery:  Colonel George W. Tew commanded this regiment, serving in North Carolina, and being reorganized from an infantry formation.
  • 1st Vermont Heavy Artillery:  Colonel James M. Warner commanded this regiment, assigned to First Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-second Corps.  Batteries garrisoned Forts Totten, Massachusetts, Stevens, Slocum, and others.
  • 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery:  Only Battery A of this regiment was mustered as of the end of June 1863. Captain Andrew J. Langworthy’s battery was assigned to the defenses of Alexandria, within DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-second Corps.
  • 1st Tennessee Heavy Artillery (African Descent): I mentioned this regiment briefly at the bottom of the Tennessee section. Colonel Ignatz G. Kappner commanded this regiment, at the time more of battalion strength, garrisoning Fort Pickering in Memphis. The regiment later became the 3rd US Colored Troops Heavy Artillery.
  • 2nd Tennessee Heavy Artillery (African Descent): Also mentioned in the Tennessee section, this regiment, under Colonel Charles H. Adams, was forming up in June 1863.  The regiment would later be designated the 4th US Colored Troops Heavy Artillery.
  • 1st Alabama Siege Artillery (African Descent): Organized from the contraband camps around LaGrange, LaFayette, and Memphis, Tennessee starting on June 20, 1863. Captain Lionel F. Booth appears to be the ranking officer in the regiment in those early months.  The regiment would later be designated the 6th US Colored Troops Heavy Artillery, and then later the 11th USCT Infantry.
  • 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery (African Descent):  Later in the year designated the 1st Corps de Afrique Heavy Artillery.  And still later in the war becoming the 10th US Colored Heavy Artillery.  And at times, the regiment appears on the rolls as the 1st Louisiana Native Guards Artillery (a name also associated with another USCT formation).  This regiment served throughout the war in the defenses of New Orleans, in the Department of the Gulf.

Yes, a lengthy post.  But this summarizes the status of over thirty regiments.  As you might deduce from reading the entries, the service of the “heavies” was weighted to the defenses of Washington, D.C.  However, the “heavies” also garrisoned places such as Baltimore, Boston, New Orleans, and other remote points.

Some other trends one might note – a good number of these regiments formed in the spring and summer of 1863.  We can, in some cases, link that to the draft and those seeking light service.  But at the same time, let us not “Shelby Foote” our way through these units.  At the time of mustering, the Army wanted troops for garrison defense.  And that was a valid requirement, given the posture at the time.

Lastly, it is important to also frame the context of the four USCT regiments listed above.  These were largely formed out of contraband camps.  And their duties were, for the most part, to provide garrison troops that would free up the white volunteers for service in the field.  But, as the course of events played out, one of those regiments would defend Fort Pillow in April 1864.

So much for easy duty in those heavy regiments!

Summary Statement, 1st Quarter, 1863 – Pennsylvania’s Independent Batteries

The method used by the Ordnance Department for designating and tracking returns from Pennsylvania’s independent batteries leaves a lot to be desired.  In their defense, the state did not aid their administrative endeavors with simple unit designations.  The way I organize these units, in my mind at least, involves recognizing there were “Independent Batteries” which were given lettered designations as such.  And there was a second set which, due to various reasons, were identified by battery commander – some not existing long enough to gain the lettered designation; some being reorganized and placed in heavy regiments; and some simply escaping any “regimented” designation.

That in mind, here’s a list of the former:

  • Battery A – Schaffer’s Battery
  • Battery B – Stevens’ or Muehler’s Battery
  • Battery C – Thompson’s Battery
  • Battery D – Durrell’s Battery
  • Battery E – Knap’s Battery
  • Battery F – Hampton’s Battery
  • Battery G – Young’s Battery – not listed above.
  • Battery H – John Nevin’s Battery
  • Battery I – Robert J. Nevin’s Battery (not formed until June 1863)

With those in mind as sort of a translation table, let’s sort out the first quarter, 1863 summary of returns:

0140_1_Snip_PA_Ind

And a lot of sorting we will need.  Notice that only seven of the fifteen batteries indicated posted returns.  And one of those seven had a posted date of April 10, 1864.  So there are a lot of gaps to start with.

  • Mlotkowski’s Battery – Battery A – Reported at Fort Delaware, Delaware, but with no cannons.  The duty location and commander’s name matches to a 1st Pennsylvania Battery (also cited as Battery A Independent Heavy Artillery), under Captain Stanislaus Mlotkowski. If so, this was previously listed under Captain Frank Schaffer.
  • Durrell’s Battery – Battery D, of the independent batteries mentioned above. – No return. Captain George W. Durell commanded.  Assigned to Second Division, Ninth Corps.  Following the “Mud March” the battery accompanied the division to the west, to a posting in Kentucky at the end of the winter.
  • Roberts’ Battery – No return. this may be a reference to a battalion of heavy artillery organized by (then) Major Joseph Roberts.  The four batteries in the formation later became Companies C, D, F, and (part of) K in the 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery Regiment, with a date of February, 1863.  However, a formation called the 3rd Pennsylvania  Heavy Artillery Battalion was reported at Camp Hamilton (outside Fort Monroe) under Major John A. Darling (who was later a staff officer in the 3rd Regiment, so this is likely the same unit).
  • Illegible to me, but I think this is Nevin’s Battery– Battery H – Listed as at Fort Whipple (Fort Myer), in the Washington Defenses, but no assigned pieces.  Captain John I. Nevin would spend the war around Washington, DC.
  • Keystone Battery – Reported at Centreville, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts.  I would match this to Captain Matthew Hastings’ battery, assigned to Casey’s Division and part of the Washington defenses.
  • Hampton’s Battery – Better known as Battery F – Posted to Aquia Creek, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts.  Captain Robert B. Hampton’s battery was assigned to Second Division, Twelfth Corps.
  • Jones’s Battery – No return.  If I’ve transcribed the name correctly, this must be Captain Paul I. Jones’ Independent Heavy Artillery, which became Company L, 2nd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery (November 1861).
  • Knap’s Battery – Battery E – Paired with Hampton’s Battery F (above), also posted to Aquia Creek and with six 10-pdr Parrotts, in Second Division, Twelfth Corps.  Captain Joseph M. Knap served as the division’s Artillery Chief, with Lieutenant (later Captain) Charles A. Atwell assuming the battery position.
  • Schaffer’s Battery – Battery A – No return.  I think this is a duplicate with Mlotkowski’s Battery (above).
  • Schooley’s Battery – No return – This is most likely Captain David Schooley’s Independent Company Heavy Artillery which was later designated Company M, 2nd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery (also occurring in November 1861).
  • Thompson’s Battery – Battery C – At Falmouth, Virginia with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain James Thompson’s battery supported Second Division, First Corps.
  • Ulman’s Battery – No return.  As mentioned for the last quarter, my best guess is this being Captain Joseph E. Ulman’s independent battery.  The battery ceased to exist in March 1862, but apparently lingered as a ghost on the paperwork.
  • Stevens’ Battery – Battery B – No location given but with four 6-pdr field guns and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Captain Alanson J. Stevens’ battery supported Third Division, Twenty-first Corps, then stationed at Murfreesboro, Tennessee.
  • Young’s Battery – Battery G – No return. Captain John J. Young’s battery was assigned to Fort Delaware at this time.  (Sometimes cited as the 2nd Independent Battery Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery.)
  • Muehler’s Battery – No return. Charles F. Muehler was the original commander of what became Stevens’ Battery B.  So this looks to be a duplicate entry line.

Good news here, most (six of seven) batteries with returns posted are easily matched to lettered independent batteries.  Of course, the bad news is that I’m offering you a lot of “best guesses” here to round out the rest.  Worth noting, also listed at Fort Delaware for this reporting period was the 1st Pennsylvania Marine and Fortification Artillery, Batteries A and B, under Captains John S. Stevenson and Franz von Schilling, respectively.  Those batteries would become part of the 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery, and thus fall outside our scope.

While requiring a lengthy administrative explanation, because of the scarcity of reports, there is not much to discussion in regard to ammunition:

0142_1_Snip_PA_Ind

Just one battery reported smoothbore cannon, and that was Stevens’ out west:

  • Stevens’ Battery B – 448 shot and 200 case for 6-pdr field guns.

Starting on the rifled artillery, we have only one with 3-inch Ordnance rifles, and that is reflected with the Hotchkiss-patent on hand:

0142_2_Snip_PA_Ind

  • Thompson’s Battery C – 82 canister, 99 percussion shell, 144 fuse shell, and 505 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

On the next page, we can narrow the focus down to just the Parrott-patent columns:

0143_1A_Snip_PA_Ind

  • Keystone Battery – 684 shell, 607 case, and 219 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Hampton’s Battery F – 600 shell, 480 case, and 144 canister for 10-pdr.
  • Knap’s Battery E – 657 shell, 396 case, and 159 canister for 10-pdr.

And on the next page, we find but one entry to consider:

0143_2_Snip_PA_Ind

  • Thompson’s Battery C – 100 Schenkl shells for 3.80-inch James rifles.

That brings us to the small arms where six batteries reported items on hand:

0143_3_Snip_PA_Ind

By battery:

  • Nevin’s Battery H – 150 Springfield muskets, twenty-seven Army revolvers, and sixty horse artillery sabers.
  • Keystone Battery – Fourteen army revolvers and 150 horse artillery sabers.
  • Hampton’s Battery F – Twenty Navy revolvers, sixty cavalry sabers, and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • Knap’s Battery E – Thirty-seven Navy revolvers and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • Thompson’s Battery C – Thirty-two Navy revolvers and six cavalry sabers.
  • Stevens’ Battery B – Seventeen Navy revolvers and five cavalry sabers.

We see substantial small arms in the two batteries serving in the Washington Defenses, which is to be expected.

While I’m not absolutely certain about the identification of batteries listed in this portion of the summary, I am confident those which reported ordnance on hand are properly set in context.  Not to diminish the service of those at Fort Delaware, but those units likely only serviced the garrison artillery… if they serviced them much at all.