On January 1, 1864, the Charleston Courier ran this listing of public offices on column six of the first page:
A lengthy list, but providing locations – in some cases the address – of all the important military offices, some government offices, and several hospitals.
Several years ago, when first encountering, I marked this of interest but really didn’t attach much importance. While nice to know just where a general’s headquarters were located, in context of the Charleston campaign those are not as critical as, say, the same general’s headquarters at First Manassas or Shiloh. After all, at Charleston, General P.G.T. Beauregard was not living out of a tent. He had the luxury of a roof over his head, a bed, and a place to sit for breakfast.
One has to wonder why the paper would openly post such detailed information about military headquarters and offices. Certainly this was useful information for Confederate soldiers and citizens of Charleston. But this issue of the paper was undoubtedly in Federal hands within a few days (if not the same day!). And such detailed information about Confederate military offices was very useful to the men directing those Parrott rifles on Morris Island.
But the more I thought about those listings, the more I thought about the locations as part of the “set dressing” which the historian need consider. The staff offices, in particular, were where Confederate Army’s business was conducted. Knowing where those were, and importantly the physical proximity to other staff offices, gives us at least some small measure.
That said, let me take the Christmas Bombardment map from earlier posts and add to that indicators for these public offices:
As indicated, I’ve left the rough area of the “burnt district” and the area receiving attention of the Federal bombardments. Yes, the Confederates kept their “business” out of the targeted area. In fact most of the offices were clustered north of Cahloun Street and east of King Street. In fact, I had to stack the ovals and circles so closely that many are “general” locations as opposed to specific street addresses. So take these with that grain of salt. And by all means, if you have information that might improve the map, please drop a comment on this post.
Further, keep in mind this map is “off plumb” as I say, with the true north orientation actually not the top. Rather we have to turn the map about thirty degrees to the left for proper orientation.
Let me crop the map for better visibility here:
Here’s my transcription from the directory, keyed to the numbers on the map:
- Headquarters of General P.G.T. Beauregard, southwest corner of Meeting and John Streets.
- Major General Jeremy Gilmer, Deputy Commander of District, No. 12 Charlotte Street.
- Chief Engineer, Colonel David Harris, northwest corner Charlotte and Alexander Streets.
- Chief of Artillery, Colonel A.J. Gonzales, 46 Rutledge Street. (The map location is a guesstimate on my part, going the fourth block up on that street.)
- Quartermaster, Major Motte A. Pringle, Chapel Street, opposite Alexander. Near the Northeastern Railroad terminal.
- Provost Marshal, Captain W. J. Gayer, Northeast corner King and Hudson Streets.
- Ordnance, Colonel John R. Waddy, southeast corner Charlotte and Elizabeth Streets, second story.
- Commander, Fifth Military District, Colonel Alfred Rhett, Washington Street, near Charlotte.
- Chief Quartermaster, Major Hutson F. Lee, Wragg Square.
- Staff Engineer, Captain Francis D. Lee, Alexander Street, one door north of Charlotte.
- Commissary, Department of SC, GA, and FL, Major Ferdinand Molley, Railroad Office, Ann Street, north side.
- Post Quartermaster, Captain John Kennedy, Tax in Kind, Hudson Street, near King.
- Chief of Subsistence, Engineer Department, Captain J.S. Ryan, northeast corner King and Citadel Square. (Likely in the same building as the Quartermaster office, #6 above.)
- Quartermaster, Captain George J. Crafts, King Street, near Spring.
- Soldiers’ Transportation Office, King Street, near Spring. Three blocks down from the Southern Carolina Railroad passenger terminal.
- Naval Station Commander, Commodore Duncan Ingraham King Street, near Calhoun, west side.
- Paymaster, Army Department, Charlotte Street, southeast corner from Elizabeth Street. (Perhaps co-located with the Ordnance office, #7.)
- Chief Engineer, South Carolina, Major William Echols, 472 King Street, two doors south of Post Office.
- Quartermaster, Major Edward Willis, Wagg Square (along with #9).
- Negro Labor, Chief Superintendent R.L. Singletary, Meeting Street, west side, two doors south of Ann. (I believe that is also the office of the Charleston & Savannah Railroad, which Singletary was president)
- Medical Purveyor, Dr. Thomas Lining, 10 Charlotte Street, north side.
- Medical Director, South Carolina District, Dr. N.S. Crowell, 570 King Street, east side.
- Medical Examining Board, 572 King Street, east side (next to the Medical Director’s office, #22.)
- Medical Director, Department SC, GA, and FL, Dr. R L. Brodie, southeast corner of Meeting and John Streets. Brodie was long associated with Beauregard, and close to the general’s headquarters.
- Naval Paymaster, Charlotte Street, southeast corner of Elizabeth. (My map is cluttered, and the oval for this one is placed on the street at that location.)
- Commissary, Fifth Military District, Captain E. A. Rabb, the Church, corner of Elizabeth and Chapel Streets.
- Post Office, corner of King and Ann Streets.
- Charleston Courier office, corner of Meeting and Reid Streets.
- Charleston Mercury office, King Street, east side, one door from Hudson Street.
- Confederate Sub-Treasury, W. Y. Leitch, corner of Meeting and Wragg Square.
- Telegraph office, second story, South Carolina Railroad Office, John Street, south side.
- Military Telegraph office, 8 Ashley Street, near the Arsenal. (Location presented on the map is a guess on my part.)
- Southern Express office, Orphan House, entrance on Philip Street.
- Mayor’s Office, Orphan House, entrance on Calhoun Street.
- Quartermaster, 5th Military District, Captain S.R. Proctor (?), John Street, three doors west of Alexander.
- Wayside Home, W.J. Wiley, Steward, southwest corner of King and George Streets. (Note how close to the shelled areas.)
- Wayside Hospital, Dr. Robert Lebby, Sr., Surgeon, King Street, opposite Cannon Street.
- Soldiers’ Relief Hospital, Dr. W. H. Harper, Surgeon, corner of Blake and Drake Streets.
- First Virginia and Roper Hospital, Dr. J.D. Burns, Surgeon, corner of Smith and Morris Streets. (The hospital was a former lunatic asylum and often used for Federal prisoners.)
- First Georgia Hospital, Dr. W.H. Cummings, surgeon, corner of King and Vauderhorst Streets.
- First North Carolina Hospital, Dr. J.B. Baxley, surgeon, corner of Mary and America Streets.
- Third North Carolina Hospital, Dr. J.A. Harold, surgeon, between Elizabeth and Alexander Streets.
- First South Carolina Hospital, Dr. G.R.C. Todd, surgeon, Rikersville. Off the map about four miles north of Charleston.
- Confederate Naval Hospital, Dr. W.F. Patton, surgeon, corner of Spring and King Streets.
- Negro Hospital, corner of Spring and Rutledge Streets.
Plotted on the map, there’s a new perspective to consider. The clustering of quartermaster, commissary, and other supply related offices seems logical. Many of them are in close proximity to the railroads, with some close between the depots and the wharves of the Cooper River. But now it is possible to suggest the paths of correspondence around Beauregard’s staff, as well as between Beauregard’s headquarters and subordinate staffs.
Another good point to consider is the distribution of hospitals around Charleston. If nothing else just the number of care facilities.
I am searching to see if a similar listing appeared for earlier periods in the war. Would certainly be interesting to see if the Federal bombardment brought on the movement of offices. As it stands, in January 1864, those offices were several blocks away from the most heavily hit sections of the city.
Lastly, let me again ask that if any reader has information that might refine the map, please drop a comment here.
(Source: Charleston Daily Courier, Friday, January 1, 1864, page 1, column 6.)