In the first quarter, 1863 returns, we had trouble with the Pennsylvania independent batteries as the clerks identified the units by the commander’s or organizer’s name. But with some cross-matching we could at least tentatively identify seven of nine such batteries from the returns. For the second quarter, we have but a fraction of that:
From the standpoint of accountability this is simply unacceptable. A section of mountain howitzers assigned to a cavalry regiment and three independent batteries. We should see eight batteries listed. Furthermore, there was a battery from the heavy artillery which had a section detailed to the Army of the Potomac during this period. And, with the Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania in June, we could also add in a good number of militia batteries called out to defend the Commonwealth. Though, those batteries were not officially in the Federal army, just called out in defense of their state. Still if we are counting all the gun tubes, those deserve mention.
Thus we have a lot of explaining to do and some blanks to fill in. Starting with the first line on this section of the report, let’s consider those cavalrymen with the diminutive cannon:
- 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry – The line read “Col. 11th Cav. Stores in charge.” And among those stores were two 12-pdr mountain howitzers. The 11th was assigned to the Seventh Corps, Department of Virginia and spent an active spring with detachments posted around the Suffolk and Norfolk area. Colonel Samuel P. Spear commanded. The regimental history has passing mention of “our” howitzers, but no specifics. However, on a reconnaissance mounted towards the end of the month one howitzer, managed by Sergeant Stewart B. Shannon, of Company I, went along.
Moving down to the independent batteries, let us list what was… and match to what we see on the list. :
- Battery A: Schaffer’s Battery. Not listed. Commanded by Captain Stanislaus Mlotkowski. The battery was posted to Fort Delaware, in the Middle Department, and serving as garrison artillery despite the light artillery title.
- Battery B: Muehler’s Battery, but appearing as Stevens’ Battery (Line 36) on this summary, for Captain Alanson J. Stevens. “In the field” with four 6-pdr field guns and two 3.80-inch James Rifles. The battery was assigned to Third Division, Twenty-first Corps, Army of the Cumberland. Thus “in the field” was part of the Tullahoma Campaign.
- Battery C: Thompson’s Battery. Not listed. Captain James Thompson’s Battery was, at this time, consolidated with Battery F (below) and assigned to 1st Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac. Their six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles went into action at the Peach Orchard, at Gettysburg, around 5 p.m. of July 2, two guns facing west and four south.
- Battery D: Durell’s Battery. Not listed. Captain George W. Durell’s battery was part of the well traveled First Division (having moved from the Second Division), Ninth Corps, taking in the summer at Vicksburg, Mississippi.
- Battery E: Knap’s Battery. Appearing on Line 35 of this summary, as at Catlett’s Station, Virginia, with six 10-pdr Parrotts, as of August 5. The battery was assigned to Twelfth Corps, Army of the Potomac. When Captain Joseph M. Knap resigned on May 16, Lieutenant Charles A. Atwell assumed command. Atwell’s battery held an often underappreciated position on Power’s Hill at Gettysburg.
- Battery F: Hampton’s Battery combined with Battery C (above) at this stage of the war. Their monument is next to Battery C’s at Gettysburg. Lieutenant Nathaniel Irish was the ranking officer on the rolls of the battery at this time.
- Battery G: Young’s Battery. Not listed. Captain John Jay Young’s battery was also assigned to Fort Delaware.
- Battery H: John Nevin’s Battery. Commanded by Captain William Borrowe and appearing as Line 34, at Alexandria, Virginia, with six 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery was assigned to the Defenses of Washington, serving south of the Potomac.
- Battery I: Getting ahead of ourselves… Captain Robert J. Nevin’s Battery would not form until December 1863.
So we can match the three lines in the summary to three of the independent batteries. Though we are conspicuously missing two batteries in field service – Battery C and Battery D.
As mentioned above, there were several militia batteries called out for service in the summer of 1863. However, let avoid undue length and work those in as a separate post. Though I would like to call out two other batteries, which were listed in the order of battle during certain stages of the Gettysburg Campaign:
- The Keystone Battery: Captain Matthew Hastings commanded. Listed in Bate’s as a militia battery, the Keystone Battery was assigned to the Defenses of Washington in August 1862. In June 1863 the battery was at Camp Barry. Before mustering out in August 1863, the battery briefly served in the field with Third Corps. Their muster out date (August 20) might explain the lack of report in this summary.
- Battery H, 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery: The regiment’s batteries garrisoned several points from Baltimore to Fort Monroe (and perhaps we need a detailed posting on their service). But Battery H, Commanded by William D. Rank, from Baltimore, had a section of 3-inch Ordnance Rifles sent forward to guard the railroad lines in Maryland. That section was then caught up in the Gettysburg Campaign and saw serviced with First Brigade, Second Division, Cavalry Corps. For more on this story, see Dana Shoaf’s video report.
With some of the blanks filled in and identification of what we do see on the summaries, let us turn to the ammunition reported:
For smoothbore ammunition:
- 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry: 100 case and 36 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzer.
- Battery H ( Borrowe’s): 288 shot, 96 shell, 292 case, and 103 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Battery B (Stevens’): 448 shot and 200 case for 6-pdr field guns.
- Battery E (Knap’s): 480 shell, 600 case, and 144 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
Turning to the last page of ammunition:
Just one entry:
- Battery B (Stevens’): 100 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
Of the three artillery batteries:
- Battery H ( Borrowe’s): Fourteen Navy revolvers and sixty-one horse artillery sabers.
- Battery E (Knap’s): Thirty-seven Navy revolvers and eight horse artillery sabers.
- Battery B (Stevens’): Seven Navy revolvers, five cavalry sabers, and fourteen (?) horse artillery sabers.
In closing, we might complain the clerks “shorted” us four important batteries (if we include the Keystone Battery and Rank’s heavy artillerists). But what was not listed provides us ample room for discussion.
And if you are keeping track, I “owe” a posting on the Pennsylvania militia batteries along with a full explanation of the 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery’s dispositions.