In the third quarter section for Pennsylvania, below the 3rd Pennsylvania Artillery listings, were a dozen lines which were sort of a “grab bag” of units of different origin or category. Some were independent batteries. Others were militia batteries only temporarily part of the Federal war effort. And lastly there was one artillery section reported in a cavalry regiment. Instead of breaking these up, which would lead to some splicing, we’ll look at these as one grouping and try to identify what was listed and what should have been listed by category.
The lines we are focused upon are these:
Let us interpret these by looking at what should be there by category, identifying which ones are present on the list. And the logical start point is the independent batteries. Let me annotate these by lettered independent batteries, with cross references to the “by commander’s name” references, lastly identify the line I think these occupy on the summary:
- Battery A: See line 15. Sometimes known as Schaffer’s Battery. Or also going by, as in this case, the battery’s second commander – Captain Stanislaus Mlotkowski. And Mlotkowski’s Battery was posted to Fort Delaware, in the Middle Department, and serving as garrison artillery despite the light artillery title.
- Battery B: See line 23, Muehler’s Battery, but no return. This battery appears as the 26th Pennsylvania, assigned to Third Division, Twenty-first Corps, Army of the Cumberland. The battery brought four 6-pdr field guns and two 3.80-inch James Rifles into the fighting at Chickamuaga. The battery lost two 6-pdrs in some vicious, close fighting on September 19. Their position at the end of the day was near the Brotherton Cabin. Receiving two captured Confederate guns as replacements, the battery was back in action the next day. Part of Major John Mendenhall’s “last stand” on the afternoon of September 20, the battery only took guns off the field. Captain Stevens was mortally wounded in the battle, and replaced by Lieutenant Samuel M. McDowell. We can place the battery at Chattanooga for the end of the reporting period.
- Battery C: Thompson’s Battery appears on line 21. Shown at Brandy Station, Virginia, with five 3-inch Ordnance rifles. Captain James Thompson’s Battery was, at this time, consolidated with Battery F (below) and assigned to 1st Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac.
- Battery D: See line 16, this was Durell’s Battery. No return. Captain George W. Durell’s battery was part of the well traveled First Division (having moved from the Second Division), Ninth Corps. After the fall of Vicksburg, the battery participated in the siege of Jackson and then transferred to Kentucky with its parent formation. The battery remained on duty at Covington, Kentucky through the spring of 1864.
- Battery E: Line 20 is Knap’s Battery, but with no return. The battery was assigned to the Twelfth Corps. At the end of the reporting period, the battery was moving to Tennessee as part of the force sent to beleaguered Chattanooga. The battery had last reported five 10-pdr Parrotts on hand. Lieutenant Charles A. Atwell was promoted to captain and remained in command of the battery. however, his time was short. He would be killed the following month in the battle of Wauhatchie.
- Battery F: Hampton’s Battery combined with Battery C (above) at this stage of the war, and thus escaped mention on the summary. Captain Nathaniel Irish was the ranking officer on the rolls of the battery at this time.
- Battery G: Young’s Battery appears on line 22, at Fort Delaware with infantry stores. Captain John Jay Young remained in command.
- Battery H: See line 19. John I. Nevin’s Battery. Captain William Borrowe commanded at this time, thus the name Borrowe’s Battery appears on the summary. The battery was assigned to the Defenses of Washington, serving south of the Potomac. With a location indicated as “Camp Page” with six 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Battery I: This should be line 17. Captain Robert J. Nevin’s Battery was among those organized during the emergency of June 1863 as a six month battery. The location of Fort Washington, Pennsylvania places the battery outside Philadelphia, where it spent the summer in response to the draft riots. The battery had four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance rifles. The battery would muster out in January, but then re-muster with most of the men re-enlisting. At that time it became Battery I.
The next category were the emergency and militia batteries brought into service. I detailed much of this in the last quarter. So some of these will just summarize with the muster out date. Most just for the summer months, but there is an exception right off the top:
- The Keystone Battery: See line 18. Captain Matthew Hastings commanded. Listed in Bate’s as a militia battery, the Keystone Battery was assigned to the Defenses of Washington in August 1862. In June 1863 the battery was at Camp Barry. Before mustering out in August 1863, the battery briefly served in the field with Third Corps. Their muster out date (August 20) might explain the lack of report in this summary.
- Frishmuth’s Battery: The Philadelphia Union Battery commanded by Benoni Frishmuth. Mustered on June 26 and discharged on August 1.
- Miller’s Battery: Philadelphia Howitzer Battery. Commanded by Captain E. Spencer Miller. Mustered June 19 and discharged July 25.
- Landis’ Battery: 1st Philadelphia Battery. Captain Henry D. Landis’ battery mustered on June 27, serving until discharged on July 30.
- Joseph Knap’s Battery: Captain Joseph M. Knap had recently mustered out from Battery E, Pennsylvania Light Artillery (which is the connection to the “original” Knap’s Battery). But he responded to the governor’s call, leading a battery of five officers and 121 men, which mustered on June 27. They mustered out on August 16.
- Ermentrout’s Battery: Captain William C. Ermentrout’s was a company of heavy artillery. Mustered on July 3, and discharged on August 25, the company numbered five officers and 144 enlisted. The battery formed in Reading and saw service around Camp Curtain and Harrisburg. In some documents, this battery is called the Ringgold Artillery. And there are some individual connections between the battery under Ermentrout and the “First Defenders” battery of 1861. Such may explain the entry of “Ringgold Artillery” on line 24.
- Guss’s Battery: Chester County Artillery. Commanded by Captain George R. Guss. It mustered on July 3 and was discharged on August 25.
- Fitzki’s Battery: Second Keystone Battery with Captain Edward Fitzki in command. The battery mustered out on August 24.
- Woodward’s Battery: Captain William H. Woodward’s battery mustered on July 8. Unlike these other batteries, Woodward’s was not mustered out until November 4, 1863. The battery served at Philadelphia through most of its time.
- Tyler’s Battery: The Park Battery and carried on line 25. Captain Horatio K. Tyler, who’d served earlier in the war with an infantry regiment, commanded this battery. Mustered on July 16, the battery consisted of four officers and 138 enlisted. In late August, the battery was in Colonel James Mulligan’s Brigade serving in West Virginia. We have a location of Fort Fuller, Virginia, with one 3-inch Ordnance rifle and two 12-pdr James rifles (yes, a couple of old 12-pdr “heavy” field gun that had been rifled). But this battery, as we will see, carried a lot of ammunition for 3.80-inch and 3.67-inch rifles, along with that for 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery remained in service until January 28, 1864.
- Robert Nevin’s Battery: See Battery I, Pennsylvania Light (Robert J. Nevin’s Battery) above.
Lastly, we have the lone entry for an artillery section from a cavalry regiment:
- 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry – The line read “Col. 11th Cav. Stores in charge.” And among those stores were two 12-pdr mountain howitzers. The 11th was assigned to the Seventh Corps, Department of Virginia and spent an active spring with detachments posted around the Suffolk and Norfolk area. Colonel Samuel P. Spear commanded. The regimental history has passing mention of “our” howitzers, but no specifics. Sergeant Stewart B. Shannon, of Company I, is mentioned in relation to the howitzers.
To reconcile this lengthy discussion against the summary, here’s the cross-match against the lines:
- Line 15 – Battery A / Mlotkowski’s Battery
- Line 16 – Battery D / Durell’s Battery
- Line 17 – Battery I / Robert J. Nevin’s Battery
- Line 18 – The Keystone Battery
- Line 19 – Battery H / Borrowe’s Battery
- Line 20 – Battery E / Knap’s Battery
- Line 21 – Batteries C & F / Thompson’s Battery (Hampton’s Battery)
- Line 22 – Battery G / Young’s Battery
- Line 23 – Battery B / Muehler’s Battery
- Line 24 – Ringgold Battery, perhaps Ermentrout’s Battery?
- Line 25 – The Park Battery / Tyler’s Battery
- Line 26 – 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry howitzer section
I’ll use those naming conventions for clarity below with the ammunition reported. We start with the smoothbore:
- Battery I / Robert J. Nevin’s Battery: 192 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Battery H / Borrowe’s Battery: 296 shot, 112 shell, 299 case, and 100 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
- The Park Battery / Tyler’s Battery: 70 shot, 518 case, and 252 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 662 shot, 363 case, and 653 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons. Clearly some explanation is needed here… but I have little to offer but speculations.
- 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry: 64 shell, 141 case, and 48 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
Moving to the Hotchkiss rifled columns:
- Battery I / Robert J. Nevin’s Battery: 100 canister and 200 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
- Batteries C & F / Thompson’s Battery: 130 canister 299 fuse shell, and 322 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
- The Park Battery / Tyler’s Battery: 33 canister, 209 percussion shell, 292 fuse shell, and 129 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles; ALSO 6 percussion shell for 12-pdr/3.67-inch rifles. Again, this defies a proper reconciliation.
Moving to the next page, just one entry:
- The Park Battery / Tyler’s Battery: 98 James patent shot for 3.80-inch rifles.
Moving to the Schenkl columns:
- Battery I / Robert J. Nevin’s Battery: 100 case for 3-inch rifles.
- Batteries C & F / Thompson’s Battery: 135 shell and 120 case for 3-inch rifles.
- The Park Battery / Tyler’s Battery: 24 shell for 3.67-inch rifles.
So right down the line, it is the short-serving Park Battery that leaves us with the most questions. Seems every entry line for that battery offers contradictions. Perhaps they just received anything available and were stuck with maintaining stores left behind by other batteries. Or perhaps the summary was just not properly constructed, and thus lead to confusion at the Ordnance Department. Or perhaps we see again the clerks at that department were not infallible.
Lastly, we turn to the small arms reported:
Listing by battery:
- Battery I / Robert J. Nevin’s Battery: Thirty-one army revolvers and thirty cavalry sabers.
- Battery H / Borrowe’s Battery: Fourteen navy revolvers and sixty horse artillery sabers.
- Batteries C & F / Thompson’s Battery: Twelve navy revolves and three cavalry sabers.
- The Park Battery / Tyler’s Battery: One hundred Springfield rifled muskets, caliber .58.
That brings us to a close on this lengthy examination of the “other” batteries and sections from Pennsylvania. There are some questions we have unresolved, but on a whole this quarter was a better accounting than the previous.