New York’s contribution to the Federal war machine was not just a “cog” in a wheel. Rather we might say the Empire State provided a whole wheel. And part of that was of course a number of artillery batteries. I could well spend several posts discussing the various formations – heavy artillery, light artillery regiments, independent batteries, independent battalions, National Guard batteries, etc…. oh, and don’t forget some rocket batteries. But for the Fourth Quarter 1862 summaries we need focus on four groups – 1st New York Light Artillery Regiment, 3rd New York Light Artillery Regiment, 1st New York Light Artillery Battalion (sometimes cited as the “German” battalion), and numbered independent light artillery batteries. There’s one additional line for reporting artillery assigned to a volunteer cavalry formation. And we should also mind the German battalion’s batteries were later assigned independent battery numbers. But that was the future. For December 1862 we have two regiments, one battalion, thirty-two (minus four that were at the time in the battalion) independent batteries, and one “other” line to consider.
So let us start with the 1st Regiment, New York Light Artillery… Colonel Charles S. Wainwright’s boys:
The clerks posted information from seven of the twelve batteries, most being received in 1863. At this time of the war, most of the 1st New York batteries supported the Army of the Potomac in the east. The breakdown by battery:
- Battery A: No return. This battery’s guns were captured earlier in the year at Seven Pines. Most of the surviving men were transferred to other batteries while Captain Thomas Bates went about recruiting and reorganizing. So in December 1862, there was no equipment to report.
- Battery B: No return. Captain Rufus D. Pettit’s battery was part of Second Corps, having just participated in the Fredericksburg Campaign with six (or four?) 10-pdr Parrotts.
- Battery C: At Falmouth, Virginia with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. This was Lieutenant William H. Phillips’ battery assigned to support Fifth Corps.
- Battery D: Fredericksburg, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Battery assigned to Ninth Corps and under Captain Thomas W. Osborn.
- Battery E: No return. Reduced by sickness and other causes during the Peninsula Campaign, Battery E was assigned to 1st New York Independent Light Artillery at this reporting interval.
- Battery F: Yorktown, Virginia with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain William R. Wilson’s battery was part of Fourth Corps, Department of Virginia.
- Battery G: No return. This was Captain John D. Frank’s battery supporting Second Corps with four 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Battery H: Fort Keys, Gloucester Point, Virginia with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Also assigned to Fourth Army. Captain Charles E. Mink commanded this battery.
- Battery I: Falmouth, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Michael Weidrich’s battery supported Eleventh Corps.
- Battery K: Brandy Station, Virginia with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. This location is obviously in error for December 1862. It was correct for January, 1864, when the return was received in Washington. Backing up a year and a month, Battery K was with the Twelfth Corps for the 4th Quarter, 1862.
- Battery L: No location given but with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain John A. Reynolds’ battery supported First Corps, which was near Fredericksburg at the time.
- Battery M: No return. This battery was also part of Twelfth Corps in December 1862. Lieutenant Charles Winegar commanded the battery at the time, with Captain George W. Cothran on leave. I believe it was equipped with 10-pdr Parrotts.
Of note here is the listing for Battery K with the discrepancy indicated with regard to reported location. Often in correspondence (present day correspondence, that is), folks will eagerly inquire about these summary statements. The perception, which I held when first looking them over, is we have a gold mine of “facts” to work with. Not entirely true. What we have are a lot of numbers that must be shaken down for some useful information. The example seen here, with Battery K, one of the many issues that demonstrate the data is not “clean”. The summaries are far short of the sound foundation of facts that might lead easily to solid information. Though those summaries are a bit firmer than clay, I would quickly point out.
At the December 1862 reporting time, I believe Battery K was commanded by Lieutenant E. L. Bailey. It was part of a battalion commanded by Captain Robert H. Fitzhugh, the battery’s former commander. Batteries K and M constituted 2/3rds of the battalion. And it was part of Wainwright’s regiment. Wainwright who, as we know from his diary, was very particular about keeping up with his paperwork. Yet, this battery didn’t give a fourth quarter, 1862 report until over a year later. And when that report was registered by the Ordnance Department, an erroneous location was recorded.
One would think such tardiness wouldn’t be allowed. And one would rightly supposed Battery K’s officers would report on time and accurately. Our impression is the chain of command above Battery K would insist on timely reporting. Furthermore that the clerks in Washington were efficient and never lost such important paperwork. Yet, the record indicates otherwise.
So we have reason to dispute one column for Battery K, why not the rest? Was the clerk entering the 1862 data with just one cell (location) incorrect? Or is all the other data now suspect? Enter that discussion with ample salt…. With that salt applied, let us walk through the reported ammunition quantities, starting with smoothbore:
The only smothbores among the reporting batteries were the Napoleons of Battery D. That battery reported 288 shot, 96 shells, 238 case, and 96 canister.
We have more rifled guns to feed. Those projectiles start with the Hotchkiss Patent listings:
Four batteries reporting Hotchkiss projectiles on hand:
- Battery C: 102 canister, 40 percussion shell, 235 fuse shell, and 576 bullet shell all in 3-inch caliber.
- Battery F: 80 canister, 80 percussion shell, 160 fuse shell, and 430 bullet shell of 3-inch.
- Battery I: 120 canister, 290 fuse shell, and 651 bullet shell in 3-inch.
- Battery K: 97 canister, 117 percussion shell, 118 fuse shell, and 54 bullet shell also 3-inch.
We might attach some significance to the proportionally larger numbers for “bullet shell” or what I prefer to call case shot.
One battery reported Dyer’s patent projectiles:
Battery H had 140 shells, 576 shrapnel (case), and 164 canister, all in 3-inch caliber.
There are a couple of entries for the Shenkl patent projectiles:
Battery H had 285 3-inch shells and Battery I had 116 of the same.
None of the batteries known to have Parrott rifles had a return complied. So we are certainly missing more than a handful of pieces to the puzzle. And I would point out that while Battery K’s data did not include any projectiles, the other pages indicate the battery had other supplies accounted for in the belated report.
Finally, the small arms:
- Battery C: One Army revolver, eight Navy revolvers, and fourteen cavalry sabers.
- Battery D: Eight Army revolvers and eight horse artillery sabers.
- Battery F: Nineteen Army revolvers and sixteen foot artillery swords.
- Battery H: Sixteen Navy revolvers and fifteen cavalry sabers.
- Battery I: Seventeen Navy revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
- Battery K: One Navy revolver and eight cavalry sabers.
- Battery L: Seventeen Army revolvers and ten horse artillery sabers.
In summary, and to reinforce the point made above in the battery details, we cannot take this summary as a clear, clean “snapshot” of what equipment was on hand at the specified time. Even here for a set of Eastern Theater units, very close to Washington, we see easily recognized errors in the data. So we are obligated to ask questions and search for answers that validate… or invalidate.