Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – New Hampshire

New Hampshire was represented by one line in the fourth quarter summary for 1864. That one line accounted for the lone field battery from the state:

0339_1_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: At Brandy Station with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery remained under command of Captain Frederick M. Edgell. In October the battery transferred out of the Third Brigade, Reserve Artillery to the Third Corps, Army of the Potomac. And with that formation, they were in winter quarters during the February when their return was submitted.

Allow me to expand upon this battery’s service through the fall a bit, as we have space to do so and… well… anytime we have a Brandy Station story I like to pontificate. The winter quarters was the 1st New Hampshire’s fourth visit to Brandy Station, if my count is correct. The first being at the opening of the 2nd Manassas Campaign, in the late summer of 1862, as part of Pope’s command.

Going forward to 1863, as part of the Reserve artillery, the battery passed through Brandy Station, and Culpeper at the close of the Gettysburg Campaign. Of course, that stay ended when Confederates initiated the Bristoe Campaign. In November, the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rappahannock into Culpeper County again. And on November 8, Edgell’s battery fought around Brandy Station. I’ll let his words summarize the engagement:

My battery marched with the reserve batteries of the Third Corps, on the morning of the 7th. Crossed the river at Kelly’s Ford at dark the same day and took position with the Second Division, reporting to General Prince. On the morning of the 8th, reported to General Carr, Third Division, and marched with his advanced brigade, arriving at the railroad at 10 a.m. About noon the enemy were found posted with artillery on a ridge east of the railroad and about a mile north of Brandy Station. One section of my battery was ordered up, and opened on the enemy with shell at about 2,000 yards distance. This, with the advance of our skirmishers, caused them to retire after firing a few rounds. My section immediately occupied the position, but finding the enemy out of range, pushed on and took position in the edge of the wood to the left of and near Brandy Station. The enemy now opened, with two 20-pounders and two smaller guns, at about 1,800 yards distance, to which we replied, and they again retired. My remaining section now came up and took position to the right of the railroad, and fired a few shots at bodies of the enemy’s cavalry, but with what effect is not known. This closed the operations for the day.

My battery expended in the whole affair 56 rounds of percussion and time shell, but a strong wind blowing across the line of fire much impaired its accuracy.

I have no casualties to report.

OR, Series I, Volume 29, Part I, Serial 48, page 573

Captain George E. Randolph, commanding the artillery brigade of Third Corps, recorded in more detail the number and type of rounds fired by the New Hampshire gunners – 20 Schenkl case, 10 Schenkl shell, and 30 Hotchkiss fuse (time or percussion not specified) shell. Randoph said 60 rounds, while Edgell said 56. Perhaps the New Hampshire battery fired four additional rounds on the previous day. Randolph went on to relate Edgell complained about the Schenkl percussion fuses, as they failed to burst on occasion. But added “I was surprised at this, for I have seldom known them to fail.” However, he did note the other batteries did not seem to have a problem.

After the fight on November 8, the Army of the Potomac pressed the Army of Northern Virginia out of Culpeper for the last time in the war. That, in turn, setup the Mine Run Campaign with the Federals moving over the Rapidan into the Wilderness. After the anti-climatic close of that campaign, the Army of the Potomac returned to Culpeper for winter quarters. First Sergeant Samuel S. Piper later described, in a service narrative for the state’s Adjutant General, the battery’s quarters as, “at Brandy Station, Va., on the plantation of the Hon. John Minor Botts.” Piper went on to call it the best camp the battery ever had. While I have not seen a photo of the New Hampshire battery in those quarters, we do have a photo of Auburn, Botts’ house on the plantation:

I am not certain exactly where the Third Corps’ artillery park was that winter. Likely between Auburn and the railroad station. Readers will recall Auburn still stands. Hopefully some future owner will recognize the significance of the structure and restore the house to its past prominence.

There are two other formations from New Hampshire that we should mention here. Both were employed as heavy artillery, and thus didn’t have cannon or stores of their own to report:

  • 1st New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Company: Not listed. Garrison of Fort Constitution, Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Captain Charles H. Long remained in command.
  • 2nd New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Company: Not listed.  Garrison of Fort McClary, Portsmouth Harbor, across the entrance in Maine. Captain Ira M. Barton commanded. 

Both companies spent the winter months guarding Portsmouth. In May, both moved to Washington, D.C. to replace the other “heavies” sent forward to the front lines. Later, those two companies formed the nucleus of a full regiment of New Hampshire heavy artillery formed starting in the late summer of 1864.

The stories aside, we turn to the ammunition reported. No smoothbore, so we can move right to the Hotchkiss columns:

0341_2_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: 169 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

On to the next page for more Hotchkiss rounds:

0342_1_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: 26 percussion fuse shell, 182 bullet shell, and 80 canister for 3-inch rifles.

The next page tallies those Schenkl shells that Edgell complained of:

0342_2_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: 180 shell for 3-inch rifles.

And another Schenkl entry on the next page:

0343_1_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: 145 case shot for 3-inch rifles.

Turning to the small arms:

0343_2_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: Eight Colt army revolvers, seven Colt navy revolvers, and twelve cavalry sabers.

Cartridge bags reported on the next page:

0344_2_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: 12 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.

Lastly, pistol cartridges, fuse, primers, and other items:

0345_1_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: 200 navy caliber pistol cartridges; 485 paper fuses; 1,300 friction primers; 23 yards of slow match; 500 pistol percussion caps; and 5 portfires.

One might call attention to the lack of metallic fuses reported here. Edgell complained about the Schenkl fuses in November. Then in February had no tallies. Had he discarded the object of his ire? I don’t think so. It seems the returns counted the rounds, with fuses, as a whole unit. And the columns on this page were used to account for fuses issued separate from the projectile. Regardless, we have Edgell reporting both Hotchkiss and Schenkl, a mix not preferred by Brigadier-General Henry Hunt in charge of the Army of the Potomac’s artillery.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – New Hampshire’s battery

In the summaries for the previous quarters, I’ve combined New Hampshire’s entries along with other states for brevity.  After all, there’s just one line to consider, and that is a very uncomplicated line.  We find that same entry line, for New Hampshire’s lone light battery for the third quarter, 1863:

0281_1_Snip_NH

And that line remained uncomplicated for the third quarter:

  • 1st Light Battery: Reporting at Culpeper, Virginia with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Frederick M. Edgell remained in command.  And the battery remained with the Third Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac.

But there were a couple other artillery formations from New Hampshire in existence at the end of September.   Though neither would warrant mention on the summaries:

  • 1st New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Company: Not listed. On April 17, 1863, Charles H. Long received a captain’s commission and authority to recruit a heavy artillery company to man Fort Constitution, defending Portsmouth harbor.  The company formally mustered on July 22 of that year.
  • 2nd New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Company: Not listed.  Authorized in August 1863.  Captain Ira M. Barton appointed commander.  Mustered into service on September 17, 1863. This battery also garrisoned the defenses of Portsmouth, detailed to Fort McClary, on the Maine side of the harbor.

Eventually all three of these companies would be part of the same regiment – the First New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Regiment – in the fall of 1864.

So we return to focus on that one uncomplicated entry line, moving to the ammunition. No smoothbore ammunition to report so we move to the Hotchkiss page:

0283_2_Snip_NH

  • 1st Light Battery:  80 canister, 38 percussion shell, 209 fuse shell, and 182 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

No Dyer, James, or Parrott rounds to consider.  So we turn to the Schenkl:

0284_2_Snip_NH

  • 1st Light Battery: 163 shell and 125 case for 3-inch rifles.

And those were Schenkl rounds that Edgell spoke ill of in his Gettysburg report.

Turning to the small arms:

0284_3_Snip_NH

  • 1st Light Battery: Five army revolvers, eight navy revolvers, and thirteen cavalry sabers.

That wraps up the New Hampshire section.  We’ll move to another single line entry in the next installment – New Mexico!

Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Batteries of New Hampshire and New Jersey

For this installment of the summary reports, we will look at the contributions of two states – New Hampshire and New Jersey.   Between the two, by June 1863 were only three batteries of light artillery:

0201_1_Snip_NH_NJ

Just one battery from the Granite State.  For the New Hampshire battery:

  • 1st Battery: Reporting at Taneytown, Maryland with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. After the Chancellorsville Campaign, Captain Frederick M. Edgell’s battery transferred from First Corps to Third Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac.  If we go to Edgell’s official report of the Gettysburg Campaign, we find his battery expended 105 rounds on July 2nd (at ranges of 2,000 yards or more!) from a position off the Taneytown Road, in what is today the National Cemetery.  On July 3, they fired counter-battery and later helped repulse Longstreet’s assault, with 248 rounds.  The battery fired a total of 353 rounds, with Hotchkiss time shell and Schenkl percussion mentioned specifically.  Edgell complained about the Schenkl combination fused case.

And from the Garden State, two batteries (three more batteries would muster in September 1863, but are outside our scope here):

  • Battery A: In Maryland with six 10-pdr Parrotts. The battery was, after Chancellorsville, moved from the Sixth Corps to Fourth Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac.  Lieutenant Augustine N. Parsons remained in command, with the absence of Captain William Hexamer.  On June 30, the battery was, like most of the Artillery Reserve, near Taneytown.  On July 3, Battery A went into action near the present day Pennsylvania Memorial, and thus on the opposite flank of Longstreet’s assault from the New Hampshire battery mentioned above.  Parsons reported firing about 120 rounds of case against the infantry charge.  Afterward, he fired an additional 80 rounds of shell at Confederate batteries, for a total of around 200 on the day.
  • Battery B: Reported at Brandy Station, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts, reflecting a March 1864 receipt date. Of course the battery was with the Third Corps, Army of the Potomac, on June 30, 1863, and between Emmitsburg and Taneytown.  Captain A.Judson Clark commanded the battery.  However, at least at the start of the Gettysburg Campaign, Clark was listed as a divisional artillery chief, a position that should have been redundant with battery consolidation at the corps level.  Captain George E. Randolph, Battery E, 1st Rhode Island Artillery, was the corps artillery chief (somewhat confusing, even on the tablets at Gettysburg list both Randolph and Clark).  While Clark was serving as chief, Lieutenant Robert Sims had charge of the battery.  But all reports have Clark in command of the battery on July 2nd, when the battery advanced to support infantry at the Peach Orchard salient.

Thus we can place all three batteries in action at Gettysburg.  Writing these summaries, I have an urge to discuss so much of the “rest of the story.”  But for the moment, let us focus on the summaries and not the deeds (which most would agree are more interesting).

No smoothbores on hand, so no smoothbore ammunition to report.  Turning to the Hotchkiss projectiles:

0203_2_Snip_NH_NJ

  • 1st New Hampshire: 80 canister, 158 fuse shell, and 238 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

Keep in mind Edgell fired 353 rounds at Gettysburg.  And we’ll revisit the totals below.

On the next page, we can trim down to focus on the Parrott projectiles:

0204_1A_Snip_NH_NJ

The two New Jersey batteries reporting:

  • Battery A, New Jersey: 130 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery B, New Jersey: 568 shell, 360 case, and 120 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Parsons’ battery seems to be missing a large quantity of ammunition.  And that cannot simply be accounted for by that expended in battle in July.

Moving to the next page and the Schenkl columns:

0204_2_Snip_NH_NJ

  • 1st New Hampshire:  322 shells for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery B, New Jersey: 152 shells for 10-pdr Parrotts.

We find here some of the Schenkl shells that Edgell complained about.  The total for that battery, on the summaries, is 798 rounds.  Again, the question here – was that “as of June 30, 1863”?  Or on hand as of the day the report was generated?  Or quantity on hand sometime after the great battle?

Moving to the small arms section:

0204_3_Snip_NH_NJ

By battery:

  • 1st New Hampshire: Thirteen Navy revolvers and nine cavalry sabers.
  • Battery A, New Jersey: Fifteen Army revolvers and twenty-seven horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B, New Jersey: Sixteen Navy revolvers and fifteen horse artillery sabers.

Three batteries from two different states.  All three playing in action at Gettysburg.

Summary Statement, 1st Quarter, 1863 – New Hampshire and New Jersey Batteries

The next set of entries in the first quarter, 1863 summaries cover volunteer batteries from the states of New Hampshire and New Jersey.  New Hampshire provided one light battery during the war.  And that is listed for the quarter.  New Jersey had only provided two such batteries up to that time (but three others were to form later).  So for these two states there are three entry lines:

0124_1_Snip_NH_NJ

For the New Hampshire battery:

  • 1st Battery: At Belle Plain, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain Frederick M. Edgell’s battery was in First Division, First Corps, Army of the Potomac.

And for the two New Jersey batteries:

  • Battery A: White Oak Church, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts.  The battery supported First Division, Sixth Corps. When Captain William Hexamer fell ill during the winter, Lieutenant Augustine N. Parsons assumed command of the battery.
  • Battery B: Potomac Creek, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts. In January 1863, Captain A.Judson Clark commanded this battery, assigned to Second Division, Third Corps.  During the winter, the battery transferred to First Division of the corps.  When Clark took command of the artillery brigade in that formation, Lieutenant Robert Sims held command of the battery.

No surprises with the administrative details.  And we see only rifled guns were on hand with these three batteries. Thus we draw a blank page when looking at smoothbore ammunition:

0126_1_Snip_NH_NJ

Turning to the rifled projectiles, only the New Hampshire battery reported Hotchkiss-patent types:

0126_2_Snip_NH_NJ

  • 1st New Hampshire: 126 canister, 182 percussion shell, 538 fuse shell, and 360 bullet shell for 3-inch rifle.

On the next page, we can narrow the focus down to just Parrott-patent and Schenkl-patent entries:

0127_1_Snip_NH_NJ

And those are only for the New Jersey batteries:

  • Battery A, New Jersey: 530 shell, 360 case, and 134 canister of Parrott patent for 10-pdr Parrott.  And 70 shot of Schenkl-patent for the same 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery B, New Jersey:  380 shell, 340 case, and 146 canister of Parrott patent for 10-pdr Parrott.

Continuing with Schenkl columns on the next page:

0127_2_Snip_NH_NJ

  • Battery B, New Jersey: 360 Schenkl shell for 10-pdr Parrott.

I would call attention to the types of projectiles reported here.  In this case, we have three batteries which are part of the main field army of the Eastern Theater.  One would assume these were well supplied.  And we see healthy quantities of shell, case, and canister.  But only one battery reported bolt or solid shot.  Yet, we know the leaders in the artillery formation of that army – namely Brigadier-General Henry Hunt – expressed a preference for the use of solid shot.

What would explain a shortage of solid shot?  Perhaps we are seeing the gap between intentions and the capabilities of the logistic system.  And perhaps extending that gap was the higher use, based on the chief’s instructions, of solid projectiles.  But short of some complaint by, say Hunt, to the Ordnance Department, there is no direct evidence to blame this on the supply system.  As with much in the summaries, we have numbers. And numbers are figures, yet not necessarily information.

And to close, we look at the small arms:

0127_3_Snip_NH_NJ

By battery:

  • 1st New Hampshire: Twenty-nine Navy revolvers and nine cavalry sabers.
  • Battery A, New Jersey: Fifteen Army revolvers and twenty-seven horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B, New Jersey: Eighteen Navy revolvers and sixteen horse artillery sabers.

Of note, in the last quarter Hexamer’s Battery reported over a hundred sabers. Over the winter, the battery lost many of those – presumably turned in as unnecessary.

Summary Statement: December 31, 1862 – Batteries from New Hampshire and New Jersey

Today we move back east for the summaries – New Hampshire and New Jersey.  In contrast to the messy Missouri entries, with gaps and questions to address, those lines for New Hampshire and New Jersey are relatively clean.

Between those two states, there were but three lines to consider.  New Hampshire provided one field battery for service during the war.  New Jersey would eventually provide five batteries, but as of December 1862 only two were in existence.  The New Hampshire battery is referenced as “the 1st”.  The New Jersey batteries are mentioned as both lettered and numbered batteries.  I’ll conform to the convention used in the summary statement here – lettered batteries.

Three easy entry lines to consult:

0059_Snip_Dec62_NH_NJ_1

All batteries supporting the Army of the Potomac:

  • 1st Battery New Hampshire Light Artillery: At Potomac Creek, Virginia with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Lieutenant Frederick M. Edgell’s battery supported First Division, First Corps.
  • Battery A, New Jersey Light Artillery: At White Oak Church, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrott rifles.  Captain William Hexamer’s battery was, same as the New Jersey Brigade, part of First Division, Sixth Corps.
  • Battery B, New Jersey Light Artillery: At Falmouth, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrott Rifles.  Commanded by Captain A. Judson Clark, Battery B supported Third Corps.

Rifles… rifled guns.  And we see empty columns on the smoothbore ammunition section:

0061_Snip_Dec62_NH_NJ_1

Somewhat interesting breakdown for the rifled projectiles.  First section of those columns listed Hotchkiss patent projectiles:

0061_Snip_Dec62_NH_NJ_2

For the New Hampshire battery, and them only, we see 3-inch Hotchkiss types – 90 canister, 182 percussion shell, 228 fuse shell, and 340 bullet shell.

Now over to the Parrott and first half of the Schenkl patent columns:

0062_Snip_Dec62_NH_NJ_1

Only the New Jersey batteries reported quantities on this side of the line:

  • Battery A: 10-pdr Parrott patent – 410 shell, 360 case, and 134 canister.  Also 70 10-pdr Parrott shot, made to Schenkl’s patent.
  • Battery B: 10-pdr Parrott patent – 530 shell, 340 case, and 146 canister.

Looking across to the other Schenkl columns:

0062_Snip_Dec62_NH_NJ_2

More listings:

  • New Hampshire Battery: 70 Schenkl shells for 3-inch rifle.
  • Battery A, New Jersey: 120 Schenkl shells for Parrott 10-pdr.
  • Battery B, New Jersey: 160 Schenkl shells for Parrott 10-pdr.

We might raise an eye at the mix of Schenkl with the Hotchkiss and Parrott patent projectiles. But nothing out of the ordinary.  Actually these three batteries seem to have a clean allocation compared to some we’ve seen.

Down to the small arms:

0062_Snip_Dec62_NH_NJ_3

By battery:

  • New Hampshire: 39 Navy revolvers and 12 cavalry sabers.
  • Battery A, New Jersey: 15 Army revolvers and 123 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B, New Jersey: 18 Navy revolvers and 17 horse artillery sabers.

Not a lot of question marks or even remarks to add with respect to these three batteries.

Next up… a lot of New York batteries!