Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Kansas Batteries

Quarterly reviews of the Kansas batteries are always interesting, and demanding of attention. There were three formal batteries mustered and counted against the state’s quota of volunteers. And those did not have “conventional” lineages as we see with most state batteries. Furthermore, there were several sections formed within infantry and cavalry formations, which, while temporary, seemed always present on the summaries. Then there were militia batteries called out during the war by state or Federal authorities. From our 21st century perspective, it appears Kansas was awash with mountain howitzers and field pieces. All of which makes an exact, precise accounting of every tube difficult… if not impossible.

For the fourth quarter of 1863, we find six lines – four were from the formal batteries (the 2nd Kansas Battery reporting by section) and two were sections reported in cavalry regiments. And neither of those cavalry-reported sections match to those reported in the third quarter!

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  • 1st Battery:  Waverly, Tennessee with six 10-pdr Parrott rifles.  Captain Marcus D. Tenney remained in command.  In November the battery transferred from the Sixteenth Corps to the Department of the Cumberland, and assigned to the District of Nashville. They would guard the Nashville & Northwestern Railroad at Waverly until November 1864.
  • 2nd Battery:  At Fort Smith, Arkansas, with with four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Edward A. Smith remained in command, with the battery part of the District of the Frontier.  After campaigning in the Cherokee Nation through mid-November, the battery arrived at Fort Smith on November 15. They remained there through much of the war. However, one section was detached, as noted in the next line.
  • Section of 2nd Battery: At Fort Scott, Kansas, with two 3.67-inch (6-pdr) rifles. Lieutenant Daniel C. Knowles commanded this section, part of the District of the Border.
  • 3rd Battery: Reported at Van Buren, Arkansas with three 6-pdr field guns and one 12-pdr field howitzer. Still appearing on department returns as “Hopkins’ Battery,” Lieutenant John F. Aduddell commanded in the field. The battery was assigned to Third Brigade, District of the Frontier.
  • Battery Attached to 5th Kansas Cavalry: At Pine Bluff, Arkansas with six 12-pdr mountain howitzers. The 5th Kansas participated in the expedition to Little Rock in September. Then moved to Pine Bluff later that month, where they stayed through the winter of 1864. Department returns have ten companies under Lieutenant Colonel Wilton A. Jenkins assigned to Colonel Powell Clayton’s Independent Cavalry Brigade at the close of December 1863. Captain William F. Creitz had charge of this improvised battery, which sometimes appears in dispatches as Creitz’s battery. Based on the timing this entry appears in the records, it appears the howitzers were transferred from other units (notably Missouri batteries) then being reorganized or mustered out.
  • Battery Attached to 7th Kansas Cavalry: At Corinth, Mississippi with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers. Colonel Thomas P. Herrick commanded the regiment, then assigned to the First Brigade, Cavalry Division, Sixteenth Corps. These were also reported in the second quarter of 1863, though not in the third quarter.

I submit there are a few missing entries here. In the previous quarter, both the 2nd and 6th Kansas Cavalry had posted returns. The 2nd had just a traveling forge and stores. And those were probably turned over for proper disposition. The 6th reported a couple mountain howitzers on hand, which were probably passed along to one of the Indian Brigade regiments or other units then operating in the Indian Territories.

We should also mention Armstrong’s Battery, affiliated with the 1st Kansas Colored Infantry (later 79th USCT). No return to reference in the summary, but the unit appears in dispatches from around this time of the war.

Also worth mentioning is the Leavenworth Post Battery, at times referred to as the 4th Kansas Battery (without any official sanction by the state I would add). Captain Charles S. Bowman commanded. Later became Company M, 16th Kansas Cavalry.

Lastly, there were several Kansas militia batteries which were activated at the state level, if not officially by the federal authorities. As such, no returns were filed. But again, the units were “out there” and doing some service.

With those shortfalls noted, let us move back to what was reported… as in the ammunition:

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  • Fort Scott Section, 2nd Kansas Battery: 83 shot and 90 case for 6-pdr field guns. We often see 6-pdr ammunition issued for 3.67-inch rifles.
  • 3rd Kansas Battery: 100 shot and 300 case for 6-pdr field guns; 150 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 7th Kansas Cavalry: 396 shell and 300 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

More smoothbore on the next page:

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  • Fort Scott Section, 2nd Kansas Battery: 94 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 3rd Kansas Battery: 100 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 100 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers. .
  • 7th Kansas Cavalry: 98 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

We then skip a couple pages to the Parrott columns:

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  • 1st Kansas Battery: 317 shell, 205 case, and 141 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 2nd Kansas Battery: 592 shell, 240 case, and 75 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

To the left is a single entry for Schenkl:

  • 2nd Kansas Battery: 224 shot for 3.67-inch rifles. This is an odd entry which could be entered on the wrong column (two to the left is the 10-pdr Parrott column for shot). Or could be entered on the wrong line, as the 3rd Kansas reported cannon of this caliber.

We now turn to the small arms:

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  • 1st Kansas Battery: Eighty-one Colt navy revolvers and fourteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 2nd Kansas Battery: Eighty-eight Colt navy revolvers, nineteen Remington army revolvers, one Remington navy revolver, and seven cavalry sabers.
  • Fort Scott Section, 2nd Kansas: Twenty-nine Colt navy revolvers, fourteen Remington Navy revolvers, and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • 3rd Kansas Battery: Eleven Colt army revolvers, one Colt navy revolver, seventy-three Remington army revolvers, and three Remington navy revolvers.

Clearly the Kansans preferred pistols over edged weapons.

One item entry on the next page:

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  • 1st Kansas Battery: 88 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.

But healthy report of small arms ammunition, powder, fuses, and primers:

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  • 1st Kansas Battery: 1,000 cartridges for navy revolvers; 1,300 paper fuses; 10 pounds of musket powder; 2,100 friction primers; and 20 portfires.
  • 2nd Kansas Battery: 500 cartridges for army revolvers; 200 pounds of musket powder; and 122 friction primers.
  • For Scott Section, 2nd Kansas: 1,000 cartridges for navy revolvers.
  • 3rd Kansas Battery: 900 friction primers.

That concludes our look at the Kansas artillerymen for this quarter. They guarded railroads and outposts from Tennessee westward to the Indian Territories and their home state of Kansas.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Indiana Independent Batteries, Part 1

While the 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery wore one of the war’s most colorful nicknames, it was “heavy” artillery, and after all, raised as an infantry regiment. Most of the artillerists from Indiana formed into independent batteries. And most of those were light artillery. Their returns were consolidated into a lengthy section of the fourth quarter summaries:

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We will break these into two groups for ease of discussion (along with a separate post for the oddity in the bunch – an entry from the 89th Indiana Infantry). So we take up a baker’s dozen with the first part:

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  • 1st Battery:  Reporting, at New Orleans, Louisiana with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch guns.  Captain Martin Klauss remained in command of this battery. Lieutenant Lawrence Jacoby (an officer from the 1st Missouri Artillery) lead the battery while Klauss was absent through December. The battery remained with First Division, Thirteenth Corps.  Following the Second Bayou Teche Campaign in October-November, the battery was assigned to the District of LaFourche, a parish away from New Orleans.
  • 2nd Battery:  Reporting at Fort Smith, Arkansas, with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. With Captain John W. Rabb departing for a commission in the reformed 2nd Missouri (Light) Artillery Regiment, Lieutenant Hugh Espey, Jr. led this battery. His promotion to Captain would follow in January. With 2nd Brigade, District of the Frontier, the battery operated in the Indian Territories through much of the summer and fall. They moved to Fort Smith in October, remaining there through the winter.
  • 3rd Battery: No location offered, but with two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr Napoleons, and two 3.80-inch James rifles.  Captain James M. Cockefair remained in command of this battery.  The battery consolidated in St. Louis in October. Then in November, the battery reenlisted with “veteran” status. December found them operating in West Tennessee with a column dispatched in response to a raid by Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest. After which, the battery prepared for movement to Louisiana as part of the Third Division, Sixteenth Corps (to operate in the Red River Campaign).
  • 4th Battery:  At Chattanooga, Tennessee with three 12-pdr Napoleons, three 12-pdr field howitzers and two 3.80-inch James Rifles. With Captain David Flansburg in a Confederate prison, Lieutenant Henry J Willits led the battery. In October, the battery moved from the Fourteenth Corps to the garrison command at Chattanooga.
  • 5th Battery: Also at Chattanooga, but with six 10-pdr Parrott rifles. Captain Peter Simonson remained in command. Lieutenant Alfred Morrison filled in as commander when Simonson picked up duties as division artillery chief. Reorganizations of the Army of the Cumberland moved this battery to First Division, Fourth Corps.
  • 6th Battery: At Pocahontas, Tennessee, with two 6-pdr field guns and two 3.67-inch rifles (though this battery was associated with two James rifles earlier in the year).  With Captain Michael Mueller in command, the battery supported Third Division, Fifteenth Corps. The battery participated in several minor operations in the fall, then moved with its parent formation to Memphis. They wintered at Pocahontas, a railroad town to the east of that place.
  • 7th Battery: Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee, with six 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain George R. Swallow’s battery transferred from the Third Division, Twenty-First Corps to Third Division, Fourteenth Corps (more so a lateral move of the division) as the Army of the Cumberland reorganized in October. With Swallow serving as division artillery chief, Lieutenants Ortho H. Morgan and George M. Repp had turns leading the battery.
  • 8th Battery: No return. Captain George Estep retained command of this battery. With the Twenty-First Corps broken up, the battery transferred to the garrison of Chattannooga.  As the battery lost all its guns at Chickamauga, they maned heavy guns defending the city.
  • 9th Battery: No return. Lieutenant George R. Brown commanded this battery from Sixteenth Corps.  Brown’s battery was part of the garrison at Union City, Tennessee, and were involved with operations against Forrest in December. Later the battery was dispatched to Louisiana for the Red River Campaign.
  • 10th Battery: Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee with five 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain William A. Naylor remained in command of this battery. With the breakup of Twenty-First Corps, the battery transferred to Second Division, Fourth Corps. 
  • 11th Battery: Another battery at Chattanooga, Tennessee, boasting two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, four 20-pdr Parrott rifles, and four 4.5-inch siege rifles. With the breakup of the Twentieth Corps, Captain Arnold Sutermeister’s battery became part of the Chattanooga garrison for a while. Then by December was assigned as the Siege Artillery of the Army of the Cumberland.
  • 12th Battery: Reporting at Nashville, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns, two 24-pdr field howitzers, three 24-pdr smoothbore siege guns, one 24-pdr rifled siege gun, and five 30-pdr Parrotts.  I believe the 12th passed their four 4.5-inch siege rifles to the 11th Battery. Those sections deployed forward to Chattanooga returned to Nashville in November.  Captain James E. White remained in command.  White also presided over the 20th Indiana battery, which was also stationed at Nashville. 
  • 13th Battery: No report. Captain Benjamin S. Nicklin’s battery remained at Gallatin, Tennessee, garrisoning Fort Thomas, in the Army of the Cumberland.

So of these thirteen batteries, eleven operated in Tennessee at the close of the year. Though a couple of those batteries were earmarked for operations in Mississippi and Louisiana in the early months of 1864.

Moving to the smoothbore ammunition columns:

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  • 1st Battery: 294 shell and 402 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 2nd Battery: 193 shot and 155 case for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 3rd Battery: 105 shot and 138 case for 6-pdr field guns; 96 shot, 316 shell, and 109 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 4th Battery: 60 shot, 46 shell, and 173 case for 12-pdr Napoleons; 129 shell and 196 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 6th Battery: 111 shot and 182 case for 6-pdr field guns
  • 11th Battery: 110 shot and 150 case for 6-pdr field guns; 79 shell and 125 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 12th Battery: 56 shot and 54 case for 6-pdr field guns; 198 shells for 24-pdr siege guns.

More smoothbore on the next page:

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  • 1st Battery: 102 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 2nd Battery: 14 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 3rd Battery: 129 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 170 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 4th Battery: 94 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; 123 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 6th Battery: 103 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 11th Battery: 120 canister for 6-pdr; 56 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 12th Battery: 108 case for 24-pdr siege guns; 140 canister for 6-pdrs; 300 canister for 24-pdr siege guns; and 56 stands of grape for 24-pdr siege guns.

Hotchkiss rounds tallied on the right side of this page:

  • 1st Battery: 190 Hotchkiss time fuse shells for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 153 Hotchkiss time fuse shells for 3.80-inch James.

Hotchkiss rounds continue on the next page:

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  • 1st Battery: 31 Hotchkiss percussion shell and 46 Hotchkiss canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 51 Hotchkiss percussion shell and 194 Hotchkiss bullet shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 4th Battery: 33 Hotchkiss percussion shell and 20 Hotchkiss canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 6th Battery: 30 Hotchkiss percussion shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 11th Battery: 10 Hotchkiss percussion shell and 10 Hotchkiss bullet shell for 4.5-inch siege rifles.

To the right on this page is a tally for James projectiles:

  • 2nd Battery: 111 shot, 792 shell, and 58 canister of James pattern for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 3rd Battery: 52 shot, 143 shell, and 24 canister of James pattern for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 10 shot, 55 shell, and 20 canister of James pattern for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 6th Battery: 59 shot, 109 shell, and 123 canister of James pattern for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery: 25 shot and 51 shell of James pattern for 3.80-inch rifles.

And further to the right is one lone column for Parrott projectiles:

  • 5th Battery: 10 shot of Parrott patent for 10-pdr Parrotts
  • 7th Battery: 25 shot of Parrott patent for 10-pdr Parrotts.

The next page continues with Parrott patent projectiles:

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  • 5th Battery: 555 shell, 295 case, and 161 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 7th Battery: 636 shell, 482 case, and 218 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 10th Battery: 169 shell, 73 case, and 112 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 11th Battery: 30 shot, 54 shell, and 22 case for 20-pdr Parrotts.
  • 12th Battery: 505 shell and 150 canister for 30-pdr Parrotts.

To the right are columns for Schenkl projectiles:

  • 1st Battery: 174 Schenkl shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 168 Schenkl shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 11th Battery: 10 Schenkl shot for 4.5-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery: 180 Schenkl shot for 4.2-inch siege rifles (same bore diameter as the 30-pdr Parrott).

No projectiles under the “miscellaneous” headings. So we turn to the small arms:

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  • 1st Battery: 25 cavalry sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: 7 Enfield .577 muskets, 22 Colt army revolvers, and 21 cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: 4 musketoons (.69 caliber smoothbore), 4 Colt navy revolvers, and 20 horse artillery sabers.
  • 4th Battery: 22 Remington army revolvers and 20 horse artillery sabers.
  • 5th Battery: One Colt army revolver, 9 cavalry sabers, and 7 horse artillery sabers.
  • 6th Battery: 6 cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery: 2 cavalry sabers and 13 horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: 17 Colt army revolvers and 11 cavalry sabers.
  • 11th Battery: 8 Colt army revolvers, 11 Colt navy revolvers, and 9 cavalry sabers.
  • 12th Battery: 12 Colt navy revolvers and 50 horse artillery sabers.

On to the next page with cartridge bags and small arms cartridges:

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  • 1st Battery: 391 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 680 cartridge bags for 20-pdr Parrotts (why those are in Fort Smith, Arkansas is anyone’s guess… mine is transcription error); and 2,000 musket cartridges.
  • 3rd Battery: 300 cartridge bags for field guns/howitzers.
  • 4th Battery: 172 cartridge bags for James rifles and 3 cartridge bags for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 5th Battery: 355 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 7th Battery: 447 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 11th Battery: 56 cartridge bags for 20-pdr Parrotts.
  • 12th Battery: 1,045 cartridge bags for 30-pdr Parrotts.

On to the last page for pistol cartridges, fuses, and other items:

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  • 1st Battery: 1,525 friction primers; 10 yards of slow match; and 17 portfires.
  • 2nd Battery: 373 army revolver and 1000 navy revolver cartridges; 509 friction primers; and 7 portfires.
  • 3rd Battery: 2,709 friction primers; 50 yards of slow match; and 300 pistol percussion caps.
  • 4th Battery: 500 navy revolver cartridges; 1,839 friction primers; 6 yards of slow match; 450 pistol percussion caps; and 16 portfires.
  • 5th Battery: 326 paper fuses and 1,615 friction primers.
  • 6th Battery: 900 friction primers and 18 portfires.
  • 7th Battery: 643 paper fuses; 1,995 friction primers; 12 yards of slow match; and 24 portfires.
  • 10th Battery: 1,154 paper fuses and 168 friction primers.
  • 11th Battery: 80 army revolver and 600 navy revolver cartridges; 446 paper fuses; 1,923 friction primers; 2 yards of slow match; 1,815 pistol percussion caps; and 14 portfires.
  • 12th Battery: 100 pounds of mortar powder; 1,810 friction primers; and 55 musket percussion caps.

I would say, at least those reporting for the quarter, the Indiana independent batteries were well armed. Our next installment will look at the rest of those independent batteries.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Wisconsin artillery sections

Below the numbered batteries from Wisconsin, in the third quarter of 1863 summaries, are four lines based on returns submitted from sections directly assigned to cavalry or infantry regiments:

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One of these is a carry over from the previous quarter.  Another matches to an entry from way back in the fourth quarter of 1862:

  • Battery attached to 3rd Cavalry: Reporting at Van Buren, Arkansas with no cannon.  But inferred, based on the ammunition reported (below), is the presence of 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  At this time of the war, the regiment was part of the District of the Frontier.  Colonel William A. Barstow commanded.  Minus some detachments, the regiment was at Fort Blunt (Fort Gibson), Cherokee Nation, in July 1863. After a busy summer and early fall, the regiment moved to Van Buren (accross the Arkansas River from Fort Smith) in early November. As far back as mid-1862 the regiment operated with a pair of mountain howitzers.  The regiment brought that section to Prairie Grove in December 1862.  But the lack of annotation here leaves questions.  What we can confirm from this entry is at a minimum the regiment retained stores through the fall of 1863, if not the howitzers themselves, at Van Buren… which brings us to the next entry….
  • Company C, 3rd Cavalry: No location given, but reporting one 12-pdr mountain howitzer.  This is one of those entries where other sources not only provide validation but point to a prominent role of the artillery piece.  Captain Edward R. Stevens commanded Company C, which was detached from the regiment and operating out of Fort Scott, Kansas.  A detachment (of men from Companies C and D, plus some Kansas USCT) under Lieutenant James B. Pond occupied Fort Blair (also called Fort Baxter), at Baxter Springs, Kansas.  Pond’s command included on mountain howitzer.  On October 6,  William Quantrill’s raiders attacked the fort.  Pond organized a hasty, but effective defense, centered around that howitzer.  While part of Quantrill’s force attacked the fort, the other wing encountered Major-General James Blunt and escort, who happened to be moving his headquarters from Fort Scott to Fort Smith at that time.  Blunt’s column was routed with over 100 killed. Though the general escaped, the incident was deemed a “massacre” in Federal accounts.  Despite demands and threats, Pond held out at Fort Blair.  In 1898, Pond received the Medal of Honor in recognition for his stand that day.
  • Section, Artillery, attached to 2nd Cavalry: Reporting at Fort Smith, Arkansas with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers. In September 1863, Colonel Thomas Stephens, of the regiment, was in command of a small brigade of cavalry assigned to Seventeenth Corps, then operating at Vicksburg.  Only eight companies were with Stephens. The other four companies formed a battalion under Major William H. Miller, which operated in Missouri.  This brings up a question about the reported location. The battalion remained part of the Rolla, Missouri garrison well into the fall of 1864, serving in the District of Rolla, Department of Missouri. There is no mention of movement to Fort Smith.  So this may be a transcription error.  One has to wonder if the clerks confused the 2nd and 3rd Wisconsin Cavalry. 
  • Detachment, 30th Infantry: I interpret their location as as “Indian expedition, Dakota Territory.”   The regiment reported four 6-pdr field guns (down from six) on hand.  The 30th Wisconsin served in Major-General John Pope’s Department of the Northwest, providing troops for garrisons in the Districts of Wisconsin and Iowa.  Colonel Daniel J. Dill commanded the regiment.  A detachment under Lieutenant-Colonel Edward M. Bartlett, comprised of Companies D and F, were on duty at Fort Sully, Dakota Territory, through the fall.  If I had to guess, this would be the likely location of those guns.

So four stories from the Trans-Mississippi ranging from an infamous massacre to mundane garrison duties.  And between these four lines, barely a battery between them.  Let’s look to what ammunition was on hand:

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  • 3rd Cavalry: 85 shell and 26 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • Company C, 3rd Cavalry: 30 shell, 36 case, and 36 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 2nd Cavalry: 76 case and 9 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 30th Infantry: 364 shot, 182 case, and 159 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

No rifled projectiles reported, of course.  But those sheets are posted for review (here, here, and here).   But there are small arms reported:

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  • 2nd Cavalry: 75 breechloading carbines and 96 army revolvers.

That line from the 2nd Wisconsin Cavalry has me wondering if the regiment simply submitted one return, covering both artillery and cavalry stories, as opposed to separate returns (as per regulation). 

These were the final lines in the third quarter 1863 summaries.  Before we move on to the last quarter’s summaries, let us account for the omissions.  We’ve discussed many of those “in line” with the state entries.  But there were a few others that fell between two chairs, so to speak.  Furthermore, I will also review the state of the heavy artillery at this stage of the war.  If for nothing else to say we’ve not cast our nets with prejudice.