Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 5th Regiment, US Regulars

At the start of July, Colonel (Brevet Brigadier-General) Harvey Brown commanded the regiment.  An 1818 graduate of West Point, Brown served in the Black Hawk, Seminole, and Mexican American Wars.  At the start of the Civil War, he turned down a volunteers commission with a star, opting instead for the colonelcy of the newly formed 5th US Artillery.

harvey_brown

Success at Santa Rosa Island, Florida, defending Fort Pickens, in October 1861 earned Brown a brevet to Brigadier-General and duty commanding the defenses of New York.  And in July, Brown led troops suppressing the New York Draft Riots.  But at the start of August, Brown came up on the retirement list.  Though his retirement date was August 1, Cullum’s Register indicates Brown was “awaiting orders” and “was retained until the close of the war in the command of Ft. Schuyler, and on other duties.”

For ten days (August 1 through 10), Lieutenant-Colonel George Nauman held temporary command.  Colonel Henry S. Burton was formally named to command the 5th on August 11, thus completing the transition.

Despite this change of command, for the third quarter of 1863, the 5th US Artillery offered a laudably complete set of returns, as reflected in the summaries:

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An entry for every battery.  And a line for the adjutant to boot!

  • Battery A: At Portsmouth, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Lieutenant James Gilliss’ battery remained with Getty’s Division, in the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.
  • Battery B:  Reporting at Martinsburg, West Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Under Lieutenant Henry A. Du Pont, the battery was rushed to the Department of the Susquehanna during the Gettysburg Campaign. As the campaign closed, the battery remained as unassigned artillery in the Department of West Virginia.
  • Battery C: At New York City, with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Though still allocated to the 1st Brigade of the Artillery Reserve, the battery was detached to New York after Gettysburg.  Lieutenant Gulian V. Weir remained in command of this battery, though Captain Dunbar R. Ransom accompanied to command all artillery dispatched to quell the Draft Riot.  By the end of September, the battery was at Camp Barry, Washington, D.C.  Later in the fall, the battery rejoined the Army of the Potomac with Lieutenant Richard Metcalf in command (with Wier going to Battery L).
  • Battery D: Reporting from Culpeper, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts.  Lieutenant Benjamin F. Rittenhouse remained at the post he assumed on July 2, after Lieutenant Charles Hazlett’s death at Little Round Top. The battery supported Fifth Corps.
  • Battery E: At Chambersburg, Pennsylvania with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Lieutenant James W. Piper was in command.  Dispatched in June to Pennsylvania, the battery remained in the Department of the Susquehanna.
  • Battery F: At Warrenton, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts.  Lieutenant Leonard Martin remained in command this battery.  The battery was assigned to Sixth Corps.
  • Battery G: Port Hudson, Louisiana with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Lieutenant  Jacob B. Rawles remained in command of this Nineteenth Corps battery.
  • Battery H: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  This was “flip” from the previous quarter, but an accurate adjustment of the records.  Captain George A. Kensel became artillery cheif for First Division, Fourteenth Corps.  In his place Lieutenant Howard M. Burnham commanded.  Burnham was killed when the battery was overrun on September 19.  Lieutenant Joshua A. Fessenden stood in his place. At Chickamauga, the battery lost two officers, 25 men, battery wagon, forge, and all their caissons.  Refitting in Chattanooga, the battery had sufficient limbers and caissons for the Napoleons, but only enough limbers for one Parrott.
  • Battery I: Reporting at Camp Marshall, D.C. with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.    Lieutenant Charles C. MacConnell remained in command of this battery, which was transferred from the Army of the Potomac for refitting and replacements.  Most references indicate the battery was assigned to Camp Barry.  And at least for a month Battery I was combined with Battery L for training.  In November, the battery was combined with Battery C.
  • Battery K: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons. Lieutenant David H. Kinzie, remained in command.  The battery transferred, with the rest of the Twelfth Corps, from Virginia to Tennessee in October.
  • Battery L: Also reporting at Camp Marshall, D.C., though Camp Barry is listed on returns, and with two 6-pdr field guns. Lieutenant Edmund D. Spooner’s battery recovering from the disaster of Winchester, earlier in June.  Spooner would soon head west to take command of Battery H at Chattanooga. (Wier of Battery C transferred over to Battery L.)
  • Battery M: At Stonehouse Mountain, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain James McKnight’s battery transferred from Yorktown to the Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac, in late July 1863.  I like this placename, as it prompts me to search through correspondence with Bud Hall.  Stone House Mountain (note the space) appears on Captain William H. Paine’s excellent map of the Culpeper area.  It is  close to Griffinsburg, west of Culpeper Courthouse.
  • Adjutant: Reported from Fort Hamilton, were the headquarters was located.  I’d like to put a name to this line.  Lieutenant Henry A. Dupont had been the regimental adjutant up until July, when he took command of Battery B.  However, Heitman’s Register indicates he was still officially the adjutant.  Lieutenant Thomson P. McElrath was the regimental quartermaster, and also appeared on correspondence from August and September 1863 as adjutant.

Overall, these are the cleanest set of administrative details and reported cannon from any regimental summary thus far.

The smoothbore ammunition table is, as we would expect, full:

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Seven batteries reporting:

  • Battery A: 192 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 192 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery C: 61 shot and 112 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery E: 192 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery G: 290 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 11(?) canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 142(?) shot, 64 shell, 171(?) case, and 100 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L: 96 shot, 56 case, and 48 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery M: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Only two batteries with 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  So not many Hotchkiss lines to account for:

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  • Battery B:  209 canister, 296 percussion shell, and 164 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery I: 50 canister for 3-inch rifles.

For the next page, we can focus down on the Parrott columns:

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Three batteries reporting quantities:

  • Battery D: 193 shell, 360 case, and 160 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery F: 480 shell, 480 case, and 144 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery H:  54 shot, 240 shell, and 94 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

The last page of rifled projectiles has Schenkl types:

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We see a mix of 3-inch and 10-pdr calibers… which differed by a tenth of an inch:

  • Battery B: 221(?) shell and 513 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery D: 599 shell for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery F: 120 shell for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery I: 318 case for 3-inch rifles.

With ammunition out of the way, we move to the small arms:

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By battery:

  • Battery A: Twenty-seven Army revolvers and sixty-four horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Fourteen Army revolvers and 135 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery C: Three Army revolvers, one Navy revolver, and nineteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery D: Thirteen Navy revolvers, fourteen cavalry sabers, and thirty-six horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery E: Twelve Army revolvers and 107 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F: Nineteen Army revolvers and twenty-six horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Twenty-one (?) horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H: Sixteen Navy revolvers, eight cavalry sabers, and thirty-nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery I: Nine Army revolvers and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery K: Fifty-two Army revolvers and sixteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery L: Nothing….. for the second straight quarter.
  • Battery M: Twenty-four Navy revolvers and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • Adjutant: Twenty-seven horse artillery sabers.

In addition, the adjutant reported six nose bags, twenty-seven saber belts, eight bridles, five currycombs, six girths, six halters, five horse brushes, five lariats, four picket pins, six Model 1859 pattern saddles, six sweat-leathers, two surcingles, six artillery-type saddle blankets, six sets of spurs, and six screw-drivers.  And as mentioned above, Lieutenant P. McElrath was likely the officer accounting for those items – either as the adjutant or the quartermaster.  And once again…. all government property was accounted for.

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Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery

Readers will be familiar with the 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery due to their service along the South Carolina coast.  Hardly a month passes without mention of that unit here on this blog.  Though the main story-line in the 3rd’s service was operations against Charleston, batteries from the regiment served at times in Florida and Virginia.  And their service often defied the label of “heavy” artillery, as often the gunners served in the field as field artillery proper.

A bit of background on this regiment is in order.  The 3rd Rhode Island Volunteers first mustered as an infantry formation in August 1861.  As they prepared for their first major operation, as part of Brigadier-General Thomas W. Sherman’s expedition to Port Royal, they camped at Fort Hamilton, New York.  While there, under orders from Sherman, the regiment drilled on both heavy and light artillery.  By the time the regiment arrived at Hilton Head, it was for all practical purposes an artillery regiment.  Though the formal change did not occur until December of that year.

Over the months that followed, the 3rd Rhode Island served by batteries and detachments as garrison artillery, field artillery, infantry, and even ship’s complement as needs of the particular moment called.  In the winter of 1863, Battery C was designated a light battery in light of its habitual service.  We’ve seen that reflected in returns from the fourth quarter, 1862 and first quarter, 1863. However, the battery seemed to change armament with each quarter.  I believe this reflects more the “ad hoc” nature of tasking in the theater at that time.  For the second quarter, 1863, we find the guns reported on hand again changed:

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At the end of June, Battery C had just returned from the raid on Darien, Georgia.  They were at Hilton Head on June 30, preparing for transit to Folly Island.  So this tally of two 12-pdr field howitzers may reflect a status as of January 1864, when the return was received in Washington.

This brief line, along with “clerical” lines for Batteries A and B, brings up a couple of facets to the summaries as they relate to the “real” operational situations.  First off, we know, based on official records and other accounts, not to mention photographs, the 3rd Rhode Island had more than just a couple of howitzers.  We must also consider the property management within the military and how that was reflected in the reports. The military in general tends to be very anal about tracking property.  For any given item, someone, somewhere is on the hook as the “owner” of said item.  Doesn’t matter if that item is a belt buckle or a cannon.  The “owner” might be a specific unit or could be a facility.  So, in the Civil War and specific to the context of this discussion, that “owner” could be a battery in the 3rd Rhode Island… or it could be the garrison commander at Hilton Head.  However, we rarely, if ever, see those garrison commands reflected in the summaries.  A significant blank that we cannot resolve with satisfaction.

What we can do, in the case of the 3rd Rhode Island, is use primary and secondary sources to provide a glimpse into that blank.  Let’s consider the 3rd Rhode Island by battery at this point in time of the war.  Recall, the 3rd and other units were, at the end of June, preparing for an assault from Folly Island onto Morris Island. Colonel Edwin Metcalf was in command of the regiment, with his headquarters on Hilton Head:

  • Battery A:  On Port Royal Island, under command of Lieutenant Edward F. Curtis (in absence of Captain William H. Hammer), serving as garrison artillery.
  • Battery B:  On Folly Island under Captain Albert E. Greene, having moved from Hilton Head at the end of June.  The battery manned six 10-inch siege mortars.
  • Battery C: Transferring from St. Helena Island to Hilton Head, and thence to Folly Island in the first week of July.  Commanded by Captain Charles R. Brayton.  The battery would man two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles and four 30-pdr Parrotts (along with a detachment from Battery C, 1st US Artillery).  Likely the reported howitzers were in reserve.
  • Battery D: Part of the original garrison sent to Folly Island in April.  Under the command of Captain Robert G. Shaw and manning eight 30-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery E: On Hilton Head, serving as garrison artillery under Captain Peter J. Turner (who was serving as a staff officer, thus one of his lieutenants was in temporary command).
  • Battery F: On Hilton Head, serving as garrison artillery under Captain David B. Churchill.
  • Battery G: Stationed at Fort Pulaski and under Captain John H. Gould.
  • Battery H: On Hilton Head, serving as garrison artillery under Captain Augustus W. Colwell.  Would deploy to Morris Island in July.
  • Battery I:  On Folly Island under Captain Charles G. Strahan.  The battery manned four 20-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery K: On Hilton Head, serving as garrison artillery under Lieutenant Horatio N. Perry.
  • Battery L: On Hilton Head, serving as garrison artillery under Captain Jeremiah Lanhan.
  • Battery M:  Part of the force on Folly island, under Captain Joseph J. Comstock.  They manned four 10-inch siege mortars and five 8-inch siege mortars.

Thus we see the 3rd Rhode Island was spread between garrison duties and advanced batteries preparing for a major offensive from Folly Island.  Those on the north end of Folly Island, overlooking Light House Creek, were armed with a variety of field guns, heavy Parrotts, and mortars.  Only the former category would have been covered by the summaries, as they existed in June 1863.  And what we have to work with is, based on official reports at the time, inaccurate.

But that’s what we must work with!  Turning to the smoothbore ammunition:

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  • Battery C: 156 shell, 214 case, and 132 canister for 12-pdr field howitzer.

One might think no rifled projectiles would be on hand… but perhaps related to the two 3-inch rifles reported on Folly Island and manned by Battery C, we find some Hotchkiss projectiles on hand:

 

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  • Battery C: 48 canister and 108 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

No ammunition reported on the next page, of Dyer’s, James, or Parrott patents:

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But some Schenkl on hand:

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  • Battery C: 100 shell for 3-inch rifles.

As for small arms:

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  • Battery C: Forty-eight Army revolvers and 102 cavalry sabers.

I suspect, given the varied nature of the 3rd Rhode Island’s duties, the other batteries had a large number of small arms on hand also.  But because of the selective record, we don’t have the details.

Just to say we discussed ALL the Rhode Island artillery, let me mention two other heavy artillery regiments.  The 5th Rhode Island Infantry was reorganized as the 5th Rhode Island Heavy Artillery on May 27, 1863.  Stationed at New Berne, North Carolina, Colonel George W. Tew commanded the reorganized regiment.

Though not organized, we can trace the story of another heavy artillery regiment back to June 1863.  In response to the emergency developing in Pennsylvania, the governor of Rhode Island authorized Colonel Nelson Viall (formerly of the 1st Rhode Island Infantry) to form a six-month regiment.  Designated the 13th Rhode Island, recruitment was slow due to the war situation, small bounties, and the draft.  By July, the War Department decided no more six-month regiments would be accepted and insisted on a three-year enlistment standard.  With that, the 13th was disbanded and in its place the 14th Rhode Island was authorized.  That formation, which began organization in August, was a US Colored Troops Regiment of heavy artillery.

 

Summary Statement: December 31, 1862 – 5th Regiment Artillery, US Regulars

If you are “Willing and Able”* we will look at the 5th Artillery’s portion of the December 31, 1862 summary statement.  Unlike the other regular artillery regiments, the 5th did not have a history dating back to pre-war days.  It was formed on May 4, 1861.  Though a “young” formation, the batteries saw considerable action in the first two years of the war.  But again, this post will focus on the state of affairs at the end of December 1862.

As with previous installments, the yellow lines are the rules across the page, to help us verify the numbers.  The red lines are where I’ve “cut” a portion of the page to bring column headers and line declarations into view.  Please notice there are two horizontal red lines in these tables.  The 5th Artillery’s statement spans from the bottom of one set of pages and onto the next.  Yes, that complicates the effort.  But no bayonets or scissors are needed, thanks to some digital tools.

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Not a lot of variation among the cannons assigned to the batteries of the regiment.  However, the locations of some batteries offer questions that need answers.  Here’s the breakdown of the assignments and charges:

  • Battery A: Newport News, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  The location may reflect the assignment at the time of the ordnance report filing (March 1863).  Battery A was part of Ninth Corps, Army of the Potomac, at Fredericksburg and participated in the “Mud March” of January 1863.  Battery A remained with the corps when transferred to the Department of Virginia, arriving at Newport News in February.
  • Battery B: “Not organized until 1863.”  This battery was still forming at the reporting time.  Personnel were on duty at Fort Hamilton, New York.
  • Battery C: At Belle Plain, Virginia with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Assigned to First Corps, Army of the Potomac.
  • Battery D: At Falmouth, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts.  Assigned to Fifth Corps, Army of the Potomac.
  • Battery E: No return filed.  Like “B” above, Battery E was still getting organized and personnel were on duty at Fort Hamilton.
  • Battery F: At Berlin, Maryland with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 10-pdr Parrotts.  As with Battery A, the location is another “conundrum.” As with its sister, Battery F’s location may reflect that at the time of report filing.  In December 1862, Battery F supported Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac, on the banks of the Rappahannock.  However, in July 1863, when the report was filed, the battery was moving through Berlin, Maryland with the pursuit after Gettysburg.  Of note, by July 1863 the battery had six Parrotts.
  • Battery G: New Orleans, Louisiana.  No cannons reported.  The battery was in transit from Fort Hamilton to the Department of the Gulf.
  • Battery H: Murphreesboro, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  Engaged at Stones River on December 31, thus explaining the delay with reporting, Battery H was part of an all “US Regulars” brigade in the Center Wing, Fourteenth Corps, Army of the Cumberland.
  • Battery I: No return filed.  Was assigned to Fifth Corps at Falmouth.  Presumably retained four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.
  • Battery K: At Falmouth, Virginia with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Assigned to the Reserve Artillery, Army of the Potomac.
  • Battery L: Baltimore, Maryland with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Part of the Eighth Corps, Middle Department.
  • Battery M: Location not indicated, but with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Battery M was part of the artillery reserve of Fourth Corps, then posted at Yorktown.

Two additional lines appear on the Fifth Artillery’s summary for the Adjutant and 1st Lieutenant.  Both of these were at Fort Hamilton.  No cannons or ammunition were reported under these lines.  Just small arms and other equipment.

The Fifth Artillery reported this for smoothbore ammunition on hand:

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The breakdown by battery:

  • Battery A: For 12-pdr caliber – 192 shot, 96 shells, 288 spherical case, and 192 canister.
  • Battery C: 12-pdr caliber – 119 shot, 11 shell, 212 case, and 120 canister.
  • Battery F: 12-pdr again – 96 shot, 32 shell, 96 case, and 40 canister.
  • Battery K: 12-pdr – 96 shot, 61 shell, 117 case, and 32 canister.
  • Battery M: 12-pdr – 233 shot, 87 shell, 274 case, and 96 canister.

Turning to the rifled projectiles, first the Hotchkiss projectiles:

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We see only Battery L with any quantity on hand – 720 3-inch shot and 241 fused shells.  Would be interesting to compare Battery L’s quantities with Battery I’s… but the latter battery’s report did not find its way to the summary.

For Parrott rifled projectiles, we see two patterns – Parrott and Schenkel:

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By battery:

  • Battery D: 10-pdr Parrott – 72  shells, 500 case, and 24 canister.
  • Battery F: 10-pdr Parrott – 160 shells, 320 case, and 96 canister; 320 Schenkel 10-pdr shot (note, this is Schenkel pattern cast for Parrott guns).
  • Battery H: 10-pdr Parrott – 310 shells, 93 case, and 63 canister.

More Schenkel pattern as the table continues to the next page:

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  • Battery D: 251 Schenkel-pattern 10-pdr Parrott shells.
  • Battery L: 120 3-inch Schenkel shells and 120 3-inch canister, Tatham’s pattern canister.

Lastly, the small arms:

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  • Battery A: 23 revolvers, .44 caliber, and 65 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery C: 27 .44-caliber and 27 .37-caliber revolvers.  17 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery D: 12 .37-caliber revolvers and 62 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F: 27 .44-caliber revolvers and 22 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: 7 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H: 17 .44-caliber revolvers, 5 .37 caliber revolvers, and 40 cavalry sabers.
  • Battery K: 58 .44-caliber revolvers and 16 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery L: 98 .37-caliber revolvers and 145 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery M: 24 .37-caliber revolvers and 20 horse artillery sabers.
  • Adjutant: 28 horse artillery sabers.

This concludes the statements for the US Regulars. I’ll turn to the volunteer batteries next, in alphabetical order by states.

NOTE: “Willing and Able” is the motto of the 5th Air Defense Artillery Regiment.  The 5th Artillery, as formed in 1861, was by law just an artillery regiment, though all of its batteries were field or light batteries.  In 1924 the regiment became the 5th Coast Artillery Regiment. Starting in the 1950s, most elements of the regiment became air defense units.  But not until 1971 was the 5th Air Defense Artillery Regiment formally constituted to inherit the lineage of the 5th Artillery.  The present day 5th Field Artillery Regiment dates to 1907 and does not share the same regimental crest as the air defense regiment.  Among the heraldry depicted on the unit crest, a fishhook symbolizes the defensive position at Gettysburg and three pairs of cannons alluding to action at New Market in 1864.