Potter’s Raid, April 21, 1865: “The last shots loaded with hostile intent were fired as a salute”

With the destruction of trains at Middleton Depot on April 20, 1865, Brigadier-General Edward E. Potter turned his division to the Santee River Road on April 21, with the aim of marching back to Georgetown.

PotterRaidApr21

Potter had his men on the march at dawn on the 21st.  In the rear was the 25th Ohio Infantry and Major Edward Culp:

While on Governor Manning’s plantation, and within sight of his mansion, the rebel cavalry made an attack on the two companies acting a rear guard, but were easily repulsed with some loss to them.  A swamp being in our front, General Potter ordered a halt.

The halt took place around Fulton Post-Office. This must have been a somewhat leisurely halt, but the men were still under arms, weapons loaded, and wary of Confederate attack.  Potter was still there at 1 p.m. when the Confederates approached again. This time the were under a flag of truce.  Potter reported:

… I received a communication from Major-General [Pierce M.B.] Young, commanding the force which had been opposed to us, stating that a truce had been agreed upon between Generals Johnston and Sherman, and that notice of forty-eight hours would be given prior to resumption of hostilities.  I answered that my command was moving toward Georgetown, and that it would no longer subsist on the country, except in the matter of forage for animals.

This was met with, as one would presume, much rejoicing by the men.  Culp wrote, “The joy that filled our hearts was supreme.”  In the 54th Massachusetts, Captain Luis Emilio observed:

This great news created the most intense joy and excitement, for it seemed to end the war, as the Rebels themselves acknowledged. Cheers without number were given, and congratulations exchanged.  Then the Fifty-fourth was brought to a field, where the last shots loaded with hostile intent were fired as a salute. Soon after, the march resumed in sultry weather with frequent showers.  Ten miles from the Santee the division bivouacked after completing a journey of twenty miles.

In distant Hilton Head, Major-General Quincy Gillmore also received word of the suspension of hostilities, by way of a staff officer just returned from a visit to Major-General William T. Sherman.  Gillmore ordered “a salute of 100 guns at noon to-day in honor of the success.”  Though within seventy-two hours the truce would be interrupted, at least by orders, and the forty-eight hour notice served.  The war was not quite over and some final details were being elusive… and beyond that there were several military operations in South Carolina to be marched out.

(Citations from OR, Series I, Volume 47, Part I, Serial 98, pages 1029; Part III, Serial 100, page 1031;  Culp, Edward C., The 25th Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry in the War for the Union, Topeka, Kansas, George W. Crane & Company: 1885, page 132-3;Emilio, Luis F.,  History of the Fifty-fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, 1863-1865, Boston: Boston Book, 1894, page 308.)

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Potter’s Raid, April 20, 1865: “The explosions were terrific” – destruction of trains at Middleton

On April 20, 1865, having driven off the last Confederate forces between his forces and the trains on the Camden Branch Railroad the previous day, Brigadier-General Edward Potter sent detachments to Middleton Depot.  The destruction of those trains would mark the completion of Potter’s assigned mission – a hard earned completion of the task.

PotterRaidApr20

At least three regiments “worked on the railroad” that morning.  Captain Luis Emilio of the 54th Massachusetts recalled:

The rolling-stock was ours, massed on the Camden Branch, whence it could not be taken, as the Fifty-forth had destroyed the trestle at Wateree Junction, on the 11th. General Potter devoted the 20th to its destruction. That day the Fifty-fourth marched to Middleton Depot and with other regiments assisted in the work. About this place for a distance of some two miles were sixteen locomotives and 245 cars containing railway supplies, ordnance, commissary and quartermaster’s stores. They were burned, those holding powder and shells during several hours blowing up with deafening explosions and scattering discharges, until property of immense value and quantity disappeared in smoke and flame.  Locomotives were rendered useless before the torch was applied. The Fifty-fourth alone destroyed fifteen locomotives, one passenger, two box and two platform cars with the railway supplies they held.

The 25th Ohio and 157th New York Infantry regiments from First Brigade were also detailed to assist the destruction of the trains.  Colonel Philip Brown recorded similar tallies as Emilio’s, indicating some overlap in the accounting by the participants.  Major Edward Culp, of the 25th, was closer to the scene:

The next morning, April 20th, the 25th Ohio was sent to the railroad, where for two miles the road was crowded with cars, including sixteen locomotives.  The cars were loaded with clothing, ammunition, provisions, and, in fact, everything imaginable. The Regiment was bivouacked some distance from the railroad, and men detailed to fire the train.  Several cars were loaded entirely with powder, and in other cars were thousands of loaded shells. The explosions were terrific, and for several hours it seemed as if a battle was being fought.  After completely destroying the train the Regiment returned to camp at Singleton’s.

Around noon the work on the trains was nearing completion. Potter’s official report stated the day was spent “thoroughly destroying locomotives, 18 in number, and in burning the cars, of which there were 176.”

While this was going on, Confederate cavalry continued to spar with Potter’s rear guard.  Lieutenant Edmund Clark reported, “one howitzer was engaged on the Statesburg road; fired four rounds.”  Culp mentioned, “The rebel cavalry still hovered about, and fired into camp continually, but without much damage.”  Thus, while no “battle” was taking place, the “fighting” in South Carolina continued, after the “last battle” in South Carolina was over.

Potter’s force returned to the Singleton Plantation, where it had camped from April 12-14.  Local residents throughout Sumter County were by that time huddling at various plantations, reeling from over a week of Federal foraging and fighting.  To the south of Potter’s camp that evening was Millford Plantation, the home of John Laurence Manning, former state governor.  Manning’s wife was Susan Hampton Manning, an aunt of Lieutenant-General Wade Hampton III.  Given the connections, one might have expected Millford to become one of many homes in the area to be set afire.  But it survived.

The story of how that happened is attributed to different dates, but most often to sometime on April 19 or 20th.  The story goes that Potter arrived at Millford and remarked of the beauty of the architecture.  Manning responded that the home was designed and built by Nathaniel F. Potter of Rhode Island, adding “and it will be destroyed by a Potter.”  With that Potter is said to have responded, “No, you are protected. Nathaniel Potter was my brother.”  And thus the Rhode Island granite structure was saved and survives to this day.

A standing representative of the Old South spared to be mixed with the New South as Potter’s raid drew to a close.

(Citations from OR, Series I, Volume 47, Part I, Serial 98, pages 1029; Part III, Serial 100, pages 1031 and 1041;  Culp, Edward C., The 25th Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry in the War for the Union, Topeka, Kansas, George W. Crane & Company: 1885, page 132 ;Emilio, Luis F.,  History of the Fifty-fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, 1863-1865, Boston: Boston Book, 1894, page 306.)

Potter’s Raid, April 19, 1865: Fighting at Dinkins’ Mill and Beech Creek

Having cleared the Confederate defenders from Boykin’s Mill on April 18, 1865, Brigadier-General Edward E. Potter continued marching south on April 19 in pursuit of Confederate trains on the Camden Branch Railroad.  Potter started the march that morning at 6 a.m.  The First Brigade, under Colonel Philip Brown, had the lead that morning.  The 107th Ohio Infantry marched by way of the railroad while the 157th New York and 25th Ohio lead the march on the main road to Manchester.  In the rear, the 54th Massachusetts formed the rear guard, supported by the iron 6-pdr and two field howitzers captured earlier in the campaign.

PotterRaidApr19

Potter’s column was barely out of camp when they encountered the first Confederate resistance of the day.  Confederate cavalry were posted at a rail breastwork with artillery support.  Major Edward Culp later recalled:

The 157th New York took the left of the road and the 25th Ohio the right. We advanced in line of battle, driving the rebels before us, until they reached higher ground, where, supported by several pieces of artillery, they intended to make a stand.  The 25th advanced steadily under a galling artillery fire until within one hundred yards of the enemy’s position, when [Lieutenant-Colonel Nathaniel Haughton] ordered a charge, and the rebels retreated across Rafting Creek.

This was but the first round of the fighting of April 19. As the Federals passed through, they turned nearby Oakland Plantation into a field hospital.  Oakland had been Major-General Pierce M.B. Young’s headquarters the day before.  And the house had suffered damage from a stray cannon shot (either on April 18, as the marker says, or on April 19).

At Rafting Creek was a Confederate defense similar to that seen the day before at Boykin’s Mill.  The main road, on which the 157th New York and 25th Ohio advanced, crossed Rafting Creek near Dinkins’ Mill.  Potter recalled the position:

The mill dam had been opened and the swamp was not fordable, while in the road the water was waist-deep, and any force attempting to cross here was exposed to a fire from the enemy behind rifle-trenches and with two guns commanding the road.

Young’s force at Dinkins’ Mill consisted of the remainder of the Kentucky Orphan Brigade, 53rd Alabama Cavalry (or Partisan Rangers, as some prefer), 11th Georgia Cavalry, a couple sections of artillery, and South Carolina militia.

Potter had the two infantry regiments maintain a strong skirmish line along the creek, reinforced by the two Napoleon guns of Lieutenant Edmund Clark’s section from Battery F, 3rd New York Artillery. Clark’s gunners expended over thirty rounds that day including the fighting at the barricade earlier in the day.

Potter dispatched Colonel George Baird with four companies of the 32nd USCT to feel for a crossing downstream from the mill.  Meanwhile the 107th Ohio was pressing against the line at the railroad bridge a mile downstream from the main road.  But neither of those movements produced the desired effect for Potter. In the rear, the 54th Massachusetts reported sporadic fighting with Confederate cavalry, but was able to fend off the attacks.

Finally around mid-morning, Potter sent Colonel Henry Chipman with the 102nd USCT and four companies of the 32nd USCT upstream, about a mile to the left, to find a crossing.  Chipman accomplished this with the loss of one killed and two wounded.  Around noon, Chipman’s force engaged the right flank of the Confederate defenders on Rafting Creek.  With sound of that engagement, Potter ordered Brown’s brigade forward.  Within a short time, the Confederate position was carried.

With the position on Rafting Creek turned, Young withdrew most of his forces to the east toward Providence.  But the 53rd Alabama and 11th Georgia continued south towards Stateburg.  The Confederates formed another defensive line at the crossing of Beech Creek.

After breaking for lunch, Potter’s force continued the march south.  The march continued with the 157th New York on the right of the road, 25th Ohio on the left of the road, and the 107th Ohio still marching along the railroad line to the west.  Reaching Beech Creek, the Federals encountered the Confederate defense, as Brown reported:

Here quite a strong force of the enemy was encountered, but the determined men of the two regiments moved briskly forward and so completely routed the enemy that they made no further serious opposition to the march.

Culp was a little less complementary, stating, “In fact, it became hard work to keep up with them.”  Into the evening the Federals pursued the fleeing Confederates.  Under pressure from the 4th Massachusetts Cavalry, the Confederates finally scattered some four miles beyond Beech Creek and turned east.

Potter opted not to continue pursuit of the Confederate force, and remained focused on his objective – the trains on the Camden Branch Railroad.  However, he also decided since those trains were going nowhere further on the line, he would wait until the next morning to descend upon them at the end of the broken line at Middleton Depot.  Captain Luis Emilio of the 54th Massachusetts later wrote, “Beyond Statesburg the resistance was slight, the column proceeding until 10 p.m., when the Fifty-forth reached its former camp at Singleton’s, having marched eighteen miles.” The 107th Ohio continued its march down the railroad until 3 a.m. the next morning, reaching the large Singleton Plantation once again.

The day’s fighting had cost the Federals ten casualties.  Confederate losses were not recorded in detail.   I know there are a lot of points to quibble over when identifying the last of this or last of that.  Indeed, at 7 a.m. on April 19, somewhere upstream in the Wateree watershed, a detail from the 12th Ohio Cavalry, part of Major-General George Stoneman’s raid, captured, and burned, the Nations Ford bridge of the Charlotte and South Carolina Railroad without a fight.  But these casualties care considered the last in a “named battle” in South Carolina during the Civil War.

However, that would not mean the fighting was done.  Potter still had some trains to destroy.  And after accomplishing that, he had to find his way back to the coast.   Although driven and scattered, the Confederate forces in the area were still around to contest Potter’s movements.

(Citations from OR, Series I, Volume 47, Part I, Serial 98, pages 1029; Part III, Serial 100, pages 1030 and 1035;  Culp, Edward C., The 25th Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry in the War for the Union, Topeka, Kansas, George W. Crane & Company: 1885, page 131 ;Emilio, Luis F.,  History of the Fifty-fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, 1863-1865, Boston: Boston Book, 1894, page 306.)

Potter’s Raid, April 18, 1865: “This last fight of the Fifty-fourth, and also one of the very last of the war” at Boykin’s Mill

Brigadier-General Edward E. Potter started his division out of Camden, South Carolina at 7 a.m. on April 18, 1865.  His objective was Confederate locomotives and rolling stock reported to be trapped on the Camden Branch Railroad in the vicinity of Boykin’s Mill. Potter had a battalion of 102nd USCT advance down the railroad and destroy the line.  (And recall the remainder of the 102nd USCT was with Colonel Henry Chipman, which on that morning was struggling to join with Potter… and we’ll discuss in a moment.)

PotterRaidApr18

Potter met no resistance until nearing Boykin’s Mill, some five miles outside of Camden where the roads crossed Swift Creek.  There Major-General Pierce M.B. Young had his main line of resistance.  Young’s small force, numbering around 800, consisted mostly of South Carolina Home Guard bolstered by veterans from the 53rd Alabama Cavalry, 9th Kentucky Mounted Infantry, and a few artillery pieces.  Also, reflecting the situation at war’s end, Young’s ranks included individuals, detachments, convalescents, and men under almost every administrative status one might contemplate.  It was, as we say, a scratch force.

But Young held a good position.  To his right, the mill pond covered approaches from the east.  To his left, a dense swamp between the railroad and the Wateree River left few routes for any Federal flanking maneuver.  To further bar Federal passage, Young had cut dams so as to flood the roads approaching the Confederate position and removed planks and beams from the Camden road and railroad bridges. So long as Young held the center, where the bridges crossed Swift Creek, he might give Potter a costly delay.

Approaching Swift Creek, Potter demonstrated with the main body of his column along the Camden Road.  Major Edward Culp of the 25th Ohio recalled:

Our skirmishers were advanced to the edge of the swamp, but found the water too deep to wade.  The 107th Ohio, 54th Massachusetts, and 102d U.S.C.T. were sent to the right some distance, with a colored man, a native of that country, to pilot them through the swamps.  The 25th Ohio was moved to the edge of the swamp, and gained possession of some rebel works constructed in anticipation of our march to Camden by that road.  The right of the Regiment rested on the railroad, and we were to charge across the trestle work as soon as our flanking regiments made their attack.

The map below, from Captain Luis Emilio’s history of the 54th Massachusetts, depicts those positions from the Federal perspective (and thus north is to the bottom) to the left (west) of the main roads, and where most of the action in the Battle of Boykin’s Mill would occur.

BoykinsMill

At the railroad bridge (also to the left and off Emilio’s map), Potter positioned one of his 12-pdr Napoleon guns.  The “moving part” of Potter’s command then attempted to slog their way around the Confederate left, as Emilio recorded:

In this flanking movement Lieutenant-Colonel [H. Northy] Hooper led the Fifty-fourth along the creek over ploughed fields bordering the wood of the swamp, with Company F, under Captain [Watson] Bridge, skirmishing.  From contrabands it was learned that the swamp was impassable nearer than Boykin’s Mills, some two miles from the road.  When in vicinity of the mills, the enemy’s scouts were seen falling back.

The crossing point described by Emilio is the road leading across to “Island” on his map. Hooper describing the crossing point in his official report, added:

It was quickly discovered that the enemy was prepared to dispute our passage.  There were found to be two streams. They could be crossed above by a dike and 150 yards below by a road that crossed one stream by a bridge, the boards of which were removed; the second stream fordable; fifteen yards beyond the ford, up a steep ascent, was a breast-work of cotton bales.  The dike was covered by the fire of the enemy. The dike and the road met and formed a junction on the enemy’s side of the creek.

Seeing the crossing points too well defended for direct assault, Hooper sent a force downstream to a ford reported by his guides.  Major George Pope led Companies A, D, G, and I to that ford only to find the Confederates already there.  Attempting to feel the Confederate strength, Pope ordered Company A to demonstrate at the ford site.  At that same instance, the Confederates delivered their own volley.  In that volley, one of the South Carolina Home Guard, Burwell Henry Boykin, son of the owners of Boykin’s mill, is said to have killed Lieutenant Edward Lewis Stevens.  As frequent reader over at The Cotton Boll Conspiracy has recently mentioned, Stevens had the dubious honor of being the last Federal officer killed in action during the Civil War… and as legend has it, was shot by a fourteen-year-old boy literally defending his home.

At the mill dam, Hooper had one of the sluice gates opened with an aim to drain the waters down to better allow crossing, pending Pope’s maneuvers.  When word came that Pope could not force a crossing, Hooper informed Potter and asked for artillery support.  That came in the form of the second Napoleon gun of Potter’s main force.

… and after a dozen discharges of shell at the position of the enemy I had the satisfaction to see quite a number of rebels rapidly leave our front.  A column composed of the five companies under my immediate command then charged across the two streams over the dike in single file. Although the enemy maintained his position for a while, he soon fled.  The regiment gained the enemy’s breast-works and the affair at Boykins’ Mill was over.

While the 54th Massachusetts forced a crossing at the mill, the battalion from the 102nd USCT  managed to get across further down-stream by crossing on logs.  The 107th Ohio followed them.  The presence of this force did factor in the Confederate retreat.

In this flanking movement that unhinged Young’s Swift Creek line, the 54th Massachusetts suffered three killed (two enlisted besides Stevens) and twelve wounded. Emilio later reflected upon this, which would prove to be the 54th’s last charge of the war:

This last fight of the Fifty-fourth, and also one of the very last of the war, was well managed by Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper, when less discretion would have resulted in a repulse and heavy loss.  The charge was a plucky affair under exceptionally adverse conditions.

After clearing the Confederates around the mill at about 4 p.m. that afternoon, the cheering of Hooper’s men prompted a general advance from the rest of the Federal force on the main road from Camden.  Potter pursued Young’s retreat for three miles before going into camp for the evening.

Leading the pursuit that afternoon was Major Moses Webster with his battalion from the 4th Massachusetts Cavalry.  Webster’s troopers had been very busy on April 18th, as in the morning they rendered service to Chipman and the 102nd USCT.  Chipman had woke that morning in a precarious position:

Brisk skirmishing commenced with the enemy’s cavalry on the morning of the 18th at different places, who made spirited resistance, fighting behind breast-works of rails, which they would not leave until driven from them by skirmishers.  We were hemmed in on every side, but moved steadily forward.  My loss during the forenoon was 1 man killed, and 1 officer and 7 men wounded.

Thus Chipman’s foray to join Potter, which was originally designed to work with Brigadier-General Alfred Hartwell’s force operating out of Charleston, was turning into a disaster.  But before noon, the situation took a turn for the better:

At 11 a.m. Lieutenant [Charles] Barrell joined me, accompanied by Major Webster and detachment of his cavalry.  They had driven the enemy from my front, and gave information concerning the movements of General Potter’s forces.  Skirmishing with my rear guard was kept up till afternoon.  I joined the command of General Potter at 8 p.m. at Swift Creek, where my regiment was united.

Disaster averted, Chipman’s men went into camp with Potter’s division.  All of the men weathered a heavy rainstorm that evening.

Though able to turn Young’s position at Swift Creek, Potter found most of the trains had again eluded him.  One locomotive and a few cars were captured. But the rest fell back down the line.  But that was of little worry.  Trains could not run where there was no track.  And the track south of Stateburg was already torn up.  Potter anticipated capturing the remainder on the 19th.

There would be some action in the days that followed, but the action at Boykin’s Mill had for all practical purposes broken the Confederate defenses.  Rather fitting the the important role played by the 54th Massachusetts and the USCT during the day’s action.  The war had turned full circle in many regards on this day 150 years ago.

Boykin Mill

(Citations from OR, Series I, Volume 47, Part I, Serial 98, pages 1029; Part III, Serial 100, pages 1039 and 1040;  Culp, Edward C., The 25th Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry in the War for the Union, Topeka, Kansas, George W. Crane & Company: 1885, pages 130-1 ;Emilio, Luis F.,  History of the Fifty-fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, 1863-1865, Boston: Boston Book, 1894, pages 301-4.)

Potter’s Raid, April 17, 1865: “They broke and fled in disorder… we marched into Camden”

After a two day march to bypass Confederate defenses along the Camden Branch Railroad, Brigadier-General Edward E. Potter directed his division on to Camden, South Carolina on April 17, 1865.  Colonel Philip P. Brown’s First Brigade had the honor of leading the march that day.   And on point was, again, Lieutenant-Colonel Nathaniel Haughton and the 25th Ohio Infantry.

PotterRaidApr17

The advance met Confederate skirmishers almost from the start.  But not until reaching Swift Creek, around 9 a.m., was resistance strong enough to cause Potter’s march to pause.  There, a party of entrenched Confederates blocked passage.  Haughton dispatched Major Edward Culp and four companies to outflank the Confederates:

Major Culp, with Companies E, K, G, and B, waded the swamp some distance to the left, and struck the enemy on the flank, Colonel Haughton at the same time charging the enemy in front with the balance of the Regiment; they broke and fled in disorder, and at 3 o’clock p.m. we marched into Camden.

While engaged at Swift Creek, Lieutenant Edmund Clark’s Battery F, 3rd New York Artillery “fired eight rounds from the Napoleons.” And the Federals recorded no casualties in the advance to Camden.

Few military targets remained untouched in Camden after the Fifteenth Corps’ visit earlier in February.  Only the rail line received any great attention from Potter’s men.  Culp later recorded his impression of the town:

The inhabitants were pretty thoroughly subjugated, and in favor of peace on any terms. They were not particularly in love with Sherman’s army, and had some pretty hard stories to tell, which were, most of them, true enough.

While Potter occupied Camden, to the south, at Stateburg, Colonel Henry Chipman and part of the 102nd USCT ventured alone through a swirl of Confederate skirmishers.  Chipman arrived at Stateburg around noon on the 17th.  Not finding Potter at the point designated for his juncture, Chipman took assessment of the situation.  Information, presumably passed from civilians or escaped slaves, indicated the Confederates were fortifying Swift Creek and that Potter had marched around to Bradford Springs.  “I marched in the same direction,” Chipman reported, “following his trail, camping for the night near the springs.” Chipman’s force was at that time isolated and unsupported behind the Confederate defenses, all unknown to Potter.

Establish contact with Potter, Chipman sent out First Lieutenant Charles L. Barrell and two orderlies.

Lieutenant Barrell, after leaving the camp, met a Confederate colonel and his orderly; by his coolness and bravery succeeded in capturing the orderly, whom he made a guide to conduct him past the Confederate forces into our lines.

Barrell was able to reach Potter and get word of Chipman’s position. Barrell’s actions that evening earned him the Medal of Honor.

Though able to occupy Camden without serious delay, Potter found the locomotives were shifted south along the railroad to a point below Boykin’s Mill.  So Potter camped his division at Camden and prepared an advance to that point for the next day.

(Citations from OR, Series I, Volume 47, Part I, Serial 98, pages 1041; Part III, Serial 100, pages 1040, and 1041;  Culp, Edward C., The 25th Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry in the War for the Union, Topeka, Kansas, George W. Crane & Company: 1885, pages 129-30.)

April 9-13, 1865: Hartwell’s Expedition complete; Missed opportunity to aid Potter

At this time (April 13) 150 years ago, Brigadier-General Edward Potter was waiting the return of his supply trains from Wright’s Bluff.  Downstream from that point on the Santee River, Brigadier-General Alfred Hartwell continued his expedition out of Charleston.  As of April 8, Hartwell had made no contact with Potter, and apparently had made no effort to do so despite the close proximity of forces at that time.

HartwellApril13a

On April 9, Hartwell moved his force, consisting of the 54th New York Infantry, the 55th Massachusetts Infantry, and a section of artillery, to Eutaw Creek, near Eutaw Springs (a site of significance, if you know your Revolutionary War history).  “Some skirmishing occurred; but dispersed the enemy with a few shells.” At that point, Hartwell sent two companies to Nelson’s Ferry in an attempt to reach Potter.  Aside from burning fifty bales of cotton, the detachment found that Potter was past that point and on the way to Sumter.

While waiting the return of the detachment, Hartwell held a parlay with a Confederate cavalry officer:

A certain Lieutenant Pettus, commanding some rebel cavalry in our vicinity, came in on a flag of truce at my request.  I told this officer that he would not quarter in or near houses, or fire from houses, if he cared to save them from destruction. I also sent this officer a note to General Ferguson, suggesting the propriety of his recalling his scouts from attempting to coerce the slaves to labor.

Again, we see the damage wrought on South Carolina is not as clear cut to say the Federals just burned everything.  Furthermore, emancipation was, even at its arrival, not translated to complete freedom.

Hartwell remained at Eutaw Creek on the morning of the 10th, sending a party to Vance’s Ferry to gather corn and rice.  At 5 p.m., he resumed the march.  Along the way to the State Road, the column encountered a party of Confederate cavalry, dispersing them with no casualties.  Hartwell camped at midnight on the State Road.

The next day, Hartwell took up the march back to Charleston.  After a pause to repair the causeway over Cypress Swamp, the column reached Twenty-Five Mile House on the evening of the 11th.  On the 12th, Hartwell marched to Goose Creek.  There he left two companies with the refugees trailing the column.  The rest of the force marched to Four-Mile Tavern to close the expedition.

But there was another Federal column operating out of Charleston at the same time.  And remarkably, this column, ordered to link up with Hartwell and direct the whole on to support Potter, completely missed contact with Hartwell’s force. This was a column commanded by Colonel Henry Chipman and consisting of the right wing from the 102nd USCT.  Recall a detachment of that regiment was already with Potter.

Chipman came up from Savannah with the rest of the regiment and received orders on April 8 to proceed out of Charleston.  His orders were to reach Hartwell.  From there, Chipman was to communicate with Potter as to further movement.  Specifically, the orders, as communicated through Brigadier-General John Hatch, stressed that Major-General Quincy Gillmore, “thinks it desirable that General Potter’s force be increased by this addition, and desires to impress upon you the necessity of a prompt and hearty cooperation by General Hartwell with General Potter, in case the latter is pressed and compelled to fall back toward the Santee.”  This intent nearly led to a disaster for Chipman.

Chipman departed Charleston on April 11 and took the road towards Monk’s Corner, reaching that point on April 12. Let me overlay the general route taken by Chipman (in light blue) onto the map of Hartwell’s movements to illustrate just how close these columns would have been on April 12:

HartwellApril13

Chipman continued his march towards Nelson’s Ferry, presuming the boats supporting Potter’s column were there.  After skirmishing sharply throughout April 13th, Chipman arrived at the ferry that afternoon only to learn Hartwell had returned to Charleston.  Keeping with the intent of his mission. Chipman sent a messenger to Potter then in Manchester.  Potter called for Chipman to join his force “without delay at Statesburg or beyond.”

This sent Chipman and his portion of the 102nd USCT, unsupported, on a trip up the Santee:

ChipmanApril13

The first order of business was to cross the Santee.  By chance, the long-serving tug USS Daffodil, under Lieutenant James O’Kane, appeared coming down the Santee at just the right time.  O’Kane transported Chipman’s force to Wright’s Bluff, where they arrived at 8:30 p.m. on April 15. Along the way, Chipman reported Confederate “guerrilla parties” fired on the tug.

Chipman marched the 102nd USCT to Manning on April 16 and thence to Stateburg on April 17. But he arrived behind Potter’s advance to Camden and was all alone, deep in Confederate territory.  I’ll pick up that part of the story in relation to Potter’s movements and the Battle of Boykin’s Mill.

(Citations from OR, Series I, Volume 47, Part I, Serial 98, pages 1040 and 1043; Part III, Serial 100, page 138.)

Potter’s Raid, April 9, 1865: “completely routing the entire force” at Dingle’s Mill

Overshadowed by events that took place elsewhere on April 9, 1865, Brigadier-General Edward E. Potter marched his division towards Sumter, South Carolina.  Potter had Colonel Edward Hallowell’s Second Brigade cross the Pocotaligo River on the repaired causeway over Pocotaligo River during the night of April 8-9.  With that bridgehead, Potter began the day’s march towards Sumter at dawn on April 9.

PotterRaidApr9

On the north side of the Pocotaligo, the Federals found the country open and waiting for their arrival – in more ways than one.  Throughout the day, escaped slaves joined the column, often bringing their own transportation. Captain Luis Emilio, 54th Massachusetts, observed:

At daybreak on a rainy morning the troops moved toward Sumterville, through a fine region with numerous plantations, from which the negroes flocked to the force by hundreds. The train had grown to a formidable array of vehicles, augmented every hour.  During the morning the enemy’s light troops fell back readily after exchanging shots.

Facing Potters advance was a scratch Confederate defense.  Colonel George W. Lee mustered the 20th South Carolina Militia in Sumter, with a few hundred men.  Augmenting Lee, Colonel James F. Pressley brought mounted irregulars and a detachment of the 9th Kentucky Cavalry.  Adding to this force, convalescents and furloughed soldiers joined the defenses.  All told, the Confederate forces probably numbered less than 500.  But they did have benefit of three artillery pieces – two field howitzers and one 6-pdr field gun (which apparently was not in working order).  From the convalescents, artillery  Lieutenants William Alexander McQueen and Raphael Pampere volunteered to manage the howitzers.

While mounted Confederate detachments harassed Potter’s advance during the morning and mid-day, most of the Confederate force established a defensive line on Turkey Creek near Dingle’s Mill.  The two howitzers were in position to cover the causeway over the creek’s swamp.  Above that point, the millpond covered the Confederate left.  Dense swamps covered their right.  In all, a fair defensive position.

Potter received information, presumably from escaped slaves, of the Confederate dispositions.  “Before arriving at this point,” he recorded, “on the afternoon of the 9th I ordered Colonel Hallowell’s brigade to turn the enemy’s position on the left by taking a plantation road which led to the main road between Dingle’s Mill and Sumterville.”  However, Hallowell was unable to gain the flank, “owing to the incapacity of the guide” assigned to the column.

Meanwhile, at around 2:30 p.m., the lead of Colonel Philip Brown’s First Brigade ran up against the main Confederate line.  The 107th Ohio Infantry first encountered Confederate skirmishers just before Turkey Creek.  Brown feed in the 25th Ohio to extend the line.  This drove the Confederates over Turkey Creek. Major Edward Culp, 25th Ohio Infantry, later recorded:

Our skirmishers advanced to the edge of the swamp, and found the bridge burning and the enemy behind good earth-works on the opposite side of the swamp. The 25th Ohio moved to a natural embankment just at the edge of the swamp, which offered good protection, and with its left resting on the road, and near the burning bridge, awaited the orders to charge.

The two Confederate howitzers swept the approaches to the causeway and pinned down the Federal advance at that point.  To counter, Potter brought up Lieutenant Edmund Clark’s detachment of Battery F, 3rd New York Artillery, with their two Napoleons.  Clark placed one gun on the road and the other in an open field to the left of the Federal line.  While effective, to the point of disabling one howitzer and killing McQueen, the artillery did not clear the way.  A rush by the two Federal regiments failed to dislodge the defenders.

Then one of the escaped slaves (traditionally, it is said one of those who worked at the mill) approached the Federal officers offering a path to flank the Confederate right on the down stream side of the swamp.  Lieutenant-Colonel James Carmichael moved with the detachment of the 56th New York to find this path.  As Brown later reported, this was “an undertaking of great difficulty on account of the depth of the mud and water and the almost impenetrable growth of underbrush.”  But Carmichael managed to find a way through and get to dry ground on the opposite side of the swamp.

… but not waiting for his whole command to form, with the detachment of the Fifty-sixth New York Veteran Volunteers and one company of the One hundred and fifty-seventh New York Volunteers he charged on the enemy, killed the officer commanding the enemy’s artillery, completely routing the entire force, and captured 2 pieces of artillery and 1 battle-flag.

With the 20th South Carolina Militia in flight, the Federals advanced across Turkey Creek. The Confederates made one more stand before Sumter.  But Brown promptly dealt with this with a skirmish line and a few more rounds from Clark’s Napoleons.  Just before dark, Potter’s men entered Sumter.

Potter reported 26 casualties in the action at Dingle’s Mill – six killed or mortally wounded and twenty wounded.  Confederate figures were six killed, eight wounded, and two captured.

In addition to the two howitzers, the Federals later captured the 6-pdr gun (a cast iron type).  All three cannon, along with limbers and caissons, were assigned to Clark, who then formed an additional section of artillery with men of the 25th Ohio.  Clark’s Napoleons fired 57 rounds during the engagement, out of their original stock of 360 rounds.  The expenditure was not prohibitive on the expedition, but this did prompt considerations for resupply.

Culp, with the 25th Ohio, entered Sumter that evening.  Years later he recalled:

Sumter was a beautiful little city, with a wealth of shade, many elegant residences, and two female seminaries in full blast.

This was the first visitation of Yankee troops, and the inhabitants used much common sense in their intercourse with the soldiers.  The “Sumter Watchman” was nearly ready for the press, and our corps of printers were soon at work getting out another number of the “Banner of Freedom,” which had quite a circulation after we left.

As Potter and his men settled into camps at Sumter that spring evening, they had some rumors in the air about the fall of Richmond and other events in Virginia and North Carolina.  Hammer blows fell upon the Confederacy at all points.  Potter’s was, though small in comparison, hitting deep into the heart of secession.  Not aware of the evolving situation far to the north, Potter continued with his mission – destruction of the railroads.  Sumter being a railroad town, it would receive full attention over the days to follow.

A state marker interprets the location of the fighting at Dingle’s Mill.  A memorial lists the names of Confederates known to be killed, wounded, or captured in the afternoon engagement.

(Citations from OR, Series I, Volume 47, Part I, Serial 98, pages 1028, 1033, and 1036; Culp, Edward C., The 25th Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry in the War for the Union, Topeka, Kansas, George W. Crane & Company: 1885, pages 123-5; Emilio, Luis F.,  History of the Fifty-fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, 1863-1865, Boston: Boston Book, 1894, page 294.)