Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Maryland

Looking at the summary lines for the fourth quarter, 1863, we find three lines for batteries from Maryland:

0329_1_Snip_MD

Sixteen Ordnance Rifles and that is the story, right? Not quite. There are a couple more footnotes to add here. But let us review those three lines first:

  • 1st Battery (Battery A): At Culpeper, Virginia with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain James H. Rigby remained in command. In October, the battery transferred from the Artillery Reserve to the Artillery Brigade, First Corps. The battery participated with First Corps in the Bristoe and Mine Run Campaigns. Then went into winter quarters near Colonel Charles Wainwright’s headquarters outside Culpeper.
  • 2nd Battery (Battery B): Reported at Harpers Ferry, Maryland, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  With Captain Alonzo Snow in command, the battery remained part of the defenses of the Harpers Ferry sector. The Maryland Heights Division became First Division, Department of West Virginia.
  • Baltimore Independent Battery: Showing at Baltimore, Maryland, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  As mentioned in earlier summaries, this battery lost its guns at Winchester in June.  Captain Frederic W. Alexander remained in command with the battery as it recovered, reequipped, and trained at Baltimore.  At the end of the year, the battery was part of the Artillery Reserve, Eighth Corps. Captain Alexander commanded the reserve.

But recall there were two emergency batteries mustered from Maryland in July 1863, which we saw in the previous quarter. The “Junior Batteries.” Well these were still on the rolls, for a few more weeks, at the end of December. So let us consider them as “missing batteries” for this quarter’s summary:

  • Battery A (Junior): At Baltimore, Maryland with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain John M. Bruce commanded.  By the end of December, the battery was assigned to the Artillery Reserve, Eighth Corps. It would muster out on January 19, 1864.
  • Battery B (Junior): Also at Baltimore, Maryland, but with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Also seen on returns as the Eagle Battery.  Captain Joseph H. Audoun commanded.  As with the other Junior Battery, the Eagle Battery was assigned to the Artillery Reserve, Eighth Corps at the end of December. This battery mustered out on January 16, 1864.

Those “missing” pieces put in place, we turn to the ammunition reported. No smoothbores in the reporting batteries, so we skip to the Hochkiss columns:

0331_2_Snip_MD
  • Baltimore Battery: 4 time fuse shells for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

0332_1_Snip_MD
  • 1st Battery: 50 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 158 percussion fuse shell, 607 bullet shell, and 182 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Baltimore Battery: 120 percussion fuse shell, 5 bullet shell, and 121 canister for 3-inch rifles.

We move next to the Schenkl columns for more tallies:

0332_2_Snip_MD
  • 1st Battery: 317 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 353(?) shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Baltimore Battery: 240 shell for 3-inch rifles.

One more column of Schenkl on the next page:

0333_1_Snip_MD
  • 1st Battery: 396 case shot for 3-inch rifles.
  • Baltimore Battery: 710 case shot for 3-inch rifles.

Turning next to the small arms reported:

0333_2_Snip_MD
  • 1st Battery: Eight Colt army revolvers, twenty cavalry sabers, and sixteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: Ten Colt army revolvers and twenty-one cavalry sabers.
  • Baltimore Battery: Twenty-four Colt army revolvers and thirty-two horse artillery sabers.

Two of the batteries reported cartridge bags on hand:

0334_2_Snip_MD
  • 1st Battery: 632 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 1,158 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.

The tallies for pistol cartridges and friction primers seems lopsided:

0335_1_Snip_MD
  • 1st Battery: 1,218 friction primers; four yards of slow match; and 24 portfires.
  • 2nd Battery: 1,000 pistol cartridges for army-caliber revolvers; 1,305 paper fuses; one pound of musket powder; and 1,399 friction primers.
  • Baltimore Battery: 500 pistol cartridges for army-caliber revolvers and 300 pistol cartridges for navy-caliber revolvers (and we are left to wonder why)… but no friction primers, slow match, or portfires.

While the tally of cannon for the Maryland batteries is to say the least predictable, that of the ammunition is not. Such underscores what I said earlier about trying to assign patterns were the data is known to be incomplete.

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Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Maine

I apologize to readers for the scarcity of posts for the last few months. As a part-time hobby enterprise, blogging must take a back seat sometimes. Let us move forward, however, with our discussions of the fourth quarter, summary statements. The next state to consider is Maine. As of the end of December 1863, there was one heavy artillery regiment and seven light artillery batteries from Maine on active Federal service. The summary returns only indicate six:

0329_1_Snip_ME

We will put the heavy artillery regiment on hold for now, as I promise a review of the “heavies” at the end of the quarter. It is the light batteries which interest us here:

  • 1st Battery: No location indicated, but reporting four 12-pdr Napoleons (which they received in mid-August). Captain Albert W. Bradbury remained in command.  Battery remained assigned to First Division, Nineteenth Corps, Department of the Gulf.  And by the end of the year, the battery was at New Iberia, having participated in an expedition into the Teche in October-November. For his report to the state adjutant-general, Bradbury hoped to increase his battery to full strength and add a pair of ordnance rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: At Camp Barry, D.C., with four 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  With James A. Hall’s promotion to Major (on paper in June, but effective in July) and then to Lieutenant-Colonel (in September), Captain Albert F. Thomas took command of the battery. Reduced somewhat from attrition during the year, the battery left First Corps, Army of the Potomac in November and reported to Camp Barry. Their stay was just for the winter.
  • 3rd Battery:  No report.  At this stage of the war, 3rd Battery was re-designated Battery M, 1st Maine Heavy Artillery (it would later revert to light artillery). Captain Ezekiel R. Mayo commanded.  The battery was stationed in the Defenses of Washington, on the north side of the Potomac.  
  • 4th Battery: Reporting at Brandy Station, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  Captain O’Neil W. Robinson, Jr. remained in command, then attached to Third Corps, Army of the Potomac. The battery was very active during the fall. In a sharp engagement at Union Mills (McLean’s Ford) on October 15, the battery dismounted two Confederate guns. The battery crossed the Rappahannock at Kelly’s Ford on November 7. After the Mine Run campaign, the battery returned with its parent unit to Culpeper, going into winter quarters at Brandy Station. Robinson became the corps artillery brigade commander in December. After which Lieutenant Melville C. Kimball led the battery.
  • 5th Battery: No location given, but with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Greenleaf T. Stevens remained in command of this battery, which remained with First Corps, Army of the Potomac, through the end of the reporting period.  Their location, as of the end of December was just outside Culpeper Court House, adjacent to the Alexander house.
  • 6th Battery: Also giving no location and reporting four 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery started the fall in the First Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac (commanded by its original commander – Lieutenant Colonel Freeman McGilvery). Lieutenant Edwin B. Dow commanded. With a reorganization of the Artillery Reserve in the first week of December, the battery shifted to the Third Volunteer Brigade. They went into winter camp, with the rest of the reserve, behind Fleetwood Hill at Brandy Station.
  • 7th Battery: Not listed. This battery officially mustered on December 31, 1863. As such we can justify the omission on this summary. Captain Adelbert B. Twitchell commanded. The battery would not leave Augusta, Maine, until February. They brought with them six 12-pdr Napoleons.

Napoleons and Ordnance Rifles. None of the 6-pdrs, James Rifles, or odd mountain howitzer we’ve seen from the western theater. These guys got the “new stuff.” So let us look to see about the ammunition issued to those “new stuff” cannon:

0331_1_Snip_ME
  • 1st Battery: 64 shot for 6-pdr field guns… which I think is a transcription error, and should be one column over under 12-pdr Napoleons; 64 shell and 318 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 5th Battery: 192 shot, 64 shell, and 188 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 6th Battery: 192 shot, 64 shell, and 192 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
0331_2_Snip_ME
  • 1st Battery: 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 5th Battery: 68 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 6th Battery: 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

To the right are listings for Hotchkiss projectiles:

  • 2nd Battery: 71 shot and 240 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 311 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

0332_1_Snip_ME
  • 2nd Battery: 99 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 349 case shot and 120 canister for 3-inch rifles.

Moving to the next page, we see tallies for Schenkl projectiles:

0332_2_Snip_ME
  • 2nd Battery: 375 shot and 115 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 74 shell for 3-inch rifles.

One more Schenkl column on the following page:

0333_1_Snip_ME
  • 4th Battery: 150 case shot for 3-inch rifles.

Small arms? Yes these Mainers had small arms:

0333_2_Snip_ME
  • 1st Battery: Eleven Colt army revolvers, seventeen cavalry sabers, and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: Sixteen Colt navy revolvers and twenty-four cavalry sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Eighteen Colt army revolvers and ten cavalry sabers.
  • 5th Battery: Ten Colt army revolvers and eleven cavalry sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Seven Colt army revolvers and 100 Remington army revolvers. Yes… a lot of pistols.

Reporting cartridge bags:

0334_2_Snip_ME
  • 2nd Battery: 800 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 668 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.

On the last page we cover are listings for pistol cartridges, fuses, primers, and other items:

0335_1_Snip_ME
  • 1st Battery: 421(?) friction primers; 20 yards of slow match; and 39 portfires.
  • 2nd Battery: 435 paper fuses and 729 friction primers.
  • 4th Battery: 150 cartridges for army revolvers; 718 friction primers and six yards of slow match.
  • 5th Battery: 50 (?) yards of slow match.
  • 6th Battery: 1,200 cartridges for army revolvers; 550 friction primers; 20 yards of slow match; and 23 portfires.

With the exception of the, just formed, 7th Battery and the 3rd Battery, then serving as heavy artillery, we have a comparatively complete record for the Maine batteries. In campaign season of 1864 all seven of these batteries would see active field service, mostly in the eastern theater in support of the Overland and Petersburg Campaigns.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Rhode Island’s batteries

As we have discussed for the previous quarters, the small state of Rhode Island mustered a total of four artillery regiments for the Federal cause.  FOUR!

However, three of those regiments were heavy artillery.  And that means only the 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery earns significant space in the summaries.  For the third quarter, we find every battery in that regiment (A through H) offered a return.  In addition Battery C, 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery was serving as light artillery.  Thus nine batteries on the summary list:

0289_1_Snip_RI

Colonel Charles H. Tompkins (not to be confused with the US Regulars cavalry officer), commanded the 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery and doubled as the Chief of Artillery, Sixth Corps.  And all eight of his batteries gave reports for the quarter:

  • Battery A: “In the field” with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain William A. Arnold remained in command of this battery,  supporting Second Corps.  Their “in the field” location at the end of September was Culpeper County, Virginia.
  • Battery B: Also “In the field,” but with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Battery B also served in Second Corps’ artillery brigade, and thus was also in Culpeper at this time.  Captain  John G. Hazard of this battery was the corps artillery chief.  In his place, Lieutenant William S. Perrin commanded.
  • Battery C: Reporting at Warrenton, Virgnia, with six 10-pdr Parrotts.  Captain Richard Waterman commanded this battery supporting the Sixth Corps.
  • Battery D: At Loudon, Tennessee with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain William W. Buckley commanded this battery.  Assigned to First Division, Twenty-third Corps through this quarter (but would return to the Ninth Corps, specifically First Division, in October)
  • Battery E: Reporting at Culpeper, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  The battery remained with Third Corps. Captain George E. Randolph, of this battery, was in command of the corps’ artillery brigade.  Lieutenant John K. Bucklyn commanded the battery in his place.
  • Battery F: At Newport News, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons (vice 10-pdr Parrotts reported in the last quarter). Captain James Belger commanded this battery, though he was at the time on extended leave recovering from a wound and on recruiting duty.  In his place Lieutenant Thomas Simpson commanded. The battery spent the summer assigned to the Defenses of New Berne, North Carolina.  And they supported several reconnaissance operations during those months.  In October the battery was ordered to NewPort News.
  • Battery G: Reporting at Warrenton with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain George W. Adams remained in command.  And the battery remained assigned to the Sixth Corps.
  • Battery H: At Fort Scott, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Assigned to the Twenty-second Corps from the Defenses of Washington.  Captain Jeffrey Hazard resigned in August.  Lieutenant Charles F. Mason stood in as commander in his absence.  Lieutenant Crawford Allen, Jr. would transfer from Battery G in December, and receive the captaincy.

Rhode Island would not form any other batteries within the 1st Artillery Regiment.

The last line in this section is for a battery in the 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery.  This regiment, as readers will recall, served in the Department of the South at this time, providing garrison troops for Fort Pulaski, Hilton Head, Beaufort, and Folly Island.  But more importantly, the regiment provided troops for the siege of Battery Wagner.  One battery of this regiment was designated a light battery and appears on the summary:

  • Battery C: Reporting on Morris Island, South Carolina with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Charles R. Brayton remained in command.

We’ll cover the remainder of this regiment in a latter post focused on heavy artillery.

Guns need ammunition.  And the Rhode Island batteries reported plenty.  We start with the smoothbore:

0291_1_Snip_RI

  • Battery B, 1st RI: 192 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery E, 1st RI: 288 shot, 96 shell, 284 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery F, 1st RI: 400 shot, 160 shell, 360 case, and 144 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery C, 3rd RI: 120 shell, 214 case, and 92 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.

For the rifled guns, we start with the Hotchkiss rounds:

0291_2_Snip_RI

  • Battery A, 1st RI: 175 canister, 57 percussion shell, 533 fuse shell, and 509 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery G, 1st RI: 199 canister, 124 percussion shell, 149 fuse shell, and 334 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery H, 1st RI: 120 canister and 231 percussion shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery C: 3rd RI: 180 canister, 84 percussion shell, 468 fuse shell, and 539 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

I’ll break down the next page into sections for clarity.  Starting with an entry for Dyer’s patent projectiles:

0292_1D_Snip_RI

  • Battery G, 1st RI: 34 shell for 3-inch rifles.

And the Parrott columns:

0292_1P_Snip_RI

  • Battery C, 1st RI: 491 shell, 367 case, and 122 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

And there were plenty of Schenkl projectiles reported:

0292_2_Snip_RI

  • Battery A, 1st RI: 64 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery G, 1st RI: 146 shell and 33 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery H, 1st RI: 260 shell and 589 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery C, 3rd RI: 104 shell and 173 case for 3-inch rifles.

The last set of columns we review are the small arms:

0292_3_Snip_RI

  • Battery A, 1st RI: Four army revolvers, nineteen navy revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B, 1st RI: Twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery C, 1st RI: Seven navy revolvers and twelve horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery D, 1st RI: Eight army revolvers, twelve navy revolvers, forty-five cavalry sabers, and five horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery E, 1st RI: Twelve navy revolvers and one horse artillery saber.
  • Battery F, 1st RI: 102 army revolvers and twenty horse cavalry sabers.
  • Battery G, 1st RI: Eight navy revolvers, ten cavalry sabers, and seventeen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H, 1st RI: Twenty army revolvers and thirty-six horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery C, 3rd RI: Forty-eight army revolvers, fifty-three cavalry sabers, and seventy-nine horse artillery sabers.

The Rhode Island batteries leave us with few questions.  The only question I pose what ammunition Battery D had on hand for its Napoleons?  Perhaps this nearly complete accounting from the Rhode Island batteries reflects the number of its officers then serving as artillery chiefs.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery

The 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery (43rd Pennsylvania Volunteers) consisted of nine batteries.  One of those nine, Battery I, did not muster until near the war’s end.  And among the batteries on the rolls for the end of the third quarter of 1863, two were consolidated with other batteries in the regiment.  Colonel Robert M. West remained in command of the regiment, but was serving as garrison commander at Yorktown, Virginia.

Reviewing the summary, at first glance the regiment seems complete.  The Ordnance Department received at least something from seven of eight batteries:

0289_1_Snip_PA1

But this is somewhat deceptive.  Only four of the lines report cannon on hand.  Thus there are gaps to reconcile, starting right from the top:

  • Battery A: No return.  Captain John G. Simpson’s battery was assigned to Getty’s Division, Seventh Corps, at Portsmouth, Virginia.  All part of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.  I believe the battery retained four 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery B: Reporting from Bristoe Station, Virginia, with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain James H. Cooper remained in command.  And the battery remained with First Corps, Army of the Potomac.
  • Battery C: At Maryland Heights, Maryland, with no artillery indicated.  For the previous quarter the battery reported six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain Jeremiah McCarthy remained in command.  The battery was among those transferred out of the Army of the Potomac in June, and assigned to Twenty-second Corps, Defenses of Washington, at Camp Barry.  But the battery moved forward to Maryland Heights as part of Lockwood’s Division (Later the Maryland Heights Division), which by August was part of the Department of West Virginia.  Most sources have this battery consolidated with Battery D on October 23.  McCarthy was discharged on October 8.
  • Battery D: Just an annotation of “Consolidated with Baty. C.” Like Battery C, Battery D left the Army of the Potomac in June and was assigned duty at Camp Barry.  In August, the battery transferred to the Department of West Virginia, and served at Harpers Ferry.  Lieutenant Andrew Rosney was the ranking officer with the battery at that time.
  • Battery E: At Williamsburg, Virginia with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Thomas G. Orwig commanded this battery, assigned to the Yorktown garrison, Department of Virginia and North Carolina.
  • Battery F: Indicated at Culpeper, Virginia, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain R. Bruce Ricketts commanded a combined Batteries F and G.  After Gettysburg, the battery transferred to Second Corps’ artillery brigade.
  • Battery G: The annotation “Consolidated with Battery F” tells the story.  Although some sources considered this an “attachment” instead of consolidation. Lieutenant Belden Spence was the ranking officer remaining with the battery.
  • Battery H: At Camp Barry, D.C. with four 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Andrew Fagan commanded this battery, which arrived at Camp Barry in June 1863. The battery remained there through the spring of 1864, assigned to the Light Artillery Camp of Instruction.

Battery I would not muster until March 1865, and thus escapes our attention here.

Turning to the ammunition, with the smoothbore columns first:

0291_1_Snip_PA1

Two batteries with Napoleons reporting:

  • Battery E: 176 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 80 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 182 shot, 52 shell, 162 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Then the Hotchkiss page:

0291_2_Snip_PA1

Again, two batteries to consider:

  • Battery B: 127 canister, 34 percussion shell, 242 fuse shell, and 335 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery F: 120 canister, 120 (?) fuse shell, and 200 (?) bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.  Those last two numbers appear faint, as if erased.  So we must wonder if those quantities were “retracted” for some reason.

No Dyer’s, James’, or Parrott’s patent projectiles reported.  So we move to Schenkl:

0292_2_Snip_PA1

  • Battery B: 79 shell and 18 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery F: 120 shell and 640 case for 3-inch rifles.

This brings us to the small arms:

0292_3_Snip_PA1

By battery as reported:

  • Battery B: Sixteen navy revolvers and seventeen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery E: Eight navy revolvers and fourteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F: Eleven army revolvers, eight navy revolvers, one cavalry saber, and nineteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H: Fourteen navy revolvers and twenty-three horse artillery sabers.

That wraps up a short discussion of what was a small regiment from Pennsylvania.  But in addition to this regiment, Pennsylvania’s summary for this quarter included thirteen more lines.  Those covered a battery from the 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery, eleven independent batteries, and an artillery section in the 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry.  So we have more to examine before completing Pennsylvania’s section.

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 1st Ohio Artillery Regiment

Ohio’s artillery required half a page in the third quarter, 1863 summary:

0281_1_Snip_OH_All

Topping this section is the 1st Ohio Light Artillery Regiment.  An appropriate administrative space, then listings for the independent batteries – 1st through 26th.  But notice the 13th Battery (which never fully organized, and was broken up in 1862) and the 23rd Battery (which became Simmonds’ Independent Battery and was allocated to Kentucky).  At the bottom of this list are two infantry regiments reporting artillery and stores on hand.  Not on this listing is a section of mountain howitzers assigned to the 2nd Ohio Cavalry at this time of the war, which we will discuss.  Thus we have an itinerary for the next set of postings on this theme.

Starting this Ohio section, we have Colonel James Barnett’s 1st Ohio Light Artillery.  Barnett was, at the time, serving as Chief of Artillery, Army of the Cumberland.  And it is his detailed report from the Chickamauga Campaign that I use to validate many of the particulars for batteries involved with that action.  For the quarter, the Ordnance Department received returns for ten of the twelve batteries:

0281_1_Snip_OH1

The locations and activities of these batteries reflects many of the “moving pieces” in play during the third quarter of 1863:

  • Battery A: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3.80-inch James Rifles, in a return received in August 1864. Captain Wilbur F. Goodspeed remained in command of this battery assigned to Second Division, Twentieth Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  The battery saw action on both September 19 and 20. On the morning of the 20th battery was particularly hard pressed around 10 a.m. and, with support of the 15th Ohio Infantry, drove back a Confederate charge with double canister at range of 50 yards.  While Goodspeed kept his guns through the battle, he lost 15 horses.  Furthermore “… in consequence of not unharsessing for six days…” he expected to lose another 25, as he reported from Chattanooga after the Federal retreat.  Here’s a photo from their position on Kelly Field where they fought during the morning of September 20:

Chickamauga 482

  • Battery B: Also reporting at Chattanooga, with two 6-pdr field guns and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.   The battery remained in Second Division, Twenty-First Corps and Captain William E. Standart served as division chief of artillery.  In his place, Lieutenant Norman A. Baldwin commanded the battery.  On September 19, the battery fired 159 rounds.  On September 20, they occupied a position behind breastworks in the heart of Thomas’s line (what is today Battleline Road).  Fighting in their sector began at 8 a.m. And the battery only relinquished those works when ordered to the rear around 5 p.m., having fired 986 rounds (pretty much all they had coming into action).  Three of the James rifles were disabled in the fighting.  Only one could be recovered back to Chattanooga.  The battery lost thirteen horses; one man killed, eight wounded, and four missing.
  • Battery C: Reporting at Chattanooga with two 12-pdr Napoleons and three 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Captain Daniel K. Southwick commanded the battery at the start of the quarter.  However he resigned (officially dated to October 19).  Lieutenant Marco B. Gary led the battery as they marched with Third Division, Fourteenth Corps toward Chickamauga Creek.  The battery was in action both days of the battle.  As it was often employed by section, Lieutenants Hiram W. Turner, Thomas King, and Jerome B. Stevens are listed on the battery’s War Department tablets.  Caught up in the confusion in the afternoon of September 20, Gary took it upon himself to move the battery to the rear.  Having lost 25 horses already, this was a daunting task even without Confederate pressure.  Gary reported losing one James rifle, one caisson, and parts of two other caissons.  All told the battery expended 498 rounds in the battle.
  • Battery D: At Knoxville, Tennessee with four 3-inch Ordnance rifles. At the end of the previous quarter, the battery was serving by section in support of different cavalry divisions.  In July, the battery was consolidated, in eastern Tennessee, and transferred to the First Division, Twenty-third Corps.  Captain Andrew J. Konkle (or Conkle on some returns) commanded.  By August, the battery was again transferred.  This time to the Third Division of the same corps.  Lieutenant William H. Pease commanded when Konkle took command of the corps reserve artillery.
  • Battery E: No report. This battery was assigned to Second Division, Reserve Corps, part of the Nashville garrison when the quarter began.  Lieutenant Stephen W. Dorsey remained in command of the battery.  Later in July, the battery moved forward to Chattanooga, reaching Bridgeport in October. Captain Warren P. Edgarton, of the battery, was in command of the Nashville garrison artillery.
  • Battery F: No report. Captain Daniel T. Cockerill was still recovering from wounds.  His immediate replacement, Lieutenant Norval Osborn, was later replaced (due to date of rank) by Lieutenant Giles J. Cockerill.  The battery was assigned to Second Division, Twenty-first Corps. The battery had four James rifles and two 12-pdr field howitzers.  Leaving the field on September 20, the battery had only fifteen rounds left in their chests.
  • Battery G: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Alexander Marshall’s battery assigned to Second Division, Fourteenth Corps.  In action at Chickamauga, the battery fired 294 rounds.
  • Battery H: Reporting at Culpeper, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain James F. Huntington resumed command duties during the summer.  The battery Transferred to the 4th Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac in August.
  • Battery I: In Lookout Valley, Tennessee, based on a January 1864 receipt date, with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Hubert Dilger’s battery was assigned to Eleventh Corps.  The battery was sent west, with the rest of Eleventh Corps, to reinforce Chattanooga, with movement starting in late September.
  • Battery K: Bridgeport, Alabama, with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Part of the Eleventh Corps, along with Battery I, this battery moved to reinforce Chattanooga in late September. Captain Lewis Heckman remained in command of the battery.  But in his absence Lieutenants Columbus Rodamour led the battery.  Later, in Tennessee, Lieutenant Nicholas Sahm, of Company I, 1st New York Artillery, led the battery in operations around Chattanooga.
  • Battery L: At Culpeper, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Frank C. Gibbs had command of this battery, supporting Fifth Corps.
  • Battery M: Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 3-inch rifles and four 3.80-inch James rifles. Captain Frederick Schultz commanded this battery, assigned to Second Division, Fourteenth Corps.  At Chickamauga, the battery fired 415 rounds.

Turning now to the ammunition reports, we have a lot of smoothbore rounds to count:

0283_1_Snip_OH1

Seven batteries with smoothbore:

  • Battery A: 50 shot, 56 shell, 71 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr napoleons.
  • Battery B: 20 shot, 59 case, and 42 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery C: 52 shot, 13 shell, 96 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; but also 33 canister for 6-pdr field guns (which may have been used in the battery’s James rifles).
  • Battery G: 176 shot, 64 shell, 160 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery I: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery K: 192 shot, 44 shell, 142 case, and 14 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L: 296 shot, 111 shell, 301 case, and 118 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

With several mixed batteries, there were also several reporting Hotchkiss projectiles for rifled guns:

0283_2_Snip_OH1

Six batteries reporting:

  • Battery A: 86 shot for 3.80-inch James.
  • Battery C: 55 percussion shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • Battery D: 161 canister, 238 percussion shell, and 460 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery G: 77 canister, 175 percussion shell, and 120 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery H: 339 shot, 92 canister, and 27 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M: 127 canister, 75 percussion shell, 98 fuse shell, and 99 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles; and 63 shot for 3.80-inch James rifles.

The report of over fifty 3-inch shot per gun in Battery H is worth noting.  No conclusions to draw.  But that is a significant deviation from normal allocations.

We can narrow down the next page to show only the remaining Hotchkiss columns with the James projectiles:

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The Hotchkiss columns first:

  • Battery A: 139 canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery C: 7 canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.

Over to the James columns:

  • Battery C: 69 shot and 61 shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.

Continuing with the rifled projectiles, we consider next the Schenkl projectiles:

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Four batteries with those on hand:

  • Battery A: 186 shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery B: 70 shot and 210 shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery C: 2010 shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery H: 729 shell and 40 case for 3-inch rifles.

Lastly we have the small arms:

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By battery:

  • Battery A: Seven horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Eighteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery C: Six horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery D: Twenty-eight navy revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Six army revolvers and ten cavalry sabers.
  • Battery H: Twenty army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery I: Nine army revolvers and thirty-nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery K: Five army revolvers and five horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery L: Nineteen navy revolvers and thirty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery M: Six army revolvers and six cavalry sabers.

The small arms totals might look thin.  And one might think those due to losses at Chickamauga.  Though there were small arms lost in the battle, and reflecting in the totals on the summary, the 1st Ohio batteries did not carry many into the quarter.  And thus didn’t go into action on September 19 with an abundance of edged weapons and pistols.  Given the close quarters at which some of the fighting took place in that battle, the scarcity of small arms is an important interpretive factor, I feel.

next installment will look at the first twelve independent batteries of Ohio.

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – New Hampshire’s battery

In the summaries for the previous quarters, I’ve combined New Hampshire’s entries along with other states for brevity.  After all, there’s just one line to consider, and that is a very uncomplicated line.  We find that same entry line, for New Hampshire’s lone light battery for the third quarter, 1863:

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And that line remained uncomplicated for the third quarter:

  • 1st Light Battery: Reporting at Culpeper, Virginia with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Frederick M. Edgell remained in command.  And the battery remained with the Third Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac.

But there were a couple other artillery formations from New Hampshire in existence at the end of September.   Though neither would warrant mention on the summaries:

  • 1st New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Company: Not listed. On April 17, 1863, Charles H. Long received a captain’s commission and authority to recruit a heavy artillery company to man Fort Constitution, defending Portsmouth harbor.  The company formally mustered on July 22 of that year.
  • 2nd New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Company: Not listed.  Authorized in August 1863.  Captain Ira M. Barton appointed commander.  Mustered into service on September 17, 1863. This battery also garrisoned the defenses of Portsmouth, detailed to Fort McClary, on the Maine side of the harbor.

Eventually all three of these companies would be part of the same regiment – the First New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Regiment – in the fall of 1864.

So we return to focus on that one uncomplicated entry line, moving to the ammunition. No smoothbore ammunition to report so we move to the Hotchkiss page:

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  • 1st Light Battery:  80 canister, 38 percussion shell, 209 fuse shell, and 182 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

No Dyer, James, or Parrott rounds to consider.  So we turn to the Schenkl:

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  • 1st Light Battery: 163 shell and 125 case for 3-inch rifles.

And those were Schenkl rounds that Edgell spoke ill of in his Gettysburg report.

Turning to the small arms:

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  • 1st Light Battery: Five army revolvers, eight navy revolvers, and thirteen cavalry sabers.

That wraps up the New Hampshire section.  We’ll move to another single line entry in the next installment – New Mexico!

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – New Jersey Batteries

The clerks at the Ordnance Department during the Civil War often violated strict alphabetical order for the sake of better organization within ledger entries.  Such is the case with New Jersey’s summary statement entries for the third quarter of 1863.  The state’s lines appear AFTER New York’s and BEFORE New Hampshire’s.   While troublesome for those with obsessive-compulsive tendencies, this does save a lot of white space on the entry sheets.

By this time of the war, New Jersey had organized and mustered five light batteries.  On the state’s reports, these were lettered batteries in the 1st New Jersey Artillery Regiment. Yet, in some official Army documents, the batteries were numbered one through five.  Such is the case here with the Ordnance Department:

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This is a flip from the previous quarter, where New Jersey’s batteries were lettered.  So for the sake of eliminating any confusion, I’ll indicate both here:

  • 1st Battery / Battery A: At Culpeper, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain William Hexamer returned to lead the battery at the close of the Gettysburg Campaign.  The battery was with the Fourth Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve through the end of October (with reorganizations would move to the Third Volunteer Brigade in the next quarter).  In regard to the guns, the August 31 monthly report from the Army of the Potomac indicated the battery had only five Parrotts.  And the return for which this summary line is derived was received in Washington in January 1865.  So we must give or take one Parrott from Hexamer’s battery… at least.
  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: Reported at Brandy Station, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons, reflecting a May 1864 receipt date. Captain A.Judson Clark commanded the battery, and it remained with Third Corps.  At some point after Gettysburg the battery replaced the Parrotts used at Gettysburg with Napoleons.   This change likely occurred in September, as the August 31 report indicates the battery still had Parrotts. By the first week of October, with the opening of the Bristoe Campaign, the battery had Napoleons.
  • 3rd Battery / Battery C: No return.  Authorized on June 30, this battery was fully mustered by September 11, 1863.  Captain Christian Woerner commanded. Upon muster, the battery moved to the Artillery Camp of Instruction, Camp Barry, D.C.
  • 4th Battery / Battery D: Reporting “no stores on hand” at Camp Barry, D.C.  Also authorized in June 1863, this battery mustered on September 16, 1863.  Captain George T. Woodbury commanded.  And it was sent to the Artillery Camp of Instruction, as indicated on the return.
  • 5th Battery / Battery E: No return.  The third new battery from New Jersey.  It was also authorized in late June.  It’s muster date was September 8, but did not leave the state until September 26.  Captain Zenas C. Warren commanded.  Like the others, the battery’s first posting was the Artillery Camp of Instruction.

One other battery we should mention here, and that escaped the official summaries, is a battery of light artillery from the New Jersey Militia.  Responding to appeals from Washington to meet the Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania in June 1863, the Governor of New Jersey called for additional volunteers, for a period of thirty days (starting on or about June 22).  Ten companies of infantry and one battery of artillery from the state militia responded. The latter, Chapin’s Battery, led by Captain John R. Chapin, accompanied the infantry to Harrisburg.  It is my understanding these New Jersey militiamen mustered into state service, then offered to support the Governor of Pennsylvania, and then assigned to help defend Harrisburg.  As such, they never actually mustered into Federal service. The force returned to New Jersey at the end of their thirty days.  Just a footnote to the Gettysburg Campaign… even if that.  But a battery mentioned here in the spirit of providing complete coverage.

Moving down to the reported ammunition, we have two batteries that needed rounds.  Starting with the smoothbore rounds for Battery B:

0283_1_Snip_NJ

  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

No Hotchkiss rounds on hand for either battery.  And on the next page we can move directly to the Parrott rounds:

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  • 1st Battery / Battery A:  400 shell, 360 case, and 163 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

One entry for the same battery on the Schenkl page:

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  • 1st Battery / Battery A: 173 Schenkl shell for 10-pdr Parrott.

That sends us to the small arms:

0284_3_Snip_NJ

Only two reporting:

  • 1st Battery / Battery A: Fifteen army revolvers and twenty-seven horse artillery sabers.
  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: Seven navy revolvers and thirteen horse artillery sabers.

So we close out a short summary entry for New Jersey. Though the third quarter’s section for the state longer than in previous quarters, given the addition of three batteries.  And perhaps that’s the big story here.  Between June and September 1863, New Jersey organized and forwarded three new volunteer batteries and provided a short-term militia battery for an emergency.  That’s not counting infantry (both volunteer and militia) that were added during the same period.  And, for those counting heads, there were two New Jersey infantry regiments mustered out (belatedly, but mustered out) during the Gettysburg Campaign.

An exhibit from New Jersey for the “fought the war with one arm” argument.