Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 2nd Regiment, US Regulars

The 2nd US Artillery’s wartime service was varied – in terms of theater assignments and duties performed.  The batteries served as horse artillery, field artillery, and garrison artillery.  They saw service in Virginia, the Western Theater, and the Gulf Coast.  For the third quarter of 1863, we find nine returns from the twelve batteries.  And two extra lines were thrown in under the regiment:

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Let us break down the service by battery:

  • Battery A – Reporting at Culpeper, Virginia as of October 31, 1863 with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  That location was valid for the end of September.  But, we know from the war’s chronology on Halloween of that year Battery A was in Fauquier County north of the Rappahannock, having returned from a brisk march on the Bristoe Campaign.  Lieutenant Robert Clarke (Battery M) replaced Lieutenant John H. Calef after Gettysburg.  The Battery remained with Second Brigade, Horse Artillery.
  • Battery B – With a report, as of December 1863, located at Stevensburg, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  I might could “sell” this location for the end of September 1863… or for December 1863.  But neither, I feel, tell the full story.  This was actually combined Batteries B and L (see below), assigned to First Brigade of the Horse Artillery, under Lieutenant Edward Heaton.
  • Battery C – New Orleans, Louisiana with four 12-pdr Napoleons (a reduction of two guns).  The battery was part of Nineteenth Corps (transferring from Fourth Division to Second Division as the corps reorganized). Lieutenant Theodore Bradley commanded at the start of the quarter.  But late in the summer Lieutenant John I. Rodgers returned from leave to resume command.
  • Battery D – At Warrenton, Virginia, according to a reporting date of November 1863, with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Battery D moved from Sixth Corps to the First Brigade, Horse Artillery at the end of the Gettysburg Campaign.  Lieutenant Edward D. Williston remained in command.
  • Battery E –  Nicholasville, Kentucky with four 20-pdr Parrott Rifles (vice six reported the previous quarter). This battery was part of the Second Division, Ninth Corps, which returned from Vicksburg.  After returning to Kentucky, the battery was assigned directly under the corps for reporting.  Lieutenant Samuel N. Benjamin remained in command, and also served as the Corps Chief of Artillery.
  • Battery F – Reporting from Memphis, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and six 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery remained with the District of Memphis, of the Sixteenth Corps. Lieutenant Albert M. Murray replaced Lieutenant Charles Green  in command.
  • Battery G – Reporting at Germantown, Virginia (in Fauquier County) with four 12-pdr Napoleons (report dated January 1864).  We can move past inquiries about the location, and accuracy, to focus on the assignment.   After Gettysburg, the battery moved from Sixth Corps to Second Brigade, Horse Artillery.  Lieutenant John H. Bulter remained in command.
  • Battery H – “Infty. Stores” with a location of Fort Haggerty, Virginia.  This is out of order.  Battery H was, at this time, in Pensacola, Florida assigned to Fort Barrancas, Florida as garrison artillery. Not until the spring of 1864 would the battery move to the Eastern Theater, and even then to Baltimore.  Captain Frank H. Larned was in command.
  • Battery I – No report.  During the Gettysburg Campaign, the battery was assigned to the Second Brigade, Defenses of Baltimore, in the Eighth Corps or Middle Department.  Lieutenant James E. Wilson (a different James Wilson than that in Battery C, 1st Artillery at this time) commanded through much of the summer. But in early September, a newly promoted 1st Lieutenant Wilson was ordered to report to his original battery – Battery G – in Virginia.   Captain Thomas Gray replaced Wilson.
  • Battery K – No report.  The battery garrisoned Fort Pickens, Florida under Captain Harvey A. Allen.
  • Battery L – We see a description “with Battery B”, as discussed above.
  • Battery M – A reporting date of October 31, 1863 has this battery at Gainesville, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Considering the movements of the Bristoe Campaign, this might be accurate.  Assigned to First Brigade, Horse Artillery, Lieutenant Alexander C.M. Pennington commanded.

Keep in mind, when considering the regimental officers the service of Captains John C. Tidball and James M. Robertson.  Tidball had accepted command of the 4th New York Heavy Artillery and departed his position with the Second Brigade, Horse Artillery.  Robertson commanded the First Brigade, Horse Artillery.

Now as for those additional lines:

  • Adjutant, 2nd Artillery:  No location but a reporting date of October 4, 1863.
  • U.S. Corps of Cadets, West Point, New York: The annotation is “inf stores.” Not sure if this entry was placed at this point on the summary because of an affiliation with the 2nd Artillery, or if was simply entered on an open line.  Regardless, no cannon reported.  No equipment was reported on the forms under any columns for this line.  So we can wonder if this was simply an act by the clerks seeking an accounting.

We will return to these lines later in our discussion.

Turing to the smoothbore ammunition, the summary is clean:

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The figures match to the batteries reporting smoothbores:

  • Battery C: 26 shot, 135 shell, 160 case, and 68 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery D: 224 shot, 113 shell, 224 case, and 32 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery F: 135 shot, 104 case, and 145 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 448 shot, 152 shell, 448 case, and 152 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 20 case and 17 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery G: 69 shot, 96 shell, 192 case, and 128 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

The only question is the presence of 12-pdr howitzer ammunition with Battery F.  But that battery was at the time serving in a garrison role.  And the accumulation of additional stores might thus be explained.

Moving to the rifled rounds, first we see Hotchkiss:

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Four batteries reporting:

  • Battery A:  300 percussion shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery B & L:  95 canister and  290 percussion shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E: 103 bullet shell for 20-pdr (3.67-inch) Parrott.
  • Battery M: 161 canister for 3-inch rifles.

On the next page, we see more projectiles for those 20-pdr Parrotts:

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But those are of three different makes:

  • Battery E: 50 Hotchkiss cannister, 150 Parrott shell, and 160 Schenkl shot for 20-pdr (3.67-inch) Parrott.

The last page of projectiles cover the other Schenkls:

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Two reporting:

  • Battery A: 70 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery B & L: 554 shells for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M: 538 shell and 218 case for 3-inch rifles.

So we see a mix of Hotchkiss and Schenkl in the horse artillery batteries, probably to the dismay of General Henry Hunt.

Last, we look at the small arms reported:

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By battery:

  • Battery A: Eleven Army revolvers, fifty Navy revolvers, eight cavalry sabers, and seventy-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B & L: Six Army revolvers, fifteen cavalry sabers, and one horse artillery saber.
  • Battery C: Eight Army revolvers and thirty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery D: Thirteen Army revolvers and one horse artillery saber.
  • Battery E: Fifty Army revolvers, eight cavalry sabers, and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F: Thirty-five Army revolvers, fourteen cavalry sabers, and forty-eight horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Twelve Army revolvers and thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery M: 112 Army revolvers, two Navy revolvers, and twenty-five horse artillery sabers.
  • Adjutant, 2nd Artillery: Twenty-four cavalry sabers.

Looking beyond the armaments, let’s take a look at the other stores reported by the Adjutant.  Matching with the number of sabers reported, the Adjutant also had twenty-four saber belts, waist belts, and plates.  And, with full accounting for all government property, the adjutant had one “packing box” on hand.

I hope that packing box was put to good use!

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Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 1st Regiment, US Regulars

In our journey through the Summary Statements, we’ve arrived at the third quarter of 1863.  Readers well know the chronology of events for July, August, and September.  In some theaters, particularly the Eastern Theater and Trans-Mississippi, armies awaited the signal to resume campaigns.  In places such as Northern Georgia and the South Carolina coast, hard campaigning proceeded.  So we have the task of projecting the data into that time line, looking to correlate reports about cannon and shells to the actions.

For the quarter, there are a few changes to column headers.  Clearly the clerks in the Ordnance Department were adjusting to new “paradigms” with respect to ammunition usage.  But, ever watchful of the government’s expenditures, they opted to modify existing forms.

First in our queue is the 1st US Artillery and their twelve batteries:

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Of those twelve, ten provided returns.  We see their service spanned from Louisiana, to the Carolina coastline, to Virginia:

  • Battery A – Reporting at New Orleans, Louisiana with two (down from four) 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch rifles.  Captain Edmund C. Bainbridge remained in command of this battery, and also served as division artillery chief.  Battery was assigned to First Division, Nineteenth Corps. Bainbridge, who was actually a 5th Artillery officer, was reassigned to duty in Tennessee in October.
  • Battery B – Reported on Morris Island, South Carolina with four 12-pdr field howitzers, and adding two 3-inch rifles.  Battery B was assigned to Tenth Corps, Department of the South.  By late September, the battery had moved to Folly Island.  Lieutenant Guy V. Henry held command of this battery.  But after a short detail as the Department’s Chief of Artillery, Henry transferred to command the 40th Massachusetts Infantry.  Henry’s designated replacement was Captain Samuel Elder.  However, that officer would not arrive until later in the fall.  Lieutenant Theodore K. Gibbs was ranking officer in the battery through the transition.
  • Battery C – At Fort Macon, North Carolina and serving as infantry.  Lieutenant Cornelius Hook held command of the battery, assigned to the Department of North Carolina. However, a detachment from Battery C, under Lieutenant James E. Wilson moved to South Carolina and served in the Tenth Corps.  They would man Battery Stevens during the First Major Bombardment of Fort Sumter.   Sergeant Michael Leahy, in that detachment, later received a commission and served in Battery B.
  • Battery D – Located at Beaufort, South Carolina with four 3-inch rifles. Lieutenant John S. Gibbs commanded the battery, assigned to General Saxton’s Division on Port Royal Island.
  • Battery E – Reporting at Centreville, Virginia with four 3-inch rifles.  With Captain Alanson Randol moved to command the 1st Regular Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac, Lieutenant Egbert W. Olcott had command.  The battery was assigned to 2nd Brigade of Horse Artillery,  Army of the Potomac.
  • Battery F – At Camp Bisland, Bayou Teche, Louisiana with four (down from six) 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Richard C. Duryea commanded.  This battery served Third Division, Nineteenth Corps.  Duryea is also listed as commanding the division’s artillery at this time. Lieutenant Hurdman P. Norris was the next ranking officer in the battery.
  • Battery G – No report.  Dyer’s has Battery G’s personnel serving with Battery E at this time.
  • Battery H – Reporting at Culpeper, Virginia with four (down from six) 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery remained under Lieutenant Philip D. Mason, in First Brigade, Artillery Reserve.
  • Battery I – No return.  But we are familiar with Lieutenant Frank S. French replaced Lieutenant George Woodruff, mortally wounded at Gettysburg, in command of this battery.  I believe they were reduced to four 12-pdr Napoleons, as they supported Second Corps, Army of the Potomac.
  • Battery K – Reporting at Warrenton, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.   Battery assigned to Second Brigade, Horse Artillery.  With Captain William Graham in command of that brigade, Lieutenant John Egan was senior officer.
  • Battery L – Reporting at a plantation, which is illegible to me, in Louisiana with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Frank E. Taylor replaced the Henry W. Closson, who’d been brevetted to Major.  After Port Hudson, the battery transferred to the Nineteenth Corps’ artillery reserve.
  • Battery M – At Beaufort, South Carolina with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Loomis L. Langdon lead this battery,  assigned to the Tenth Corps.

With those particulars established, we turn to the ammunition reported.  Starting with the smoothbore projectiles:

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The tallies match to the reported cannon on hand:

  • Battery A: 15 shot, 34 shell, 10 case, and 12 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery B: 240 shell, 280 case, and 112 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery F: 144 shot, 48 shell, 144 case, and 54 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 188 shot, 68 shell, 192 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L: 106 shot, 38 shell, 182 case, and 40 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery M: 466 shot, 111 shell, 469 case, and 88 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

I’ve learned, through long reviews of the summaries, not to reach too far with speculations about the quantities of ammunition reported.  But we see the number of rounds for Battery A’s two Napoleons is but one chest.  On the other hand, Battery M had plenty.

Turning to the Hotchkiss projectiles next:

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Here we have some explaining to do:

  • Battery A:  12 canister and 202 percussion shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery B: 106 canister, 396 percussion shell, 160 fuse shell, and 155 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery D: 46 canister, 110 percussion shell, 85 fuse shell, and 158 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E: 60 canister, 90 percussion shell, and 340 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K: 72 canister, 311 percussion shell, and 300 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M:  12 canister, 12 percussion shell, 24 fuse shell, and 20 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

We see again Battery A was in short supply.  But the 3-inch rounds with Battery M, which had only Napoleons, stand out.  Battery M had a pair of Ordnance Rifles earlier in the year.  Couldn’t Battery M simply did not transfer this meager quantity of Hotchkiss rounds to Battery D (located on the other side of Beaufort)?  Probably some paperwork issue….

Before moving to the next page in the summary, let me call attention to a column header change:

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We see here the clerks erased a dividing line between the James and Parrott columns. They then put a new divider, two columns to the left.  And wrote in new column names:

  • 10-pdr Parrott Shot, 2.9 inch bore.
  • 20-pdr Parrott Shot 3.64 inch bore.

These replaced columns for James canister in calibers 3.80-inch and 4.62-inch, respectively.  We see the two columns to the left of those have hand written “canister,” but with no strike through of case shot.  These changes reflected the disfavor and declining use of James projectiles by the mid-point of the war.

And those columns are put to use for the 1st US (full page here):

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Two lines:

  • Battery L:  50 shot, 160 shell, 20 case, and 170 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery M: 40 case for 10-pdr Parrott.

Again, we see Battery M with rifled projectiles on hand.

The next page, for the Schenkl projectiles, also has some hand-written changes to the column header:

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In this case, we have six strike-through amendments as the clerks ensured the form remained current:

  • 6-pounder “Wiard” case, 2.6-inch bore.
  • 10-pdr “Parrott” case, 2.9-inch bore.
  • 3-inch wrought-iron gun case, 3-inch bore
  • 12-pdr “Wiard” or 20-pdr “Parrott” Case, 3.67-inch bore.
  • 6-pdr bronze rifled case, 3.67-inch bore.
  • 6-pdr “James” case, 3.80-inch bore.

These all replaced canister columns for their respective calibers.  This, I would submit, reflected the greater utility and use of case, vice canister.  At least for the bean counters in Washington, that is!

But those “referbished” columns were of no mind to the 1st Artillery:

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Three entry lines, again Schenkl patent projectiles here:

  • Battery A: 52 shell for 3-inch rifles,
  • Battery E: 92 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K: 144 shell for 3-inch rifles.

Turning to the last columns, we see that header is a mess of hand-written changes:

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But that is typical for the small arms columns:

  • Battery A: Nine Army revolvers and forty-four horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Ninty-six Army revolvers, nine cavalry sabers, and 130 horse artillery sabers!
  • Battery D: 121 Army revolvers, eight cavalry sabers, and 106 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery E: Eight Navy revolvers and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F: Three Army revolvers, five Navy revolvers, forty cavalry sabers, and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H: Twenty-one Army revolvers and sixteen foot artillery swords.
  • Battery K: Fifteen Army revolvers, twenty-nine cavalry sabers, and fifty-five horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery L: Four rifles (type not specified), forty-four Army revolvers, eight cavalry sabers, and 106 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery M: 103 Army revolvers, nine cavalry sabers, and ninety-five horse artillery sabers.

In previous returns, the batteries in South Carolina and Louisiana reported a substantial quantity of small arms.  And this could be explained by the additional duties taken on by artillerymen in those locations – patrolling and garrison duties.  Though I would point out, Battery M turned in 77 Springfield rifles reported in June.

We’ll look at the 2nd US Artillery next.