Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Iowa’s Batteries

Iowa became a state just a decade and a half prior to the outbreak of the Civil War. In those antebellum years, Iowa transitioned from a frontier state into one with a growing industrialization, all the while retaining its strong agrarian base (which is still there to this day). While not a populous state, Iowa sent over 10% of its population into uniform for the war (76,242 men in arms out of a total population of 674,913 in 1860). And of that total, we have focused on the story of four batteries and one attached artillery section within the scope of these summaries. For the fourth quarter, 1863, summary, the clerks at the Ordnance Department tallied three batteries and the attached section. They omitted the 4th Iowa Battery, which had just mustered in November.

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  • 1st Iowa Battery: Reporting from Woodville, Alabama with one 12-pdr field howitzer and three 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Henry H. Griffiths commanded, however he also served as division artillery chief and also departed in December on recruiting duty.  In his place Lieutenants William H. Gay led the battery. The battery remained with First Division, Fifteenth Corps, participating in the relief of Chattanooga in November. Afterwards, the battery followed its parent formation into winter quarters in northern Alabama.  The armament listed is noteworthy. The battery reported its long-serving smoothbores were worn out. And starting in December they received new Parrott rifles.
  • 2nd Iowa Battery: Reporting at LaGrange, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers. As Captain Nelson T. Spoor served as division artillery chief, Lieutenant Joseph R. Reed led this battery. The battery remained with Third Division, Fifteenth Corps, and moved to Memphis with that formation in early November.  As part of the movement toward Chattanooga, the battery was assigned to the garrison guarding the railroad lines in vicinity of LaGrange. And with that assignment, the battery transferred to the First Division, Sixteenth Corps.
  • 3rd Iowa Battery: At Little Rock, Arkansas with two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, one 3-inch Ordnance Rifle, and one 10-pdr Parrott. Captain Mortimer M. Hayden remained in command, but served in staff positions. Lieutenant Melville C. Wright led the battery in his absence.  The battery served in the Third Division, Department of Arkansas (which would become the Seventh Corps later in 1864). After accompanying an expedition to Arkadelphia, the battery returned to Little Rock and remained there through the winter.
  • 4th Iowa Battery:  Not listed.  Captain Philip H. Goode’s battery mustered on September 24, 1863. They had two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery’s first assignment was to the Department of the Northwest. But that was a short posting. By February the battery was moving to St. Louis, with New Orleans as their ultimate destination.
  • Section attached to 2nd Cavalry –  At Collierville, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons, two 12-pdr mountain howitzers, and two 10-pdr Parrotts. However, I think, based on the ammunition reported, the section had two 12-pdr field howitzers instead of the Napoleons. And section? Well, more like a battery.   Recall from our discussion in the previous quarter, Lieutenant Perry L. Reed is mentioned in charge of two howitzers in a dispatch from November.  So he is likely the officer in charge of these cannon. Still, that’s a lot of cannon for a bunch of cavalrymen to handle. The 2nd Iowa Cavalry was part of the First Cavalry Division, Sixteenth Corps and operated in the Memphis area at this time of the war.

We have a majority of smoothbore cannon in the aggregate, so we have a lot of smoothbore rounds to talk about:

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  • 2nd Battery: 57 shot and 42 case for 6-pdr field guns; 74 shell and 20 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 175 shot and 165 case for 6-pdr field guns; 109 shell and 156 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 2nd Cavalry: 94 shell and 163 case for 12-pdr field howitzers; 192 shell and 192 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzer. (The ammunition tallies are why I suggested the 2nd Cavalry had howitzers vice Napoleons).

Continuing smoothbore ammunition totals on the next page:

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  • 2nd Battery: 80 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 60 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 60 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 32 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 2nd Cavalry: 52 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; 276 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

To the right is one entry of Hotchkiss rifled projectiles:

  • 3rd Battery: 40 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

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  • 3rd Battery: 40 Percussion fuse shell and 60 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

Next we have Parrott projectiles:

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  • 1st Battery: 218 shell, 6 case, and 3 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 3rd Battery: 130 shell, 99 case, and 45 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

No quantities on the next page, so we move to the small arms:

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  • 1st Battery: Eleven cavalry sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: Four cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Three Colt navy revolvers, two cavalry sabers, and nine horse artillery sabers.

Not much in the way of cartridges:

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  • 3rd Battery: 50 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
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  • 3rd Battery: 50 paper fuses; 1,000 friction primers; and 1,000 percussion caps.
  • 2nd Cavalry: 360 friction primers.

That rounds out our look at the status of the Iowa batteries, as they were in December 1863… at least according to the Ordnance Department. Next up… the not-well-known Indian Home Guard Brigade.

Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Independent and other Illinois Batteries

Some batteries seemed to have more names than guns assigned.  For Illinois batteries falling outside the regimental affiliations, that was the case.  For the second quarter, 1863, below the entries for the two regiments, we find several lines which require formal introductions:

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With the first line, we see “Third Artillery.”  But from there things fall into disorder.  We find the 14th Illinois Cavalry reporting some mountain howitzers on hand.  Then five batteries identified by commander or sponsor.  Lastly, the 51st Illinois Infantry reported a couple 6-pdrs.  So pardon the lengthy explanations (or wild guesses!) to follow.

  • Battery A, Third Artillery:  We same the same identification for the fourth quarter, 1862, but noted this battery was most often cited as the Springfield Light Artillery, or Vaughn’s Battery (after Captain Thomas F. Vaughn).  The latter was used for the first quarter, 1862.   As mentioned in those earlier posts, the designation of a third regiment is a mystery to me.  But we can match the other details to this battery’s service.  Reporting six 3.80-inch James Rifles, the battery, part of the garrison of Memphis, Tennessee, was split into sections at this time, one at Germantown and another at Collierville.
  • I read this as “Col. 14th Cav?. Stores in charge“:  Presuming I transcribe that correctly, this indicates Colonel Horace Capron’s 14th Illinois Cavalry had four 12-pdr mountain howitzers on hand.  At the time of reporting, the regiment was in the First Brigade, Third Division, Twenty-third Corps, Army of the Ohio, reporting at Tompkinsville, Kentucky.  The regimental history provides some insight into this “howitzer battery,” along with accounts of use.  The section was under command of Lieutenant Henry Clay Connelly.  The battery, and regiment, would be involved with pursuit of Morgan in July.

HCConnelly

  • Stokes’s Battery:  This is the Chicago Board of Trade Independent Battery Light Artillery, commanded by Captain James H. Stokes.  If I am reading the faded ink correctly, the battery reported from Manchester, Tennessee, with four 6-pdr field guns, one 6-pdr (3.67-inch) rifle, and two 3.80-inch James rifles.  The battery was part of the Second Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Cumberland.
  • Mercantile Battery:  At Vicksburg, Mississippi with three 6-pdr field guns and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Under Captain Patrick H. White, this battery was assigned to Tenth Division, Thirteenth Corps.
  • Cogswell’s Battery: Reporting at Nashville, Tennessee with four 3.80-inch James Rifles.  The location probably reflects the July 1864 receipt date.  In June 1863 the battery was at Vicksburg as part of the First Division, Sixteenth Corps. Lieutenant Henry G. Eddy remained in command.
  • Henshaw’s Battery: Indicated at Loudon, Tennessee with four 6-pdr field guns and three 3.80-inch James Rifles.  The location is valid for a later reporting date.  In June 1863 Captain Edward C. Henshaw’s battery was part of the Third Division, Twenty-third Corps, Army of the Ohio, operating in Kentucky.
  • Bridges’ Battery:  At Manchester, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Lyman Bridges commanded the battery, which supported the Pioneer Brigade, Army of the Cumberland.
  • Lieut 51st Infy“:  Reporting two 6-pdr field guns.  I leave a large, bold question mark over this one.  If I am correct with the identification, the regiment was assigned to Third Brigade, Third Division, Twentieth Corps at the time of report. This puts them in the middle of the Tullahoma Campaign.

Missing from this list is the Elgin Battery and Colvin’s Independent Battery, which were also operating in Kentucky at this time.  With those omissions, coupled with the question mark on the last line entry, leads me to call this the messiest summary section presented thus far.

But let us press on to the ammunition.  Starting with the smoothbore:

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Lots of smoothbores:

  • Springfield Battery: 72 shell, 28 case, and 56 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.  Recall the battery reported similar quantities on hand even back in December, with no weapons in that caliber on hand.
  • 14th Cavalry: 108 shell, 576 case, and 108 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • Stokes’ Battery: 334 shot, 302 case, and 259 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Mercantile Battery: 305 shot, 340 case, and 61 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 102 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.  With that last entry, we have another mismatch of ammunition.
  • Henshaw’s Battery: 369 shot, 375 case, and 84 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Bridges’ Battery: 195 shot, 266 case, and 122 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 100 shot, 250 case, and 50 canister for 12-pdr field guns; 50 shell and 350 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.  Yet another line with mismatched ammunition reported.
  • 51st Infantry: 70 shot, 84 case, and 42 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

While we can wave off the Springfield Battery’s howitzer ammunition pointing to previous reports, the issues with the Mercantile and Bridge’s battery leave questions.

To the rifled ammunition starting with Hotchkiss:

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And another question:

  • Springfield Battery: 48 shot, 73 percussion shell,  and 30 canister for 6-pdr, 2.6-inch bore; 63 bullet shell for 3.80-inch rifles.  Only the latter would work for the battery’s reported rifles.
  • Stokes’ Battery: 17 shot and 80 percussion shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Mercantile Battery: 42 canister, 105 percussion shell, 93 fuse shell, and 160 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Henshaw’s Battery: 63 percussion shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Bridges’ Battery: 84 canister, 65 percussion shell, 250 fuse shell, and 105(?) bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

Perhaps the entries for the Springfield Battery were transcription errors.  Perhaps.

Moving to the next page, let’s trim the view have a good look at the numbers:

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Let’s break this down by type for clarity, starting with the left over Hotchkiss columns:

  • Springfield Battery: 77 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Stokes’ Battery: 40 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Those are “clean”.  So on to the James-patent projectiles:

  • Springfield Battery: 350 shot, 480 shell, and 30 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Stokes’ Battery: 33 shot and 72 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Cogswell’s Battery: 31 shot, 407 shell, and 47 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

That allows us to move to the last page of rifled projectiles.  We find three entries:

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One of those for Schenkl:

  • Stokes’ Battery: 292 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

And then over to the Tatham’s columns:

  • Springfield Battery: 36 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Cogswell’s Battery: 149 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

So, if you served in the Springfield Battery and canister was ordered, one might find three different varieties in the limber chest.

We might presume, given all the questions and remarks above, the small arms section would be a real mess.  Not so.  Relatively tame:

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Not to disappoint, we have some entries at least deserving a remark or two:

  • Springfield Battery:  Ten horse artillery sabers.
  • Stokes’ Battery: 135 Army revolvers, eight cavalry sabers, and 26(?) horse artillery sabers.
  • Mercantile Battery: Four horse artillery sabers.
  • Cogswell’s Battery: Two Army revolvers and two cavalry sabers.
  • Henshaw’s Battery: Thirty (?) Army revolvers and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • Bridges’ Battery: Ten Army revolvers, fifteen cavalry sabers, and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 51st Infantry:  Two Army revolves and two horse artillery sabers.

Somewhat understandable the Board of Trade Battery (Stokes’) assigned to the cavalry would have a lot of small arms. We find the Mercantile Battery, serving at Vicksburg, with just four sabers.  Cogswell’s was little better with a pair of pistols and a pair of sabers.  But, speaking against my presumptive identity, we have small arms reported for the last line.  Normally we wouldn’t see that carried (ref. the 14th Cavalry line on the same sheet).  But whoever had those 6-pdrs also had matching revolvers and sabers.