Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Wisconsin Batteries

The last heading for the state volunteers in the third quarter of 1863 summaries is Wisconsin.  Under this heading are a dozen independent (numbered) batteries along with four reports for sections from cavalry and infantry regiments.  We look at those artillery batteries first:

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I said “a dozen,” right?  But you count thirteen.  Yes, because one of those batteries didn’t exist.  Notice we have dated returns for all but the 11th Battery (the one that didn’t exist).  Some were late.  But returns to work from at least for the twelve:

  • 1st Battery:  Reporting at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, as of March 1865.  But with no cannon on hand.  Captain Jacob T. Foster remained in command of the battery.  After Vicksburg, and the transfer of the Thirteenth Corps to the Department of the Gulf, the battery relocated to New Orleans.  They remained there until the first week of September, when they moved to Brashear City.  At the end of September Foster’s battery was at Berwick City (across the Atchafalaya from modern day Morgan City).  But they returned to Brashear City in early October. A report dated September 2 indicated the battery had four 30-pdr Parrotts.  That would be an upgrade from the 20-pdr Parrotts worn out during the Vicksburg Campaign.   Staff duties often kept Foster away from the battery. In his place, Lieutenant Daniel Webster led the battery.
  • 2nd Battery:  No location given, from a return posted November 1864, but with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 10-pdr Parrotts. With the end of Dix’s Peninsula Campaign, the battery moved to Yorktown.  The battery remained there through the rest of the summer and into fall, as part of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.  Captain Charles Beger commanded this battery.  However, returns indicate he was absent at the end of the reporting period, with Lieutenant Charles Schultz standing in.
  • 3rd Battery: Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee with one 12-pdr field howitzer. Captain Lucius H. Drury, of the battery, was division artillery chief.  Under direct command of Lieutenant Cortland Livingston, as part of Third Division, Twenty-first Corps, Army of the Cumberland, the battery went into action at Chickamauga with four 10-pdr Parrotts and two 12-pdr field howitzers. On September 19, the battery fought near the Viniard cornfield, playing an important role checking the Confederates in that sector.  But on the afternoon of the 20, the battery was with others grouped by Mendenhall on the northwest of Dyer Field.  Loosing 30 horses in that desperate stand, the Livingston was only able to bring one howitzer off the field.
  • 4th Battery: At Gloucester Point, Virginia with six 3-inch rifles (likely Ordnance rifles).  Captain John F. Vallee commanded this battery at the start of the quarter.  When Vallee resigned on July 6, George B. Easterly was promoted to command. As part of Second Division, Fourth Corps the battery participated in the operations on the Peninsula through June and July.  Afterwards, the battery was part of the Yorktown Garrison, specifically assigned to Gloucester Point, across the York River.
  • 5th Battery: In Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  In the previous quarters, this battery reported two mountain howitzers instead of field howitzers.  Other equipment, and ammunition on hand (see below), reported was for field howitzers.  Still, I would leave a question mark for caution on that column. The battery was assigned to First Division, Twentieth Corps, and commanded by Captain George Q. Gardner. The battery was detached with the division’s First Brigade at the start of September.  During the battle of Chickamauga, they were at Valley Head, Alabama.  They did see action on September 22 skirmishing with Confederates as the siege of Chattanooga set in.
  • 6th Battery: “In the field”  with two 6-pdr field guns, two 24-pdr field howitzers, and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.  However, I believe, based on the ammunition reported and previous quarter reporting, the 24-pdrs should instead be 12-pdr field howitzers. Assigned to Seventh (later Second) Division, Seventeenth Corps.  Captain Henry Dillon was in command.  However, with Dillon serving as division artillery chief, Lieutenant Samuel F. Clark stood in as commander.  The battery spent most of the summer at Vicksburg.  They were part of the force dispatched to Chattanooga, via Memphis and overland to Bridgeport, Alabama, starting the last week of September.
  • 7th Battery: At Memphis, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and three 3.67-inch rifles, and one 3.80-inch James rifles (as opposed to four 3.80-inch James reported the previous quarter).  Captain Harry S. Lee returned to resume command of the battery for part of the summer.  But returns from October indicate Lieutenant William E. Hearsey was acting commander.   The battery was assigned to the District of Memphis, Sixteenth Corps. 
  • 8th Battery: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Assigned to First Division, Twentieth Corps. In Captain Henry E. Stiles’ absence,  Lieutenant John D. McLean lead the battery at Chickamauga.  The battery reported no loss in the battle.
  • 9th Battery: Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory with four 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers. Captain Cyrus H. Johnson remained in command, but he would be dismissed on October 21.  So a story for the next quarter.  The battery served by sections.  The right section, under Lieutenant James H. Dodge, first moved to Fort Union, New Mexico, before returning to Fort Lyon.  The left section, under Lieutenant Watson D. Crocker, continued on to Fort Larned, Kansas.  And the center section, which remained with Captain Johnson, set up operations at Fort Lyon.
  • 10th Battery: Reporting at Bridgeport, Alabama with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Yates V. Beebe’s battery was assigned to the Second Division, Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  From the beginning of the year up to September, the battery performed escort duties based out of Nashville and Murfreesboro.  In late September the battery moved forward to Bridgeport and guarded key points in that area.
  • 11th Battery: No return. As mentioned above, before this battery could complete organization, it was assigned to Illinois for accounting, becoming Battery L, 1st Illinois Light Artillery.
  • 12th Battery: A February 1864 return has this battery at Chattanooga with four 10-pdr Parrotts.  Captain William Zickerick and his battery’s four 10-pdr Parrotts were assigned to Seventh Division (later Second), Seventeenth Corps. Alongside the 6th Battery, they spent most of the summer at Vicksburg.  In late September, they were among the forces dispatched to Chattanooga.
  • 13th Battery: From a March 1864 return, this battery was at Fort Williams, Louisiana with the annotation “no stores.”  The battery started forming in the summer of 1863.  In November, seventy-one men were mustered into service, with duty location of Camp Washburn, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.  Captain Richard R. Griffith would command the battery, with data of rank from December 23 of that year.

Moving down to the ammunition on hand, starting with the smoothbore:

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  • 2nd Battery: 120 shell, 160 case, and 32 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 70 shell, 160 case, and 27 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 5th Battery: 96 shot, 32 shell, 91 case, and 40 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 62 shell, 156 case, and 47 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 6th Battery: 73 shot, 173 case, and 105 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 21 shell, and 113 case for 12-pdr field howitzers;  65 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons. That last entry may be a transcription error by the clerks.
  • 7th Battery: 186 shot, 243 case, and 87 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 8th Battery: 32 shot, 94 shell, 64 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 9th Battery: 400 shot, 320 case, and 80 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 150 shell, 190 case, and 62 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.

Turning to the Hotchkiss rifled projectiles reported:

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  • 4th Battery: 117 canister, 603 (!!!) percussion shell, 266 fuse shell, and 116 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 6th Battery: 26 shot and 146 bullet shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 81 shot, 80 percussion shell, 161 fuse shell, and 430 bullet shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 8th Battery: 94 shot, 151 canister, and 479 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 120 canister, 245 percussion shell, and 235 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

We will break the next page down into sections for clarity.  Starting with the James projectiles reported:

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  • 6th Battery: 96 shell and 34 canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.

And then to the Parrott columns:

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  • 2nd Battery: 314 shot, 387 shell, and 96 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 3rd Battery: 195 shell, 188 case, and 75 canister for 10-pdr Parrott…. which, as of the time of the report, the battery didn’t have on hand.  So while losing the guns, the battery rescued their caissons.  Good work!
  • 5th Battery: 9 shot, 142 shell, 127 case, and 78 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 12th Battery: 116 shot, 321 shell, 247 case, and 136 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

A handful of Schenkl and Tatham’s reported:

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First the Schenkl:

  • 4th Battery: 33 shell and 23 case for 3 inch rifles.

And one entry for Tatham’s canister:

  • 6th Battery: 30 canister for 3.80-inch James.

Lastly we examine the small arms reported:

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  • 2nd Battery: Twenty army revolvers and 133 horse artillery sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Fourteen army revolvers and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Sixteen army revolvers and twelve horse artillery sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Six cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery: Thirty army revolvers and twenty-five cavalry sabers.
  • 8th Battery: Sixteen navy revolvers and four cavalry sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Ninety-five navy revolvers and nineteen cavalry sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Fifteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 12th Battery: Eight navy revolvers.

We can say there was an evolving theme across the Wisconsin batteries.  While that theme did not include all, at the close of the third quarter of 1863 many of these batteries were either at Chattanooga or moving to the city.  In the weeks that followed, the men of those batteries would support the efforts to lift the siege and eventually defeat the Confederates encircling the city.

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Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Pennsylvania’s Independent, Militia, and Miscellaneous

In the third quarter section for Pennsylvania, below the 3rd Pennsylvania Artillery listings, were a dozen lines which were sort of a “grab bag” of units of different origin or category.  Some were independent batteries.  Others were militia batteries only temporarily part of the Federal war effort.  And lastly there was one artillery section reported in a cavalry regiment.  Instead of breaking these up, which would lead to some splicing, we’ll look at these as one grouping and try to identify what was listed and what should have been listed by category.

The lines we are focused upon are these:

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Let us interpret these by looking at what should be there by category, identifying which ones are present on the list.  And the logical start point is the independent batteries.  Let me annotate these by lettered independent batteries, with cross references to the “by commander’s name” references, lastly identify the line I think these occupy on the summary:

  • Battery A:  See line 15.  Sometimes known as Schaffer’s Battery.  Or also going by, as in this case, the battery’s second commander – Captain Stanislaus Mlotkowski.  And Mlotkowski’s Battery was posted to Fort Delaware, in the Middle Department, and serving as garrison artillery despite the light artillery title.
  • Battery B: See line 23, Muehler’s Battery, but no return. This battery appears as the 26th Pennsylvania, assigned to Third Division, Twenty-first Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  The battery brought four 6-pdr field guns and two 3.80-inch James Rifles into the fighting at Chickamuaga.  The battery lost two 6-pdrs in some vicious, close fighting on September 19.  Their position at the end of the day was near the Brotherton Cabin.  Receiving two captured Confederate guns as replacements, the battery was back in action the next day.  Part of Major John Mendenhall’s “last stand” on the afternoon of September 20, the battery only took guns off the field. Captain Stevens was mortally wounded in the battle, and replaced by Lieutenant Samuel M. McDowell.  We can place the battery at Chattanooga for the end of the reporting period.
  • Battery CThompson’s Battery appears on line 21. Shown at Brandy Station, Virginia, with five 3-inch Ordnance rifles. Captain James Thompson’s Battery was, at this time, consolidated with Battery F (below) and assigned to 1st Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac.
  • Battery D: See line 16, this was Durell’s Battery. No return. Captain George W. Durell’s battery was part of the well traveled First Division (having moved from the Second Division), Ninth Corps.  After the fall of Vicksburg, the battery participated in the siege of Jackson and then transferred to Kentucky with its parent formation. The battery remained on duty at Covington, Kentucky through the spring of 1864.
  • Battery E: Line 20 is Knap’s Battery, but with no return.  The battery was assigned to the Twelfth Corps.  At the end of the reporting period, the battery was moving to Tennessee as part of the force sent to beleaguered Chattanooga.  The battery had last reported five 10-pdr Parrotts on hand. Lieutenant Charles A. Atwell was promoted to captain and remained in command of the battery.  however, his time was short.  He would be killed the following month in the battle of Wauhatchie.
  • Battery F: Hampton’s Battery combined with Battery C (above) at this stage of the war, and thus escaped mention on the summary.  Captain Nathaniel Irish was the ranking officer on the rolls of the battery at this time.
  • Battery G: Young’s Battery appears on line 22, at Fort Delaware with infantry stores.  Captain John Jay Young remained in command.
  • Battery H: See line 19. John I. Nevin’s Battery. Captain William Borrowe commanded at this time, thus the name Borrowe’s Battery appears on the summary. The battery was assigned to the Defenses of Washington, serving south of the Potomac.  With a location indicated as “Camp Page” with six 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery I:  This should be line 17.  Captain Robert J. Nevin’s Battery was among those organized during the emergency of June 1863 as a six month battery.  The location of Fort Washington, Pennsylvania places the battery outside Philadelphia, where it spent the summer in response to the draft riots.  The battery had four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance rifles. The battery would muster out in January,  but then re-muster with most of the men re-enlisting.  At that time it became Battery I.

The next category were the emergency and militia batteries brought into service.  I detailed much of this in the last quarter.  So some of these will just summarize with the muster out date. Most just for the summer months, but there is an exception right off the top:

  • The Keystone Battery: See line 18. Captain Matthew Hastings commanded.  Listed in Bate’s as a militia battery, the Keystone Battery was assigned to the Defenses of Washington in August 1862.  In June 1863 the battery was at Camp Barry.  Before mustering out in August 1863, the battery briefly served in the field with Third Corps.  Their muster out date (August 20) might explain the lack of report in this summary.
  • Frishmuth’s Battery: The Philadelphia Union Battery commanded by Benoni Frishmuth.  Mustered on June 26 and discharged on August 1.
  • Miller’s Battery: Philadelphia Howitzer Battery. Commanded by Captain E. Spencer Miller.  Mustered June 19 and discharged July 25.
  • Landis’ Battery: 1st Philadelphia Battery. Captain Henry D. Landis’ battery mustered on June 27, serving until discharged on July 30.
  • Joseph Knap’s Battery: Captain Joseph M. Knap had recently mustered out from Battery E, Pennsylvania Light Artillery (which is the connection to the “original” Knap’s Battery).  But he responded to the governor’s call, leading a battery of five officers and 121 men, which mustered on June 27.  They mustered out on August 16.
  • Ermentrout’s Battery: Captain William C. Ermentrout’s was a company of heavy artillery.  Mustered on July 3, and discharged on August 25, the company numbered five officers and 144 enlisted.  The battery formed in Reading and saw service around Camp Curtain and Harrisburg.  In some documents, this battery is called the Ringgold Artillery.  And there are some individual connections between the battery under Ermentrout and the “First Defenders” battery of 1861.  Such may explain the entry of “Ringgold Artillery” on line 24.
  • Guss’s Battery: Chester County Artillery. Commanded by Captain George R. Guss.   It mustered on July 3 and was discharged on August 25.
  • Fitzki’s Battery: Second Keystone Battery with Captain Edward Fitzki in command.  The battery mustered out on August 24.
  • Woodward’s Battery: Captain William H. Woodward’s battery mustered on July 8.  Unlike these other batteries, Woodward’s was not mustered out until November 4, 1863.  The battery served at Philadelphia through most of its time.
  • Tyler’s Battery: The Park Battery and carried on line 25. Captain Horatio K. Tyler, who’d served earlier in the war with an infantry regiment, commanded this battery.  Mustered on July 16, the battery consisted of four officers and 138 enlisted.  In late August, the battery was in Colonel James Mulligan’s Brigade serving in West Virginia.  We have a location of Fort Fuller, Virginia, with one 3-inch Ordnance rifle and two 12-pdr James rifles (yes, a couple of old 12-pdr “heavy” field gun that had been rifled). But this battery, as we will see, carried a lot of ammunition for 3.80-inch and 3.67-inch rifles, along with that for 12-pdr Napoleons.  The battery remained in service until January 28, 1864.
  • Robert Nevin’s Battery: See Battery I, Pennsylvania Light (Robert J. Nevin’s Battery) above.

Lastly, we have the lone entry for an artillery section from a cavalry regiment:

  • 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry – The line read “Col. 11th Cav. Stores in charge.”  And among those stores were two 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  The 11th was assigned to the Seventh Corps, Department of Virginia and spent an active spring with detachments posted around the Suffolk and Norfolk area. Colonel Samuel P. Spear commanded.  The regimental history has passing mention of “our” howitzers, but no specifics.  Sergeant Stewart B. Shannon, of Company I, is mentioned in relation to the howitzers.

To reconcile this lengthy discussion against the summary, here’s the cross-match against the lines:

  • Line 15 – Battery A / Mlotkowski’s Battery
  • Line 16 – Battery D / Durell’s Battery
  • Line 17 – Battery I / Robert J. Nevin’s Battery
  • Line 18 – The Keystone Battery
  • Line 19 – Battery H / Borrowe’s Battery
  • Line 20 – Battery E / Knap’s Battery
  • Line 21 – Batteries C & F / Thompson’s Battery (Hampton’s Battery)
  • Line 22 – Battery G / Young’s Battery
  • Line 23 – Battery B / Muehler’s Battery
  • Line 24 – Ringgold Battery, perhaps Ermentrout’s Battery?
  • Line 25 – The Park Battery / Tyler’s Battery
  • Line 26 – 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry howitzer section

I’ll use those naming conventions for clarity below with the ammunition reported.  We start with the smoothbore:

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  • Battery I / Robert J. Nevin’s Battery: 192 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H / Borrowe’s Battery: 296 shot, 112 shell, 299 case, and 100 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • The Park Battery / Tyler’s Battery: 70 shot, 518 case, and 252 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 662 shot, 363 case, and 653 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons. Clearly some explanation is needed here… but I have little to offer but speculations.
  • 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry: 64 shell, 141 case, and 48 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

Moving to the Hotchkiss rifled columns:

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  • Battery I / Robert J. Nevin’s Battery: 100 canister and 200 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Batteries C & F / Thompson’s Battery: 130 canister 299 fuse shell, and 322 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • The Park Battery / Tyler’s Battery: 33 canister, 209 percussion shell, 292 fuse shell, and 129 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles; ALSO 6 percussion shell for 12-pdr/3.67-inch rifles.  Again, this defies a proper reconciliation.

Moving to the next page, just one entry:

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  • The Park Battery / Tyler’s Battery: 98 James patent shot for 3.80-inch rifles.

Moving to the Schenkl columns:

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  • Battery I / Robert J. Nevin’s Battery: 100 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Batteries C & F / Thompson’s Battery: 135 shell and 120 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • The Park Battery / Tyler’s Battery: 24 shell for 3.67-inch rifles.

So right down the line, it is the short-serving Park Battery that leaves us with the most questions.  Seems every entry line for that battery offers contradictions.  Perhaps they just received anything available and were stuck with maintaining stores left behind by other batteries.  Or perhaps the summary was just not properly constructed, and thus lead to confusion at the Ordnance Department.  Or perhaps we see again the clerks at that department were not infallible.

Lastly, we turn to the small arms reported:

. 0292_3_Snip_PA_Ind

Listing by battery:

  • Battery I / Robert J. Nevin’s Battery: Thirty-one army revolvers and thirty cavalry sabers.
  • Battery H / Borrowe’s Battery: Fourteen navy revolvers and sixty horse artillery sabers.
  • Batteries C & F / Thompson’s Battery: Twelve navy revolves and three cavalry sabers.
  • The Park Battery / Tyler’s Battery: One hundred Springfield rifled muskets, caliber .58.

That brings us to a close on this lengthy examination of the “other” batteries and sections from Pennsylvania.  There are some questions we have unresolved, but on a whole this quarter was a better accounting than the previous.

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Ohio Independent Batteries, Part 2

Twenty-six independent batteries from Ohio, recall?  But only twenty-four of those might properly be called “complete” as Ohio batteries.  We looked at what the first dozen of those were doing in the third quarter, 1863.  So we turn now to the remainder:

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Looking at each battery in detail:

  • 13th Battery: Not listed.  Most histories indicate this battery was never fully organized and ceased to exist, officially, in April 1862. But that’s not exactly accurate.  The battery did organize and saw action at Shiloh.  There it lost five of six guns (for a good, brief discussion, see this article).  As the battery fell into disfavor (and likely was the scapegoat for the poor performance of a division commander…) it was disbanded. The men and equipment remaining were distributed to other Ohio batteries (namely the 7th, 10th, and 14th Batteries).
  • 14th Battery: Reporting at Corinth, Mississippi with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance rifles. The battery was part of Second Division, Sixteenth Corps.   Captain Jerome B. Burrows remained in command.  In November, the battery was part of the “Left Wing” of the corps, advanced to Lynnville, in south-central Tennessee to guard the sensitive supply lines in that area.
  • 15th Battery: At Natchez, Mississippi with four 6-pdr field guns.  Captain Edward Spear, Jr. remained in command.  The battery was in Fourth Division, Sixteenth Corps at the end of the Vicksburg campaign. And it took part in the Jackson Campaign which followed.  Transferred in late July, with the division, to the Seventeenth Corps, it formed part of the garrison of Natchez. The battery took part in an expedition to Harrisonburg, Louisiana in September.
  • 16th Battery: Reporting at Carrollton, Louisiana with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain Russell P. Twist remained in command.  The battery was with Third Division, Thirteenth Corps, recently transferred to the Department of the Gulf.  In late September, the battery transferred to Berwick Bay (Morgan City), southwest of New Orleans, for garrison duty.
  • 17th Battery: At Vermilion Bridge, Louisiana with six 10-pdr Parrotts. The battery was assigned to Tenth Division (re-designated Fourth), Thirteenth Corps.  When transferred to the Department of the Gulf, the battery was assigned to the garrison at Brashear City (Morgan City), Louisiana.  Later the battery moved to the location given in the return. The battery was among the forces used in the Teche Expedition in October. Captain Charles S. Rice remained in command.
  • 18th Battery: No report.  Captain Charles Aleshire’s battery was in First Division, Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland, and had six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  The battery saw action on September 18, supporting the division along the Ringold Road. And was in action again on September 20 on Snodgrass Hill on the left end of the Federal line. With the general withdrawal that evening, the battery returned to Chattanooga.
  • 19th Battery: At Knoxville, Tennessee with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Joseph C. Shields commanded this battery, assigned to the Twenty-third Corps.  After contributing to the pursuit of Morgan in July, the battery was among the forces under General Burnside’s East Tennessee Campaign.
  • 20th Battery: Reporting, in May 1864, at Nashville, Tennessee with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3-inch Ordnance rifles. However, the battery actually had two 12-pdr Napoleons, not field howitzers. The entry is a clerical data-entry error. The battery remained under Captain [John T.] Edward Grosskopff  and assigned to assigned to Second Division, Twentieth Corps. And the battery was with that division at Chickamauga. Grosskopff reported firing 85 rounds of ammunition at Chickamagua.  In terms of material, he lost only one caisson.  The location for this battery, for the end of the quarter, is accurately Chattanooga.
  • 21st Battery: At Greenville, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain James W. Patterson commanded.  Recall this battery was organized in April 1863.  After assisting with the pursuit of Morgan in July, the battery remained at Camp Dennison, Ohio, through much of the summer. Only in September did they move to Camp Nelson, Kentucky.  They arrived in Greenville, as the return indicates, around the first of October. The battery was part of the “Left Wing Forces” of the Ninth Corps.
  • 22nd Battery: No report.  The battery began the quarter stationed at Camp Chase, Ohio, where they’d just received their full complement of six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Commanded by Captain Henry M. Neil, the battery would not move out of Ohio until mid-August.  After spending time at Camp Nelson, the battery was dispatched with other forces to the Cumberland Gap, as part of the “Left Wing Forces” of the Ninth Corps.  According to the department returns at that time, Neil was serving as Artillery Chief for the Second Division, Ninth Corps.  And in his absence, Lieutenant Amos B. Alger led the battery.
  • 23rd Battery: Not listed. This battery was formed from the 2nd Kentucky Infantry and later became the 1st Kentucky Independent Light Battery. Only mentioned here due to “placeholder” status.
  • 24th Battery:  At Cincinnati, Ohio with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Officially mustered on August 4, this battery was posted to Camp Dennison until September 22, when they moved to Cincinnati.  Captain John L. Hill commanded.
  • 25th Battery: Reporting from Little Rock, Arkansas, in May 1864, with two 3-inch Ordnance rifles and four 3.67-inch rifles.  Captain Julius L. Hadley remained in command.  Assigned to First Cavalry Division, Department of Southeast Missouri, the battery served on expeditions into northeast Arkansas in July.  In August, the battery was among the forces sent toward Little Rock as part of Steele’s Expedition.
  • 26th Battery:  At Vicksburg, Mississippi, with no cannon reported. An interesting unit history, originally being a company in the 32nd Ohio Infantry, that I alluded to in the last quarter.  Briefly, detailed to artillery service earlier in the war, but still under the 32nd Infantry, the battery was captured at Harpers Ferry in September 1862.  Exchanged, the “battery” resumed infantry duties.  That is until during the siege at Vicksburg when captured Confederate cannon were assigned to the regiment.  “Yost’s Captured Battery”, named for Captain Theobold D. Yost, served in the siege lines, being highly regarded by senior officers.  And after the fall of Vicksburg the men of this temporary battery were detached to Battery D, 1st Illinois and the 3rd Ohio Independent Battery.  Yost would command the Illinois battery for a short time that summer. Not until December was the 26th formally authorized.  While not officially a battery at the end of September 1863, the men would would form the 26th were indeed stationed around Vicksburg.

Those details established, we turn to the smoothbore ammunition:

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Six lines to consider:

  • 14th Battery:  60 shot, 32 shell, 106 case, and 50 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 15th Battery: 220 shot, 132 case, and 220 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 16th Battery: 44 shot, 123 shell, 169 case, and 48 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 19th Battery: 74 shot, 230 shell, 269 case, and 234 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 20th Battery: 47 shot and 39 shell for 12-pdr Napoleons; 32 case and 32 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.  As with the issue mentioned above for this battery, the howitzer ammunition tallies are likely a data-entry error and should be 12-pdr Napoleon rounds.
  • 21st Battery: 276 shot, 126 shell, 164 case, and 128 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Moving to the Hotchkiss page:

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A mix of calibers here:

  • 14th Battery: 147 canister, 355 percussion shell, and 276 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 16th Battery: 88 shot, 70 fuse shell, and 304 bullet shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 20th Battery: 168 canister, 227 percussion shell, and 351 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 24th Battery: 48 shot, 168 canister, 120 percussion shell, and 290 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.  Yes, the seldom reported Hotchkiss solid shot for 3-inch rifles!
  • 25th Battery: 116 canister, 85 percussion shell, 43 fuse shell, and 65 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles; 112 shot, 291 percussion shell, and 158 fuse shell for “12-pounder” 3.67-inch rifles.

Two entries in the Hotchkiss columns on the next page:

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  • 16th Battery: 104 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 25th Battery: 216 canister for 3.67-inch rifles.

No James projectiles reported, for what it is worth.

But one battery with Parrott guns:

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  • 17th Battery: 48 shot, 677 shell, 155 case, and 363 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

We turn then to the Schenkl page:

0284_2_Snip_OH_Ind_2

  • 24th Battery: 720 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • 25th Battery: 37 shell and 46 case for 3-inch rifles.

Lastly, we have the small arms reported on hand:

0284_3_Snip_OH_Ind_2

By battery:

  • 14th Battery: Thirty army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • 15th Battery: Eight cavalry sabers.
  • 16th Battery: Twenty-four navy revolvers and two cavalry sabers.
  • 17th Battery: Eight army revolvers.
  • 19th Battery: Thirty navy revolvers and twelve cavalry sabers.
  • 20th Battery: Eight army revolvers and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 21st Battery: Twenty-eight navy revolvers and thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 24th Battery: Thirty army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • 25th Battery: Twenty-six navy revolvers and fourteen cavalry sabers.

That concludes the Ohio independent batteries.  Next we will look at a couple of lines below those listings, covering artillery reported from infantry regiments.  And I’ll mention a couple that escaped notice of the Ordnance officers.

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Ohio Independent Batteries, Part 1

Ohio provided twenty-six numbered independent batteries to the Federal cause during the Civil War.  As mentioned in last week’s post, two of those twenty-six were discontinued before the middle of the war.  That leaves us, for the purposes of the third quarter, 1863’s summary statement, just twenty-four batteries to account for.   So two batches of a dozen.  Let’s look at the first twelve:

0281_1_Snip_OH_Ind_1

Seven of the twelve submitted returns.  And we see service from Washington, D.C. all the way west to Little Rock, Arkansas:

  • 1st Battery: No report. Captain James R. McMullin commanded this battery, supporting the Third Division (Scammon’s), Department/Army of West Virginia, then based at Charleston, West Virginia.  Most likely the battery retained four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles received just after the battle of Antietam, a year earlier.
  • 2nd Battery: No return.  This battery was assigned to Third Division, Thirteenth Corps.  During the summer months, the battery followed its parent formation to New Orleans and became part of the Department of the Gulf.   Lieutenant Augustus Beach was promoted to captain in October 1863, and commanded the battery.  A corps-level return from September 26, 1863 indicates the battery had two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 3rd Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.   The battery was assigned to Third Division, Seventeenth Corps.  Captain William S. Williams remained in command.  The battery remained at Vicksburg through April 1864.  Williams served as division artillery chief.  So on some order of battles Lieutenant Thomas J. Blackburn appears in command of the battery.
  • 4th Battery:  No return.  The battery was assigned to First Division, Fifteenth Corps.  After the battle of Jackson, Mississippi, the battery followed its parent formation back to the Big Black River and spent most of the summer there.  At the end of September, the battery was among those forces dispatched to reinforce Chattanooga. When Captain Louis Hoffman resigned at the end of June, George Froehlich took his place, and was advanced to captain.  The battery likely retained two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.  This mix would change in December, as the battery received replacements from what was left behind on Missionary Ridge.
  • 5th Battery:  At Little Rock, Arkansas with two 6-pdr field guns and two 3.80-inch James rifles.  With Captain Andrew Hickenlooper serving as the Seventeenth Corps’ Chief Engineer, Lieutenants John D. Burner and, later, Anthony B. Burton led this battery.  The battery served in Fourth Division, Sixteenth Corps and remained around Vicksburg through the early summer.  The battery was among the forces detached for Steele’s Expedition to Little Rock in August.  And thence became part of the garrison of that place.
  • 6th  Battery:  Reporting from Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Cullen Bradley remained in command of the battery, which was assigned to First Division, Twenty-First Corps.  The battery saw heavy action at Chickamuauga, as evidenced in Bradley’s very detailed report.  On September 19 the guns fired 209 rounds, “of this some 20 rounds were canister” attesting to the range at which the fighting occurred.  All told the battery fired 336 rounds in the battle.
  • 7th Battery: No return.  Captain Silas A. Burnap remained commander.  The battery was assigned to Fourth Division, Sixteenth Corps through August, 1863. However, the battery moved with its parent division as reorganizations occurred later in the summer, temporarily listed in the Thirteenth Corps before finally moving to the Seventeenth Corps.  The battery participated in the campaign to Jackson in July and was later moved to Natchez, where it stayed through November.  In the first quarter, the battery reported four 3.80-inch James Rifles.
  • 8th Battery: Reporting in January 1864 as at Vicksburg, Mississippi (with the annotation of “positions in Fort ????”).  The battery had two 30-pdr Parrotts (not listed, as those were not considered field artillery).  Commanded by Captain James F. Putnam, this battery was assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Corps.  After Vicksburg, one section was sent with the expedition to Jackson. But the rest of the summer was spent at Vicksburg. In September, the battery transferred to First Division, Seventeenth Corps.
  • 9th Battery: Tullahoma, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery was commanded by Captain Harrison B. York and assigned to the Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  The battery was among the forces arrayed to protect the Army of the Cumberland’s supply lines.  The battery was at Murfreesboro until September 5, and then moved forward to Tullahoma.  At that position, the battery inherited two 24-pdr siege guns (which would not appear on our field artillery listings for this quarter).
  • 10th Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Under Captain Hamilton B. White, the battery remained with Sixth (later First) Division, Seventeenth Corps. Aside from the Jackson campaign, The battery remained at Vicksburg until April 1864.
  • 11th Battery: No report. Was part of the Seventh Division, Seventeenth Corps. Captain Frank C. Sands was commander (though Lieutenant Fletcher E. Armstrong appears on some returns, with Sands on detail away from the battery). The battery was among the troops assigned to Steele’s Little Rock Expedition in August 1863.  The battery had a mix of two (or three according to some reports) 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and one (or two) rifled 6-pdr guns.
  • 12th Battery: At Camp Barry, District of Columbia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Aaron C. Johnson commanded this battery.  Having lost their posting with the Army of the Potomac, the battery remained at the Artillery Camp of Instruction through the summer.  In late September, the battery received assignment back to the Eleventh Corps, then moving west to reinforce Chattanooga.

Thus of the five batteries not reporting, and the 8th Battery without any tallies, we can at least pencil in what should have been on those lines.  With a few reservations, of course.

Turning next to the ammunition, the smoothbore columns reflect the varied armament of these batteries:

0283_1_Snip_OH_Ind_1

Four batteries reporting:

  • 3rd Battery: 70 shot, 40 case, and 56 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 5th Battery: 5 shot, 633 case, and 154 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 102 shell, and 230 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.  (See comment below.)
  • 6th Battery: 42 shot, 65 shell, 64 case, and 72 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 9th Battery: 104 shot, 153 shell, 307 case, and 223 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

5th Battery had a pair of 12-pdr field howitzers on hand the previous quarter.  It appears they still had ammunition to report, even after turning in the howitzers.

Moving to the rifled projectiles, first we have the Hotchkiss type:

0283_2_Snip_OH_Ind_1

Interesting that we see a good number of rounds for the James calibers:

  • 3rd Battery: 113 percussion shell and 112 fuse shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 5th Battery: 60 percussion shell and 80 fuse shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 9th Battery: 85 canister, 50 percussion shell, 135 fuse shell, and 150 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 20 shot and 104 fuse shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 12th Battery: 120 canister, 502 fuse shell, and 403 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

I’ll break up the next page for clarity, starting with a left-over set of Hotchkiss entries:

0284_1H_Snip_OH_Ind_1

  • 3rd Battery: 69 Hotchkiss canister for 3.80-inch James.
  • 10th Battery: 325 Hotchkiss canister for 3.80-inch James.

Then to the James (actual) columns:

0284_1J_Snip_OH_Ind_1

  • 3rd Battery: 15 shot and 35 shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 5th Battery: 4 shot, 123 shell, and 87 canister for 3.80-inch James.
  • 10th Battery: 120 shell for 3.80-inch James.

Only one battery reported Parrotts on hand:

0284_1P_Snip_OH_Ind_1

  • 6th Battery: 351 shell, 90 case, and 53 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Then completing this assortment of projectiles, we turn to the Schenkl columns:

0284_2_Snip_OH_Ind_1

  • 5th Battery: 11 shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 10th Battery: 204 shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 12th Battery: 167 shell for 3-inch rifles.

And note, the 5th Battery could look in their chests to find Hotchkiss, James, and Schenkl projectiles.  Not to mention a few left over 12-pdr field howitzer rounds.  Enough to make a good ordnance officer wince!

Last we have the small arms:

0284_3_Snip_OH_Ind_1

By Battery:

  • 3rd Battery: Twenty-three army revolvers and eight cavalry sabers.
  • 5th Battery: Seven navy revolvers and seven cavalry sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Two army revolvers and six cavalry sabers.
  • 12th Battery: Twelve army revolvers, four cavalry sabers, and twenty horse artillery sabers.

We’ll look at the other half of the Ohio independent batteries in the next installment.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 1st Ohio Artillery Regiment

Ohio’s artillery required half a page in the third quarter, 1863 summary:

0281_1_Snip_OH_All

Topping this section is the 1st Ohio Light Artillery Regiment.  An appropriate administrative space, then listings for the independent batteries – 1st through 26th.  But notice the 13th Battery (which never fully organized, and was broken up in 1862) and the 23rd Battery (which became Simmonds’ Independent Battery and was allocated to Kentucky).  At the bottom of this list are two infantry regiments reporting artillery and stores on hand.  Not on this listing is a section of mountain howitzers assigned to the 2nd Ohio Cavalry at this time of the war, which we will discuss.  Thus we have an itinerary for the next set of postings on this theme.

Starting this Ohio section, we have Colonel James Barnett’s 1st Ohio Light Artillery.  Barnett was, at the time, serving as Chief of Artillery, Army of the Cumberland.  And it is his detailed report from the Chickamauga Campaign that I use to validate many of the particulars for batteries involved with that action.  For the quarter, the Ordnance Department received returns for ten of the twelve batteries:

0281_1_Snip_OH1

The locations and activities of these batteries reflects many of the “moving pieces” in play during the third quarter of 1863:

  • Battery A: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3.80-inch James Rifles, in a return received in August 1864. Captain Wilbur F. Goodspeed remained in command of this battery assigned to Second Division, Twentieth Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  The battery saw action on both September 19 and 20. On the morning of the 20th battery was particularly hard pressed around 10 a.m. and, with support of the 15th Ohio Infantry, drove back a Confederate charge with double canister at range of 50 yards.  While Goodspeed kept his guns through the battle, he lost 15 horses.  Furthermore “… in consequence of not unharsessing for six days…” he expected to lose another 25, as he reported from Chattanooga after the Federal retreat.  Here’s a photo from their position on Kelly Field where they fought during the morning of September 20:

Chickamauga 482

  • Battery B: Also reporting at Chattanooga, with two 6-pdr field guns and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.   The battery remained in Second Division, Twenty-First Corps and Captain William E. Standart served as division chief of artillery.  In his place, Lieutenant Norman A. Baldwin commanded the battery.  On September 19, the battery fired 159 rounds.  On September 20, they occupied a position behind breastworks in the heart of Thomas’s line (what is today Battleline Road).  Fighting in their sector began at 8 a.m. And the battery only relinquished those works when ordered to the rear around 5 p.m., having fired 986 rounds (pretty much all they had coming into action).  Three of the James rifles were disabled in the fighting.  Only one could be recovered back to Chattanooga.  The battery lost thirteen horses; one man killed, eight wounded, and four missing.
  • Battery C: Reporting at Chattanooga with two 12-pdr Napoleons and three 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Captain Daniel K. Southwick commanded the battery at the start of the quarter.  However he resigned (officially dated to October 19).  Lieutenant Marco B. Gary led the battery as they marched with Third Division, Fourteenth Corps toward Chickamauga Creek.  The battery was in action both days of the battle.  As it was often employed by section, Lieutenants Hiram W. Turner, Thomas King, and Jerome B. Stevens are listed on the battery’s War Department tablets.  Caught up in the confusion in the afternoon of September 20, Gary took it upon himself to move the battery to the rear.  Having lost 25 horses already, this was a daunting task even without Confederate pressure.  Gary reported losing one James rifle, one caisson, and parts of two other caissons.  All told the battery expended 498 rounds in the battle.
  • Battery D: At Knoxville, Tennessee with four 3-inch Ordnance rifles. At the end of the previous quarter, the battery was serving by section in support of different cavalry divisions.  In July, the battery was consolidated, in eastern Tennessee, and transferred to the First Division, Twenty-third Corps.  Captain Andrew J. Konkle (or Conkle on some returns) commanded.  By August, the battery was again transferred.  This time to the Third Division of the same corps.  Lieutenant William H. Pease commanded when Konkle took command of the corps reserve artillery.
  • Battery E: No report. This battery was assigned to Second Division, Reserve Corps, part of the Nashville garrison when the quarter began.  Lieutenant Stephen W. Dorsey remained in command of the battery.  Later in July, the battery moved forward to Chattanooga, reaching Bridgeport in October. Captain Warren P. Edgarton, of the battery, was in command of the Nashville garrison artillery.
  • Battery F: No report. Captain Daniel T. Cockerill was still recovering from wounds.  His immediate replacement, Lieutenant Norval Osborn, was later replaced (due to date of rank) by Lieutenant Giles J. Cockerill.  The battery was assigned to Second Division, Twenty-first Corps. The battery had four James rifles and two 12-pdr field howitzers.  Leaving the field on September 20, the battery had only fifteen rounds left in their chests.
  • Battery G: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Alexander Marshall’s battery assigned to Second Division, Fourteenth Corps.  In action at Chickamauga, the battery fired 294 rounds.
  • Battery H: Reporting at Culpeper, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain James F. Huntington resumed command duties during the summer.  The battery Transferred to the 4th Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac in August.
  • Battery I: In Lookout Valley, Tennessee, based on a January 1864 receipt date, with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Hubert Dilger’s battery was assigned to Eleventh Corps.  The battery was sent west, with the rest of Eleventh Corps, to reinforce Chattanooga, with movement starting in late September.
  • Battery K: Bridgeport, Alabama, with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Part of the Eleventh Corps, along with Battery I, this battery moved to reinforce Chattanooga in late September. Captain Lewis Heckman remained in command of the battery.  But in his absence Lieutenants Columbus Rodamour led the battery.  Later, in Tennessee, Lieutenant Nicholas Sahm, of Company I, 1st New York Artillery, led the battery in operations around Chattanooga.
  • Battery L: At Culpeper, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Frank C. Gibbs had command of this battery, supporting Fifth Corps.
  • Battery M: Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 3-inch rifles and four 3.80-inch James rifles. Captain Frederick Schultz commanded this battery, assigned to Second Division, Fourteenth Corps.  At Chickamauga, the battery fired 415 rounds.

Turning now to the ammunition reports, we have a lot of smoothbore rounds to count:

0283_1_Snip_OH1

Seven batteries with smoothbore:

  • Battery A: 50 shot, 56 shell, 71 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr napoleons.
  • Battery B: 20 shot, 59 case, and 42 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery C: 52 shot, 13 shell, 96 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; but also 33 canister for 6-pdr field guns (which may have been used in the battery’s James rifles).
  • Battery G: 176 shot, 64 shell, 160 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery I: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery K: 192 shot, 44 shell, 142 case, and 14 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L: 296 shot, 111 shell, 301 case, and 118 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

With several mixed batteries, there were also several reporting Hotchkiss projectiles for rifled guns:

0283_2_Snip_OH1

Six batteries reporting:

  • Battery A: 86 shot for 3.80-inch James.
  • Battery C: 55 percussion shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • Battery D: 161 canister, 238 percussion shell, and 460 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery G: 77 canister, 175 percussion shell, and 120 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery H: 339 shot, 92 canister, and 27 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M: 127 canister, 75 percussion shell, 98 fuse shell, and 99 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles; and 63 shot for 3.80-inch James rifles.

The report of over fifty 3-inch shot per gun in Battery H is worth noting.  No conclusions to draw.  But that is a significant deviation from normal allocations.

We can narrow down the next page to show only the remaining Hotchkiss columns with the James projectiles:

0284_1A_Snip_OH1

The Hotchkiss columns first:

  • Battery A: 139 canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery C: 7 canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.

Over to the James columns:

  • Battery C: 69 shot and 61 shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.

Continuing with the rifled projectiles, we consider next the Schenkl projectiles:

0284_2_Snip_OH1

Four batteries with those on hand:

  • Battery A: 186 shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery B: 70 shot and 210 shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery C: 2010 shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery H: 729 shell and 40 case for 3-inch rifles.

Lastly we have the small arms:

0284_3_Snip_OH1

By battery:

  • Battery A: Seven horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Eighteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery C: Six horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery D: Twenty-eight navy revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Six army revolvers and ten cavalry sabers.
  • Battery H: Twenty army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery I: Nine army revolvers and thirty-nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery K: Five army revolvers and five horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery L: Nineteen navy revolvers and thirty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery M: Six army revolvers and six cavalry sabers.

The small arms totals might look thin.  And one might think those due to losses at Chickamauga.  Though there were small arms lost in the battle, and reflecting in the totals on the summary, the 1st Ohio batteries did not carry many into the quarter.  And thus didn’t go into action on September 19 with an abundance of edged weapons and pistols.  Given the close quarters at which some of the fighting took place in that battle, the scarcity of small arms is an important interpretive factor, I feel.

next installment will look at the first twelve independent batteries of Ohio.

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 1st Missouri Light Artillery

The summary of returns for the 1st Missouri Light Artillery covering the third quarter of 1863 are interesting due to the appearance of out-of-the-ordinary artillery pieces.  Likewise, the summary of their service during the quarter is of interest due to many of the lesser known Civil War campaigns that must be mentioned.  Colonel Warren L. Lothrop commanded the regiment.  But as field grade artillerists were in short supply in the west, Lothrop pulled duty as the Chief of Artillery for the Sixteenth Corps, in Memphis, during the summer and fall of 1863.

Looking at the list of Lothrop’s command,  we find nine of the twelve batteries with registered returns:

0265_1_Snip_MO1

And of those nine received, four were not received in Washington until 1864.  But the information we have to work from speaks to the “moving parts” in the western theater during the late summer of 1863:

  • Battery A: Reported from Carrolton, Louisiana with two 6-pdr field guns, one 12-pdr Napoleon and three 12-pdr field howitzers.  Captain George W. Schofield remained in command.  However, Schofield took a well deserved leave in October (and was due for a promotion).   In his absence, Lieutenant Elisha Cole lead the battery.  After the fall of Vicksburg, the battery moved with Thirteenth Corps to New Orleans.  There it was on duty around New Orleans until October.
  • Battery B:  No return.  Also assigned to the Thirteenth Corps, this battery was also in New Orleans at the end of September.  Captain Martin Welfley’s battery remained with Second Division of the corps.  Welfley had reported two 12-pdr field guns and four 12-pdr field howitzers earlier in the previous winter.  Records are not clear if those were still on hand as of September 1863 or those had been exchanged.
  • Battery C: Reporting from Vicksburg, Mississippi with four (up from two) 12-pdr field howitzers (having turned in two 6-pdr field guns).  Captain Charles Mann remained in command, with the battery assigned to Sixth Division (later re-designated First), Seventeenth Corps.  Mann would be promoted to Major at the start of November.  Captain John L. Matthaei was appointed to replace him.
  • Battery D:  At Corinth, Mississippi, with three 6-pdr field guns (up from two the previous quarter), two 12-pdr field howitzers, one 24-pdr field howitzer (an addition this quarter) and two 3-inch rifles.  The battery, under Captain Henry Richardson was assigned to Corinth, part of the Sixteenth Corps. However, at the start of October the battery transferred to Fourth Division, Fifteenth Corps and sent to Chattanooga. At that time, Richardson was the division artillery chief, with Lieutenant Byron M. Callender leading the battery.
  • Battery E: Reporting at Brownsville, Texas with four 10-pdr Parrotts and two “Rebel Trophies English 3.5.”  Yet another designation change for the same weapons.  These were “Fawcett Rifled Iron Gun, Cal. 3.5.” in the second quarter.  After Vicksburg, Captain Nelson Cole’s battery was assigned to Second Division, Thirteenth Corps and sent to New Orleans.  As of August 10, Cole was promoted to Major and assigned staff duties in Missouri (and later to command of the 2nd Missouri Artillery).  Lieutenant Joseph B. Atwater took his place in command of the battery. In September the battery was involved with operations on the Atchafalaya River.  The Brownsville location, however, is relative to the reporting date of January 1864.
  • Battery F: On Mustang Island, Texas with two 3.80-inch James Rifles and four 3.5-inch Fawcett Guns. The location reflects a reporting date of September 1863. Captain Joseph Foust remained in command, and the battery assigned to Second Division, Thirteenth Corps.  As of the end of September, the battery was at Carrolton, Louisiana.  The Texas location is from the December reporting date (and a story for the next quarter).
  • Battery G: No return.  Captain Henry Hescock’s battery was assigned to the Third Division, Twentieth Corps. Hescock was also listed as commander of the artillery brigade supporting the division.  That left Lieutenant Gustavus Schueler to lead the battery. The battery brought four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 10-pdr Parrotts to Chickamauga, seeing action on September 20.  The battery fired 277 rounds in the battle.  And Hescock was captured (and would remain a prisoner until the end of the war).
  • Battery H: At Corinth, Mississippi now rearmed with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Frederick Welker’s battery was part of the garrison at Corinth, under the Sixteenth Corps.
  • Battery I:  Reporting at Pocahontas, Tennessee (a railroad stop northwest of Corinth), with two 6-pdr field guns, one 12-pdr field howitzers, two 10-pdr Parrotts, and one 4.62-inch rifle (likely a 12-pdr “heavy” field gun, rifled using the James system).  Captain Benjamin Tannrath commanded the battery, assigned to the Sixteenth Corps, under the Corinth Garrison.
  • Battery K: At Little Rock, Arkansas with four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Stillman O. Fish was in command.  The battery was part of the District of Eastern Arkansas.
  • Battery L: No return.  Captain Frank Backof’s Battery remained at Rolla, likely with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.67-inch rifles. At the end of September, Backof was busy recruiting.  In October he was promoted to Major in the 2nd Missouri Artillery.  Captain Junius G. Wilson McMurray transferred from Battery M to command in the interim.
  • Battery M: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 10-pdr Parrotts.  This battery remained assigned to Seventh (later First) Division, Seventeenth Corps.  In McMurray’s place, Lieutenant John H. Tiemeyer had command of the battery.

The First Missouri Artillery was thus spread across the Mississippi River Valley doing good work.  And they had perhaps the widest array of cannon for any artillery regiment at this time of the war.

We turn then to the ammunition, starting with the smoothbore.

0267_1_Snip_MO1

Note the extended columns here to include those 24-pdr howitzer rounds:

  • Battery A: 390 shot, 343 case, and 85 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 90 shot, 71 shell, 144 case, and 40 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; and 410 shell, 565 case, and 114 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery C: 220 shell, 220 case, and 130 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery D: 191 shot, 140 case, and 159 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 119 shell, 162 case, and 38 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; and 39 shell, 24 case, and 24 canister for 24-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery H: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; plus 53 case for 24-pdr field howitzers (which the battery had on hand the previous quarter).
  • Battery I: 43 shot, 223 case, and 109 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 69 shell, 46 case, and 70 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.

In addition to those batteries reported here, in his report from the battle of Chickamauga Schueler recorded firing 26 shot, 86 shell, 94 case, and 9 canister.   An interesting mix of ammunition fired.  In action the battery was under  fire mostly from infantry. They suffered four casualties to musketry.  Something to think about with this being a “close” action.

Moving over the the rifled projectiles, a couple of lines on the Hotchkiss page:

0267_2_Snip_MO1

  • Battery D: 40 canister, 98 percussion shell, and 146 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery F: 29 shot, 224 percussion shell, and 45 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

Let’s break the next page down by sections for clarity.  Starting with the additional Hotchkiss columns:

0268_1H_Snip_MO1

  • Battery F: 103 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Now the James patent projectiles:

0268_1J_Snip_MO1

  • Battery I: 10 shot, 58 shell, and 50 canister for 4.62-inch or 12-pdr James rifles.

Then lots of Parrott rounds:

0268_1P_Snip_MO1

Among five batteries:

  • Battery E: 60 shot, 190 shell, 115 case, and 35 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery H:  10 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts (left over from the previous quarter).
  • Battery I: 54 shot, 118 shell, 74 case, and 64 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery K: 20 shot, 66 shell, 238 case, and 112 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery M: 126 shot, 265 shell, 373 case, and 130 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Of note, Schueler reported Battery G fired 5 case and 57 shell from 10-pdr Parrotts at Chickamuaga.

No Schenkl projectiles reported.  So we move to the small arms:

0268_3_Snip_MO1

By battery:

  • Battery A: Nine Navy revolvers and twenty-five cavalry sabers.
  • Battery C: Two Army revolvers and four cavalry sabers.
  • Battery D: Eight Army revolvers and thirty cavalry sabers.
  • Battery E: Twenty-three Army revolvers and four cavalry sabers.
  • Battery F: One Army revolver and two cavalry sabers.
  • Battery H: Twenty-two Army revolvers, three Navy revolvers, and sixty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery I: Seventeen Army revolvers, 113 cavalry sabers, and one horse artillery saber.
  • Battery K: Three Navy revolvers
  • Battery M: Four Army revolvers and seven cavalry sabers.

Aside from the three batteries not reporting, the important missing piece here is the ammunition for the 3.5-inch English rifles.  There is a paperwork trail showing contracts for production of 3.5-inch rounds.  And we can assume the Missourians didn’t haul those down to Texas without carrying a few chests full of those.  But as far as the returns are concerned, the clerks at the Ordnance Department had no columns for to track those.

Say it together – Bureaucracy!

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Michigan

Michigan provided a full regiment of light artillery to the Federal cause.  As mentioned in previous installments, the clerks identified Michigan’s batteries with numbered designations, as per early war convention.  But the batteries were later designated with letters within the state’s 1st Light Artillery Regiment.  I will merge the two in an attempt to cover all bases here.  (Two more “independent” and numbered batteries would join the list in 1864, but that is for future posts.)

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Seven returns for the twelve batteries.  We’ll fill in some blanks:

  • 1st Battery (Battery A): No return.  Also known as the Loomis Battery, for its first commander.  Lieutenant George W. Van Pelt led this battery, supporting First division Fourteenth Corps, into action on September 19, at Chickamauga.   They worked their six (though reports earlier in the year indicated five) 10-pdr Parrotts through four changes of position before firing their first shot in the battle, near (not on) Winfrey Field.  The battery got off only 64 rounds before the Confederates were upon them.  “The men remained with the battery until the enemy’s bayonets were at their breasts,” wrote Captain George Kensel, Division Artillery Chief.  Van Pelt and five of his men were killed.  Six were seriously wounded and thirteen more captured.  Along with much of the battery equipment, five guns were captured.  Lieutenant August H. Bachman managed to extract one of the guns.  Three guns were recaptured later in the battle, but in poor shape.  (Of note… one Parrott was recaptured on Missionary Ridge and the last around Atlanta… and allegedly returned to the battery.)  Lieutenant Almerick W. Wilbur assumed command of the battery in Chattanooga.  With the exception of a few demonstrations, the battery would remain at Chattanooga for the rest of the war.
  • 2nd Battery (Battery B): Reporting from Corinth, Tennessee with two 12-pdr howitzers, two 3-inch Ordnance rifles (moved over from the “steel” column), and two 10-pdr Parrotts. Lieutenant Albert F. R. Arndt, still in command, was promoted to Captain in early September.  The battery remained at Corinth until October, when it moved to Pulaski, Tennessee, as part of the Sixteenth Corps.
  • 3rd Battery (Battery C): Still at Memphis, Tennessee, but now with four 10-pdr Parrotts.  Captain George Robinson remained in command of this battery, assigned to the District of Memphis (Fifth Division), Sixteenth Corps.
  • 4th Battery (Battery D): No return.  In the previous quarter,  Captain Josiah W. Church reported two 12-pdr field howitzers, two 10-pdr Parrotts, and two James 3.80-inch rifles.  And that’s what this battery, supporting Third Division, Fourteenth Corps, took into action at Chickamauga.  We might say this battery was “fought out” by two hard days fighting.  They left the field spent and with only one howitzer.  They lost 35 horses in the battle, but only seven men wounded and four missing.  Church provided a very detailed accounting of all material lost on the field.  So many items listed that I dare say a blank summary line would be close to accurate.  And, from the statements of several, that equipment was not given up without a fight! The battery reorganized in Chattanooga and would receive 20-pdr Parrotts.
  • 5th Battery (Battery E): At Nashville, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and four 10-pdr Parrotts. This battery, part of the Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland, spent most of the summer in Murfreesboro.  In mid-September, Captain John J. Ely’s battery returned to Nashville.
  • 6th Battery (Battery F): At Glasgow, Kentucky with two 6-pdr field guns and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  By some reports, the battery had sections at Munfordsville, Bowling Green, and Louisville, through October 1863.  Captain Luther F. Hale commanded overall, and at Munfordsville.  One section of the battery, under Hale, was at Munfordsville.  Another section, under Lieutenant Byron D. Paddock, garrisoned Bowling Green.  In October, both sections merged at Glasgow, Kentucky, part of the District of Central Kentucky, Department of the Ohio.  At that time Hale was promoted to major, and Paddock, with a captain’s commission, took the battery.
  • 7th Battery (Battery G):  At Carrolton, Louisiana with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  The battery was assigned to the Ninth Division, Thirteenth Corps, commanded by Captain Charles H. Lanphere, through August of 1863.  Subsequently assigned to the New Orleans garrison, Department of the Gulf.  Upon Lanphere’s resignation at the first of September, Lieutenant George L. Stillman took over the battery.
  • 8th Battery (Battery H): No return.  In the previous quarter, the battery reported two 12-pdr field howitzers, one 6-pdr (3.67-inch) rifles, and two James (3.80-inch) rifles.  With Captain Samuel De Golyer mortally wounded during the Vicksburg Siege, and Captain Theodore W. Lockwood moving to a cavalry unit. Lieutenant Marcus D. Elliot commanded this battery.  The battery was assigned to Third Division, Seventeenth Corps and spent the summer at Vicksburg (with most of the battery on furlough).
  • 9th Battery (Battery I): Reporting at Culpeper, Virginia with four 3-inch rifles.  Captain Jabez J. Daniels commanded this battery, assigned to the 1st Horse Artillery Brigade, Army of the Potomac.  The battery was reassigned to the Eleventh Corps in October, and move with that formation to Chattanooga.
  • 10th Battery (Battery K): At Chattanooga, Tennessee, with four 3-inch rifles.  However, this reflects the September 1864 posting date.  In September 1863, the battery was at Camp Barry, Washington, D.C..  Captain John C. Schuetz commanded.  The battery was sent west as part of the reinforcements sent to Chattanooga in November, as part of the Eleventh Corps.
  • 11th Battery (Battery L):  No return.  Under Captain Charles J. Thompson.  After seeing their first service in the response to Morgan’s Raid, the battery joined Third Division, Twenty-Third Corps, Department of the Ohio.  The battery saw service in the advance to Knoxville during the fall.
  • 12th Battery (Battery M):  No return. Captain Edward G. Hillier commanded.  The battery did not leave the state until July 9, being dispatched to Indianapolis in reaction to Morgan’s Raid.  From there, the battery moved to Camp Nelson, Kentucky, in mid-September.  From there, the battery joined Wilcox’s Division, Twenty-Third Corps advancing on the Cumberland Gap.

In the previous quarter, we saw three additional lines under Michigan’s batteries.  One of those was likely a section from the 6th Battery/Battery F.  Another was just reporting stores being held by the 18th Michigan Infantry, which were likely turned in by the end of the summer.  However, it is worth speculating that the 12th Michigan Infantry still retained a 12-pdr field howitzer while marching on Little Rock, Arkansas in the fall.

The first page detailed and some blanks filled in, we proceed to the ammunition pages, with smoothbores the first:

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Three batteries reporting:

 

  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: 152 shell, 128(?) case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 5th Battery / Battery E: 198 shot, 115 case, and 134 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 6th Battery / Battery F: 157 shot, 185 case, and 89 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

 

Moving to the Hotchkiss rifled projectiles:

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Four batteries reporting:

  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: 83 canister, 72 percussion shell, 72 fuse shell, and 240 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery / Battery G: 123 canister, 159 fuse shell, and 509 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 9th Battery / Battery I: 360 shot, 60 canister, 60 percussion shell, and 120 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery / Battery K: 402 shot, 96 canister, 165 percussion shell, and 179 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

On the next page, we can focus on the Parrott columns:

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Four batteries with quantities:

  • 2th Battery / Battery B: 51 shot, 183 shell, and 77 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 3rd Battery / Battery C: 57 shot, 40 shell, 601 case, and 95 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 5th Battery / Battery E: 129 shot, 383 shell, 40 case, and 170 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 6th Battery / Battery F: 177 shell, 141 case, and 62 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

And one battery with Schenkls:

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  • 5th Battery / Battery E: 60 shell and 100 case for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Lastly, the small arms:

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By battery:

  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: Twenty Army revolvers and forty-three cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery / Battery C: Eighteen cavalry sabers.
  • 5th Battery / Battery E: Twenty-five cavalry sabers and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 6th Battery / Battery F: Twenty-five Army revolvers and twelve cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery / Battery G: Nine Army revolvers and one cavalry saber.
  • 9th Battery / Battery I: Eleven Army revolvers and seventeen horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery / Battery H: Fifteen Army revolvers and sixty-nine horse artillery sabers.

Worth noting, Captain Church reported, within a lengthy list of accouterments and implements missing after Chickamauga, the 4th Battery lost four revolvers and five sabers.