Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Indiana’s batteries, Part 2

We started on the last post working down this long list of Indiana batteries:

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In that last post, we discussed the first dozen independent batteries.  Picking up there, we have independent batteries 13 through 26:

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Yes, a baker’s dozen plus one.  But with those fourteen batteries, we actually have less numbers to consider as only half provided returns.  So a lot of administrative holes to resolve:

  • 13th Battery: No return.  Captain Benjamin S. Nicklin’s battery remained at Gallatin, Tennessee, garrisoning Fort Thomas, in the Army of the Cumberland.
  • 14th Battery: No return.  Lieutenant Francis W. Morse remained in command.  The battery started the summer in Jackson, Tennessee.  In June, the battery transferred to the railroad town of LaGrange and remained there for the remainder of the summer.  Presumably still with three 6-pdr field guns and one 3-inch Ordnance Rifle, the battery was part of the Sixteenth Corps’ many garrison commands.
  • 15th Battery: At Oak Springs, Tennessee with six 3-inch rifles.  Captain John C. H. von Sehlen commanded this battery, assigned to Fourth Division, Twenty-Third Corps and part of the campaign moving on Knoxville.   The report location is likely related to the November reporting date.
  • 16th Battery: A return of Fort Washington, Maryland without any guns listed.  There is a faint note “Infy Stores” under the regiment column.  Lieutenant Charles R. Deming’s battery were part of the Washington Defenses.
  • 17th Battery: No return.  At the end of the Gettysburg Campaign, Captain Milton L. Miner’s battery became part of the Maryland Heights Division, Department of West Virginia.  The battery reported six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles in previous quarters.
  • 18th Battery:  No Return. Captain Eli Lilly’s battery supported Wilder’s Brigade, Fourth Division, Fourteenth Corps.  The battery brought six 3-inch rifles and four 12-pdr mountain howitzers to Chickamauga.  The mountain howitzers supported the 72nd Indiana on September 20, and one of those was lost in the fighting.  Lilly reported the lost of two men killed and eight wounded;  six horses (plus one wounded); and expending 778 rounds.  A shame we don’t have a return from this… unique… and storied battery.
  • 19th Battery: Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee with three 12-pdr Napoleons and one 3-inch Rifles (not under the usual Ordnance Rifle column). This was a return dated January 1864.  But the location is valid.  Captain Samuel J. Harris’s battery was also part of Fourth Division, Fourteenth Corps and went into action at Chickamuaga with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  On September 19, Harris was “disabled by a contusion” to his right side and turned command over to Lieutenant Robert S. Lackey.  During the fighting that disabled Harris, the battery lost a Napoleon and limber.  On the 20th, Lackey kept the battery in the fight, but would have one surviving Napoleon (axle straps) and a 3-inch rifle disabled.  While the Napoleon was brought off the field, the rifle’s axle came completely off and was had to be left behind.  Harris provided a very detailed statement of lost men, equipment and material after the battle.  In addition to the guns, the battery suffered two killed, 16 wounded, and two missing men.  The battery had fifteen horses lost or killed and six wounded. Harris accounted for four lost pistols, three sabers, seven sponges, four sponge buckets, two prolongs, among other items. The battery expended 350 3-inch rifle rounds and 750 12-pdr in the battle.  Harris recovered and remained in command of the battery.
  • 20th Battery:  At Nashville, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James rifles.  Captain Milton A. Osborne’s battery was assigned to the artillery reserve posted to Nashville, under the Army of the Cumberland. In October, the battery was among the forces pushed out to secure the railroad lines out of Nashville.
  • 21st Battery:  No return.  Captain William W. Andrew’s battery was the third Indiana battery assigned to Fourth Division, Fourteenth Corps.  However, Lieutenant William E. Chess field the battery’s report from the battle and appears to have lead the battery in the action.  They took six 12-pdr Napoleons into action, but lost one (and limber).  Chess recorded firing 10 shot, 168 case, 104 shell, and 160 canister – giving us some indication of the range at which this battery was engaged, and what targets they fired upon, during their part of the battle.
  • 22nd Battery: At Bowling Green, Kentucky with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Under Captain Benjamin F. Denning, this battery was assigned to the Second Division, Twenty-Third Corps, Army of the Ohio.  Through the fall, the battery served at both Bowling Green and Russellsville, Department of Southwestern Kentucky.
  • 23rd Battery:  Reporting at Jonesboro (?), Tennessee with six 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Captain James H. Myers’ battery came across the Ohio River in September and was assigned to the “Left Wing” of Twenty-Third Corps.  Moving by way of the Cumberland Gap, the battery was among the forces operating around Morristown at the start of October.
  • 24th Battery: No return. Under Captain Joseph A. Sims, this battery moved from the Third Division to the Fourth Division in Twenty-Third Corps in August.  Though that move was basically part of the alignment of forces for the campaign on Knoxville.
  • 25th Battery:  No return. The 25th would not organize until the late summer of 1864.  So this is simply a placeholder line.
  • 26th Battery or Wilder’s: At Concord, Tennessee (just west of Knoxville) with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles, with a report date of March, 1864.  Recall this battery was first organized by (then) Captain John T. Wilder, later colonel of the famous “Lightning Brigade.”  The battery was captured at Harpers Ferry in 1862 and then reorganized.  Though given the 26th as a designation, throughout its service the battery was better known as Wilder’s.  Captain Hubbard T. Thomas commanded the battery, assigned to the Twenty-Third Corps.  The battery participated in the Knoxville Campaign in East Tennessee.  The location given in the return, however, likely reflects its winter garrison assignment.

As with the first batch of batteries, we see the “mark” of Chickamauga here reflected with lost cannon and in some cases missing reports.

Making what we can of the small number of returns, we start with the smoothbore ammunition:

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Three to consider:

  • 19th Battery: 20 shot, 8 shell, 72 case, and 52 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 20th Battery: 189 shot, 150 case, and 35 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 22nd Battery: 98 shot, 119 shell, 144 case, and 121 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Note, the 19th Battery had but 152 rounds for their three Napoleons in the aftermath of Chickamauga.  That is if we take the report as precise for the moment in time.

Moving to the Hotchkiss columns:

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Four reporting:

  • 15th Battery: 460 canister, 402 fuse shell, and 1246 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 20th Battery: 145 percussion shell and 392 bullet shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 23rd Battery: 365 percussion shell, 315 fuse shell, and 95 bullet shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 26th Battery (Wilder’s): 520 canister, 260 percussion shell, 574 fuse shell, and 426 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

So we see those batteries sent into eastern Tennessee had ample ammunition on hand.

A couple more Hotchkiss entries on the next page:

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Two reporting:

  • 20th Battery: 150 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 23rd Battery: 210 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

But none of these fourteen batteries had Schenkl projectiles or Tatham’s canister on hand:

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So we move on to the small arms:

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Looking at these by battery:

  • 15th Battery: Twenty-eight Army revolvers and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • 19th Battery: Fourteen percussion pistols and fourteen horse artillery sabers.  I think the pistols are a transcription error, as the battery reported nineteen Army revolvers in the previous quarter.
  • 20th Battery: Twenty-two Army revolvers.
  • 22nd Battery: Thirty-two horse artillery sabers.
  • 23rd Battery: Thirty Navy revolvers and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • 26th Battery (Wilder’s): Nineteen horse artillery sabers.

Moving from the independent batteries from Indiana for this quarter, we still have five entries “below the line” to consider.  We’ll pick those up in the next installment.

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Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Indiana’s batteries, Part 1

Indiana organized twenty-six independent batteries, which were mostly light batteries.  In addition, there was a regiment of heavy artillery.  Looking at the summaries for the third quarter, 1863, we find all twenty-six independent batteries and two of the heavies represented, along with two sections from cavalry regiments and one section from an infantry regiment:

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As with previous quarters, we’ll break this into parts for ease of discussion.  That said, the first twelve batteries are our focus here:

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Notice four batteries do not have returns.  Additionally, two returns are dated from 1864.  And we have an extra line at the bottom for “Detachment of 12th”.  Giving us thirteen lines to consider:

  • 1st Battery:  Reporting, on November 20, at New Iberia, Louisiana with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch guns.  Captain Martin Klauss remained in command of this battery. With the realignments of divisions after the fall of Vicksburg, the battery’s parent formation became First Division, Thirteenth Corps.  The battery participated in the campaign against Jackson, Mississippi, in July.  Then it moved with the rest of the division to New Orleans, in August, to join the Department of the Gulf.  There, the battery was assigned to the District of La Fourche and supported the Teche Country expedition in October.   Lieutenant Lawrence Jacoby lead the battery while Klauss was absent during the fall.
  • 2nd Battery:  Reporting at Springfield, Missouri with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain John W. Rabb was the senior officer of the battery.  But that fall Rabb accepted a job in the reformed 2nd Missouri (Light) Artillery Regiment.  Lieutenant Hugh Espey, as mentioned in previous quarters, commanded this battery in the field.  The battery remained with the Department of Southwestern Missouri, and served in sections, with 1st and 2nd Sections under Lieutenant William W. Haines. After a hard season campaigning in Missouri, Arkansas, and Indian Territories, the battery move to the Department of the Frontier.
  • 3rd Battery: At Rolla, Missouri with two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr Napoleons, and two 3.80-inch James rifles (as opposed to 3.67-inch rifles the previous quarter, which raises a question).  Captain James M. Cockefair remained in command of this battery.  The battery split duty between Rolla and St. Louis through the early fall, being assigned to the District of Rolla and later District of St. Louis.  In November, the battery reenlisted with “veteran” status.
  • 4th Battery:  At Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons, two 12-pdr field howitzers and one 3.80-inch James Rifles. The battery remained with First Division, Fourteenth Corps.  Lieutenant David Flansburg led this battery into action at Chickamauga, with “great coolness and bravery.”  But Flansburg was wounded and captured on September 19.  Lieutenant Henry J. Willits took his place.  In addition to their commander, the battery lost a James rifle, a caisson, three pistols, six sabers, and thirty-four horses in the battle.  While in prison, Flansburg was promoted to Captain, with September 30 as his date of rank. He was among the officers who escaped, from Libby Prison, Richmond, in February 1864, but was re-captured.  Flansburg would die in November of that year, still a prisoner, and is buried in Florence, South Carolina.
  • 5th Battery: No return.  The battery remained with First Division, Twentieth Corps.  Thus at the end of September, the battery was under siege in Chattanooga. At the start of September, Captain Peter Simonson was relieved of duties as division artillery chief and returned to his battery in time to lead it into battle at Chickamauga.  Heavily engaged, the battery fired 1,247 rounds.  Twice having to withdraw to resupply.  In the final tally, Simonson reported one killed, eight wounded, and one missing; and thirty horses lost.  Material losses included one 12-pdr Napoleon and one 3.80-inch James rifle, leaving the battery with one Napoleon and three James rifles. Reorganizations of the Army of the Cumberland would put the battery in Fourth Corps later in the fall.
  • 6th Battery: No report.  Going back to the first quarter’s returns, the battery had two 6-pdr field guns and two 3.80-inch James Rifles. After Vicksburg, the battery moved from Sixteenth Corps to Third Division, Fifteenth Corps. Captain Michael Mueller remained in command. Mueller’s battery was still around Vicksburg at the end of September.
  • 7th Battery: Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee, with two 12-pdr Napoleons and three (down from four) 10-pdr Parrotts. The battery supported Third Division, Twenty-First Corps.  Captain George R. Swallow remained in command, but also served as division artillery chief.  The battery expended all their canister in close action on September 19.  Then on September 20 was again heavily engaged.  As alluded to with the numbers, the battery lost a Parrott rifle in the battle.
  • 8th Battery: No return. Captain George Estep retained command of this battery, part of First Division, Twenty-First Corps.  The battery brought four 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers into battle at Chickamauga.  The battery fought a bitter and close fight, suffering one killed, eight wounded and nine missing in the battle.  Furthermore, the battery lost all its cannon.  In October, the battery was assigned to Chattanooga’s garrison artillery and temporarily in charge of a pool of horses. By November, the battery maned Fort Jefferson C. Davis, with three 20-pdr Parrotts.
  • 9th Battery: No return. Lieutenant George R. Brown commanded this battery from Sixteenth Corps.  At the end of September, Brown’s battery was part of the garrison at Union City, Tennessee.
  • 10th Battery: Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain William A. Naylor (promoted in June) remained in command of this battery, assigned to First Division, Twenty-First Corps.  During the fighting at Chickamauga, the 10th was part of the force left behind to guard Chattanooga, and was thus not engaged in the battle.
  • 11th Battery: Also at Chattanooga, Tennessee, with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Arnold Sutermeister’s battery supported Third Division, Twentieth Corps. During the Federal route on September 20, the section with two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles was overwhelmed, having all their horses shot.  The battery lost three killed, twelve wounded, and four missing, and nineteen horses.  The battery expended 120 rounds.
  • 12th Battery: Reporting at Fort Negley, Nashville, Tennessee as siege artillery.  We know the battery had four 4.5-inch Ordnance siege rifles around this time.  Captain James E. White remained in command.  White also presided over the 20th Indiana battery, which was also stationed at Nashville.  However, see the next line….
  • Detachment of 12th Battery: At Fort Wood, Chattanooga, Tennessee. No other details offered.  Lieutenant James A. Dunwoody commanded a detachment, about half of the battery, dispatched to reinforce Chattanooga that fall.  They arrived in November.

Yes, several of these batteries could report hard fighting in tight places that September.  Let’s see how their ammunition reports stack up.  Starting with the smoothbore:

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Seven batteries reporting smoothbore ammunition on hand:

  • 1st Battery: 198 shell, 250 case, and 46 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 2nd Battery: 193 shot, 175 case, and 71 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 3rd Battery: 105 shot, 141 case, and 132 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 136 shot, 406 shell, 224 case, and 300 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 4th Battery: 48 shot, 24 shell, 65 case, and 24 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 40 shell, 74 case, and 50 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 7th Battery: 74 shot, 33 shell, 79 case, and 63 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 10th Battery: 111 shell, 100 case, and 116 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 11th Battery: 127 shot, 113 shell, 106 case, and 100 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Turning to the Hotchkiss page of rifled projectiles:

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Three reporting:

  • 1st Battery: 46 canister, 31 percussion shell, and 160 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 195 percussion shell, 217 fuse shell and 168 bullet shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 11th Battery: 80 canister, 100 fuse shell, and 120 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.  Yes, the battery still had ammunition chests for the two rifles lost at Chickamauga.

The next page, we’ll break down into two sections.  First the remaining Hotchkiss columns and James projectiles:

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The last of the Hotchkiss projectiles:

  • 2nd Battery: 58 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 2 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

The the James projectiles:

  • 2nd Battery: 111 shot and 199 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 3rd Battery: 52 shot, 173 shell and 24 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 4 shot for 3.80-inch rifles.

Then over to the Parrott side of the page:

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Two batteries reporting:

  • 7th Battery: 315 shell, 301 case, and 130 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 10th Battery: 369 shell, 274 case, and 106 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

Then on to the Schenkl and Tatham’s columns:

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Two batteries reporting Schenkl:

  • 1st Battery: 174 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 64 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

And one for Tatham’s canister:

  • 4th Battery: 9 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Moving last to the small arms:

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By battery:

  • 1st Battery: Twenty-five cavalry sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: Seven rifled muskets of foreign manufacture, twenty-two Army revolvers, and Twenty-one cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Four foreign rifled muskets, Four breechloading carbines, four Navy revolvers, and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Twenty-two Army revolvers and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • 7th Battery: Two cavalry sabers and thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Seventeen Army revolvers and twelve horse artillery sabers.
  • 11th Battery: Eight Army revolvers, eleven navy revolvers, and nine cavalry sabers.

Considering the service of these twelve batteries from Indiana, we find a fair cross section of western service.  Batteries campaigning in east Tennessee, along the Mississippi, and in the Indian Territories.  Also a sampling of field, garrison, and heavy battery service.  But the heavy hitting stories come from northern Georgia near a creek called Chickamuaga.   We see some of the ferocity of that battle reflected in the numbers – specifically batteries reporting fewer cannons and limited ammunition supplies, but likewise the absence of reports from the 5th, 8th and 9th Batteries.  And we can match those with the tally of losses, to include men and horses, from the official reports.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Independent and Miscellaneous Illinois Artillery

Looking at the artillery formations Illinois sent to war, there are over a dozen independent batteries or sections which we may discuss.  Some of these became batteries in the two artillery regiments.  Others remained independent throughout the war.  Famous independent batteries, I may add.

Looking at the third quarter, 1863, the summaries carried eight independent batteries and one artillery section.  However, the clerks at the Ordnance Department continued to carry one of those batteries under “3rd Illinois Artillery,” a formation that cannot be found in the final records.  Thus we have a split set to discuss in this installment:

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As discussed in previous quarters, we can identify Battery A, 3rd Illinois Artillery as Springfield Light Artillery, or Vaughn’s Battery (after Captain Thomas F. Vaughn).

The other batteries appear on the next page:

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Working from the top… of my snips, we start with that miss-identified battery and work down:

  • Battery A, 3rd Illinois / Springfield Light Artillery: At Little Rock, Arkansas with six 3.80-inch James rifles.  Captain Thomas F. Vaughn commanded this battery, which was assigned to the Sixteenth Corps.  As part of Steele’s Expedition to Little Rock, the battery got its first real taste of battle on September 10 at Bayou Fourche.  In that action, Vaughn reported firing 14 shot, 292 shell, and 8 canister over three hours.  The battery lost two men in the fight.
  • Stokes’ Battery / Chicago Board of Trade Battery: Reporting at Nashville, Tennessee with four 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, one 3-inch Ordnance Rifle, one rifled 6-pdr (3.67-inch), and two 3.80-inch James rifles.  At the end of September, this battery was, like most of the Army of the Cumberland, holding on at Chattanooga.  The battery was with the force holding the river crossings above the city.  By the time of the reporting date (November), the battery was posted near Huntsville, Alabama, having spent some of the intervening time supporting operations against Confederate cavalry raids.  The battery remained with Second Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  During the siege of Chattanooga, Captain James H. Stokes commanded Second Division of the Artillery Reserve, Army of the Cumberland (the “right batteries” in reports).   In his place, Lieutenant George Robinson led the battery, with more than it’s fair share of cannon!
  • Chicago Mercantile Battery: At Franklin, Louisiana with four 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  In the reorganizations after Vicksburg, this battery moved with parent formation to the Fourth Division, Thirteenth Corps, which was sent to the Department of the Gulf.  Captain Patrick H. White remained in command.
  • Elgin Battery: No return.  Assigned to the 23rd Corps, this battery participated in the Knoxville Campaign.  Captain George W. Renwick resigned in May 1863 and was replaced by Captain Andrew M. Wood.
  • Cogswell’s Battery: At Nashville, Tennessee with four 3.80-inch James rifles. This battery moved to Vicksburg in June as part of First Division, Sixteenth Corps.  In July, just after the fall of that city, the battery transferred to Fourth Division, Fifteenth Corps.  Thence transferring again to Seventh Division, Seventeenth Corps.  And that division later became Second Division of the corps.  Good thing corps badges were not used in the western theater at the time!  In late September the battery moved to Memphis as part of the force sent to reinforce Chattanooga.  The indicated location reflects the July 1864 reporting date. Though Captain William Cogswell remained in command of the battery, Lieutenant Henry G. Eddy appears to have led the battery in the field.
  • Henshaw’s Battery: Reporting from Loudon, Tennessee with four 6-pdr field guns and two 3.80-inch James rifles.  In September 1863, this battery was part of Twenty-third Corps and in the advance toward Knoxville.  So the Loudon location reflects a November reporting date. Captain Edward C. Henshaw commanded.
  • Bridges’ Battery: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with one 12-pdr Napoleon and three 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  Assigned to Second Division, Fourteenth Corps and under command of Captain Lyman Bridges.  Going into battle at Chickamauga, the battery boasted two Napoleons and four Ordnance rifles.  Posted on the morning September 20 astride the road near the McDonald House, the battery suffered heavily.  Six killed, twenty wounded, and four missing out of a command of 126.  Aside from the two guns (a Napoleon and an Ordnance rifle) the battery lost 46 horses, three limbers, one caisson, and much equipment.  Bridges would, rightfully in my view, complain of lacking infantry support.  The battery pulled four of its guns off the field and moved to Snodgrass Hill.   Bridges would later pull four guns,  abandoned by other batteries, off the field.  The position of Bridges’ desperate fight on the morning of the 20th is marked today:

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  • Colvin’s Battery: “In the field, Tennessee” with two 3-inch Ordnance rifles and two 10-pdr Parrotts. Overlooked in the previous quarter, this battery was assigned to Twenty-Third Corps, and, as of the end of September, was part of the force in East Tennessee aimed at Knoxville.  Captain John H. Colvin commanded.
  • 14th Cavalry, Artillery Section:  No location given, with four 12-pdr mountain howitzers. The 14th Illinois Cavalry was part of Twenty-third Corps at this time of the war and participated in the advance on Knoxville.  The regiment, under Colonel Horace Capron, retained a section of mountain howitzers, led by Lieutenant Henry Clay Connelly.

Taken with the service details of the 1st and 2nd Regiments, we see almost all the Illinois artillerymen were serving in the Western Theater at this time of the war.

Moving to the ammunition reported, let us take this in blocks with the Springfield Light Artillery getting the lead position.  That battery reported no smoothbore ammunition. But did have some Hotchkiss rounds:

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  • Springfield Battery: 274 Hotchkiss percussion shell for 3.80-inch rifles..

More Hotchkiss appear on the next page along with James patent projectiles:

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  • Springfield Battery: 172 Hotchkiss canister; 236 James shot, 212 James Shells, and 30 James canister, all for 3.80-inch rifles.

And more canister on the last page of projectiles:

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  • Springfield Battery: 36 Tatham’s canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Turning to the other independent batteries, we look back to the smoothbore:

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  • Chicago Board of Trade Battery: 173 shot, 283 case, and 244 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Henshaw’s Battery: 286 shot, 315 case, and 138 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Bridges’ Battery: 4 shot, 148 shell, and 34 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.  No canister.
  • 14th Illinois Cavalry: 108 shell, 576 case, and 60 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

Advancing to the Hotchkiss columns:

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  • Chicago Board of Trade Battery: 7 shot and 30 percussion shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • Chicago Mercantile Battery: 90 canister, 195 percussion shell,  201 fuse shell, and 281 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Cogswell’s Battery: 170 percussion shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • Henshaw’s Battery: 95 percussion shell and 80 fuse shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • Bridges’ Battery: 66 canister, 130 percussion shell, 186 fuse shell, and 163 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Colvin’s Battery: 38 canister, 50 percussion shell, and 160 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

We have more Hotchkiss on the next page along with James and Parrott rounds:

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Hotchkiss:

  • Chicago Board of Trade Battery: 33 cansiter for 3.80-inch rifles.

James:

  • Chicago Board of Trade Battery: 33 shot and 45 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Cogswell’s Battery: 31 shot, 247 shell, and 109 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Parrott:

  • Colvin’s Battery: 165 case for 10-pdr Parrott.

Both Schenkl and Tatham’s on the last page of projectiles:

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Schenkl:

  • Chicago Board of Trade Battery: 219 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Henshaw’s Battery: 66 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Colvin’s Battery: 23 case for 10-pdr Parrott.

Tathams:

  • Cogswell’s Battery: 149 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Finally to the small arms, we can “bounce” these in one listing from two snips:

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And….

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By battery:

  • Springfield Battery: Ten horse artillery sabers.
  • Chicago Board of Trade Battery: Two Army revolvers, 133 Navy revolvers, eight cavalry sabers, and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • Chicago Mercantile Battery: One Army revolver and four horse artillery sabers.
  • Cogswell’s Battery: Two Army revolvers and two cavalry sabers.
  • Henshaw’s Battery: Eighteen Army revolvers and sixteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Bridges’ Battery: Ten Army revolvers, fifteen cavalry sabers, and five horse artillery sabers.
  • Colvin’s Battery: Two Navy revolvers and eight cavalry sabers.
  • 14th Illinois Cavalry Section: Six rifled muskets (foreign manufacture) and thirty-one Army revolvers.

Consider here the story of Bridges’ Battery at Chickamuaga.  I think we see some of that story reflected in the numbers reported for the returns.  Certainly we see the reduction of the number of guns reported.  Ammunition might be replenished, but I’d advance the quantities were still low for the battery (as resupply of Chattanooga was desperate until late November).  Though the small arms quantities look average for a field battery, I’d bet many of those men who survived September 20, 1863 would “acquire” more – officially or unofficially.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 1st Illinois Artillery Regiment

If we just focus on the service of individual batteries from the 1st Illinois Artillery Regiment, we’d have a noteworthy and eventful narrative of service in some of the war’s great battles.  But the regiment’s contribution to the Federal war effort included some important and influential senior officers.  The regiment’s first commander was Colonel Joseph D. Webster, a regular Army officer, having resigned in 1854, and Mexican War veteran.  Webster served both as commander of the regiment and as General Grant’s chief of staff through the first year of the war – and through many of those early western theater campaigns.  After November 1862, Webster took a staff position managing transportation for Grant.  And later in the war, he would serve as Major-General William T. Sherman’s chief of staff.  With a promotion to brigadier-general in April 1863, Webster relinquished command of the 1st Illinois.

Ezra Taylor, with promotion from major to colonel, succeeded Webster in command.  But like many of the light artillery regimental commanders, Taylor did not directly command these subordinate batteries.  Rather, in relation to the batteries, the regimental command was more an administrative head than actual field command.  Instead, Taylor served as an artillery chief at divisional, corps, and army level.  While in command of the 1st Illinois in the fall of 1863, Taylor was also Sherman’s chief of artillery (Fifteenth Corps).  Later in the winter, Taylor became the artillery chief of the Army of the Tennessee. However, Taylor’s active service came to an end after a serious wound at the battle of Dallas, on May 28, 1864.

But all of that was in the future at the end of September 1863, and the returns of the 1st Illinois were still the responsibility, administratively speaking, of Colonel Taylor.  How well did he attend those details?

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We find returns for eleven of twelve batteries.  But that is a little deceptive, with three of those returns not received until 1864.  And one that was nearly two years late, arriving in 1865!  But at least that leaves us numbers to consider:

  • Battery A: Larkinsville, Alabama, with five 12-pdr Napoleons and one 10-pdr Parrott.  That is where the battery wintered in 1864, when the report was received at the Department.  In September 1863 the battery was still assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, with Captain Peter P. Wood in command.  After the fall of Vicksburg, the battery was part of the force sent to Jackson.  Then in late September, with the Fifteenth Corps sent to reinforce the beleaguered Army of the Cumberland, Battery A was en route to Memphis, Tennessee.
  • Battery B: On the steamer Atlantic, in the Mississippi River, with five 6-pdr field guns and one 12-pdr field howitzer. Like Battery A, this battery was also assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Corps.  And Battery B was also heading to Memphis at the end of September, with ultimate destination of Chattanooga.  Captain Samuel E. Barrett received promotion to Major in August 1863.  Lieutenant Israel P. Rumsey was promoted to captain of the battery, with date of rank as August 13, 1863.
  • Battery C:  Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee with one 12-pdr field howitzers (down from three the previous quarter) and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles (down from four). The quantities reflected losses at Chickamauga, which also included a caisson and twelve horses.  Four of the battery were wounded.  Captain Mark H. Prescott returned in time to assume command from Lieutenant Edward M. Wright (who resigned on September 9), and lead it in the battle.  Remarkably, the battery only expended nineteen rounds at Chickamauga.  The battery remained with Third Division, Twentieth Corps.
  • Battery D: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles, having turned in 24-pdr field howitzers. The battery was assigned to Third Division, Seventeenth Corps, and part of the occupation force at Vicksburg.   Lieutenant George P. Cunningham remained in command, though would not be promoted to captain until December 1864.
  • Battery E: Reported at Oak Ridge, Mississippi, (about half way between Vicksburg and the Big Black River) with five 12-pdr Napoleons and one 3.80-inch James Rifle.  Lieutenant John A. Fitch remained in command, and the battery remained under Third Division, Fifteenth Corps.
  • Battery F: No report. Captain John T. Cheney remained in command of this battery.  With reorganizations after the fall of Vicksburg, the battery moved from First Division, Sixteenth Corps to Fourth Division, Fifteenth Corps, and supported the move on Jackson. At the end of September, Battery F, like the rest of the Fifteenth Corps, moved to Memphis by boat and then started the march to Chattanooga.
  • Battery G:   Serving as siege artillery at Corinth, Mississippi, in Second Division, Sixteenth Corps.  Captain Raphael G. Rombauer remained in command.
  • Battery H: At Vicksburg with four 20-pdr Parrotts.  Assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Corps, Lieutenant Francis DeGress remained in command of this battery (he would receive promotion to captain in December).  At the end of September, the battery was in transit to Memphis to stage for the relief of Chattanooga.
  • Battery I: Also at Vicksburg, but with four 3.80-inch James Rifles. The battery transferred from the Sixteenth Corps to Fourth Division, Fifteenth Corps after the fall of Vicksburg.  After the siege of Jackson, the battery was assigned a positino on the Big Black River. Lieutenant William N. Lansing, then the commander, accepted a commission in the 2nd Tennessee Colored Heavy Artillery.  His replacement was Captain Albert Cudney.  Like the other Fifteenth Corps batteries, Battery I was in transit to Memphis at the end of September.
  • Battery K: Memphis, Tennessee with with ten Union Repeating Guns.  But as noted earlier, that column was likely being utilized by the clerks to track Woodruff guns. Captain Jason B. Smith resumed command.  As many will recall, the battery accompanied Colonel Benjamin Grierson’s raid in April-May, and then operated as part of the Nineteenth Corps.  At the end of July the battery moved back to Memphis and was assigned a post near Germantown, in the Sixteenth Corps.
  • Battery L: In Washington, D.C., with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain John Rourke commanded this battery, assigned to Eighth Corps. The location given for the return is in question.  This battery was still in West Virginia through the fall and winter of 1863.
  • Battery M:  Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Lieutenant George W. Spencer commanded this battery, assigned to the Second Division, Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.

If we could summarize the service of the 1st Illinois Artillery at this stage of the war, the key word would be “Chattanooga” with the majority of batteries either holding that beleaguered city or part of the relief sent.

Moving to the ammunition columns, we have a lot to discuss with the smoothbore:

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Yes, extended columns here:

  • Battery A: 224 shot, 88 shell, 258 case, and 90(?) canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery B: 454 shot, 420 case, and 121 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 60 shell, 35 case, and 12 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery C: 42 case for 6-pdr field guns; 190 shell, 245 case, and 80 canister for 12-field howitzers.
  • Battery D: 177(?) shell for 12-pdr Napoleons; 128 case and 24 canister for 24-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery E: 43 shot, 119 shell, 246 case, and 158 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L:  70 shot and 504 case for 6-pdr field guns; 519 shot, 639 case, and 923 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 189 shell, 48 case, and 25 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery M: 59 shot, 156 shell, 195 case, and 48 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Referring back to the quantities reported in the previous quarter, the anomalies with Battery C (6-pdr ammunition) and Battery L (6-pdr and 12-pdr howitzer) persisted.  Battery D switched from 24-pdr field howitzers to 6-pdr rifles during the summer months, and apparently was still turning in ammunition for their old howitzers.

Turning to the rifled columns, Hotchkiss are first:

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Four batteries reporting:

  • Battery C: 149 canister, 244 percussion shell, 189 fuse shell, and 301 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E: 17 percussion shell and 93 fuse shell for 3.80-inch James Rifles.
  • Battery L: 504 canister, 115 percussion shell, and 1005 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles; 186 shot, 144 fuse shell, and 233 bullet shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery M: 70 canister, 32 fuse shell, and 259 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

Continuing speculation from previous quarters, I suspect Battery L was charged with maintaining a store of ammunition for their brigade, explaining the presence of 3-inch rifle rounds.

Turning to the next page, we’ll break these down for clarity.  One stray Hotchkiss column:

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  • Battery H: 49 canister for 3.67-inch rifles (20-pdr Parrotts).

Further to the right, one entry for Dyer’s patent:

  • Battery L: 880 shrapnel for 3-inch rifles.

Moving to the James columns:

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Three batteries reporting:

  • Battery E: 50 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery I: 64 shot, 214 shell, and 256 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 387 shot, 106 shell, and 19 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Two batteries with Parrotts:

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And two batteries reporting Parrott rounds:

  • Battery A: 145 shell, 6 case, and 16 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery H: 240 shell and 96 case for 20-pdr Parrott.

The next page we have a couple of lines reporting Schenkl and Tatham projectiles:

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Schenkl first:

  • Battery L: 300 shell for 3-inch rifles; 282 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

Tatham canister:

  • Battery H: 40 canister for 3.67-inch (20-pdr Parrott) rifles.
  • Battery L: 268 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Lastly, the small arms reported:

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By battery:

  • Battery A: Three Army revolvers, thirty Navy revolvers, and four (?) horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Sixteen Navy revolvers and two cavalry sabers.
  • Battery C: Seven Army revolvers, ten Navy revolvers, and ten cavalry sabers.
  • Battery D: Fifteen cavalry sabers.
  • Battery E: Two cavalry sabers.
  • Battery I: Eleven Navy revolvers and three cavalry sabers.
  • Battery K: Sixteen breechloading carbines and ninty-five (?) cavalry sabers.
  • Battery L: Seventeen breechloading carbines, twenty-eight Army revolvers, and 148 horse artillery sabers.

Very little attrition or loss among the small arms.  Then again, I suspect we don’t have a full report.  Perhaps only what the “federal government” had issued, not counting private purchase or that issued by the state.

We’ll move forward to the 2nd Illinois Artillery in the next installment.

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 5th Regiment, US Regulars

At the start of July, Colonel (Brevet Brigadier-General) Harvey Brown commanded the regiment.  An 1818 graduate of West Point, Brown served in the Black Hawk, Seminole, and Mexican American Wars.  At the start of the Civil War, he turned down a volunteers commission with a star, opting instead for the colonelcy of the newly formed 5th US Artillery.

harvey_brown

Success at Santa Rosa Island, Florida, defending Fort Pickens, in October 1861 earned Brown a brevet to Brigadier-General and duty commanding the defenses of New York.  And in July, Brown led troops suppressing the New York Draft Riots.  But at the start of August, Brown came up on the retirement list.  Though his retirement date was August 1, Cullum’s Register indicates Brown was “awaiting orders” and “was retained until the close of the war in the command of Ft. Schuyler, and on other duties.”

For ten days (August 1 through 10), Lieutenant-Colonel George Nauman held temporary command.  Colonel Henry S. Burton was formally named to command the 5th on August 11, thus completing the transition.

Despite this change of command, for the third quarter of 1863, the 5th US Artillery offered a laudably complete set of returns, as reflected in the summaries:

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An entry for every battery.  And a line for the adjutant to boot!

  • Battery A: At Portsmouth, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Lieutenant James Gilliss’ battery remained with Getty’s Division, in the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.
  • Battery B:  Reporting at Martinsburg, West Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Under Lieutenant Henry A. Du Pont, the battery was rushed to the Department of the Susquehanna during the Gettysburg Campaign. As the campaign closed, the battery remained as unassigned artillery in the Department of West Virginia.
  • Battery C: At New York City, with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Though still allocated to the 1st Brigade of the Artillery Reserve, the battery was detached to New York after Gettysburg.  Lieutenant Gulian V. Weir remained in command of this battery, though Captain Dunbar R. Ransom accompanied to command all artillery dispatched to quell the Draft Riot.  By the end of September, the battery was at Camp Barry, Washington, D.C.  Later in the fall, the battery rejoined the Army of the Potomac with Lieutenant Richard Metcalf in command (with Wier going to Battery L).
  • Battery D: Reporting from Culpeper, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts.  Lieutenant Benjamin F. Rittenhouse remained at the post he assumed on July 2, after Lieutenant Charles Hazlett’s death at Little Round Top. The battery supported Fifth Corps.
  • Battery E: At Chambersburg, Pennsylvania with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Lieutenant James W. Piper was in command.  Dispatched in June to Pennsylvania, the battery remained in the Department of the Susquehanna.
  • Battery F: At Warrenton, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts.  Lieutenant Leonard Martin remained in command this battery.  The battery was assigned to Sixth Corps.
  • Battery G: Port Hudson, Louisiana with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Lieutenant  Jacob B. Rawles remained in command of this Nineteenth Corps battery.
  • Battery H: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  This was “flip” from the previous quarter, but an accurate adjustment of the records.  Captain George A. Kensel became artillery cheif for First Division, Fourteenth Corps.  In his place Lieutenant Howard M. Burnham commanded.  Burnham was killed when the battery was overrun on September 19.  Lieutenant Joshua A. Fessenden stood in his place. At Chickamauga, the battery lost two officers, 25 men, battery wagon, forge, and all their caissons.  Refitting in Chattanooga, the battery had sufficient limbers and caissons for the Napoleons, but only enough limbers for one Parrott.
  • Battery I: Reporting at Camp Marshall, D.C. with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.    Lieutenant Charles C. MacConnell remained in command of this battery, which was transferred from the Army of the Potomac for refitting and replacements.  Most references indicate the battery was assigned to Camp Barry.  And at least for a month Battery I was combined with Battery L for training.  In November, the battery was combined with Battery C.
  • Battery K: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons. Lieutenant David H. Kinzie, remained in command.  The battery transferred, with the rest of the Twelfth Corps, from Virginia to Tennessee in October.
  • Battery L: Also reporting at Camp Marshall, D.C., though Camp Barry is listed on returns, and with two 6-pdr field guns. Lieutenant Edmund D. Spooner’s battery recovering from the disaster of Winchester, earlier in June.  Spooner would soon head west to take command of Battery H at Chattanooga. (Wier of Battery C transferred over to Battery L.)
  • Battery M: At Stonehouse Mountain, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain James McKnight’s battery transferred from Yorktown to the Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac, in late July 1863.  I like this placename, as it prompts me to search through correspondence with Bud Hall.  Stone House Mountain (note the space) appears on Captain William H. Paine’s excellent map of the Culpeper area.  It is  close to Griffinsburg, west of Culpeper Courthouse.
  • Adjutant: Reported from Fort Hamilton, were the headquarters was located.  I’d like to put a name to this line.  Lieutenant Henry A. Dupont had been the regimental adjutant up until July, when he took command of Battery B.  However, Heitman’s Register indicates he was still officially the adjutant.  Lieutenant Thomson P. McElrath was the regimental quartermaster, and also appeared on correspondence from August and September 1863 as adjutant.

Overall, these are the cleanest set of administrative details and reported cannon from any regimental summary thus far.

The smoothbore ammunition table is, as we would expect, full:

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Seven batteries reporting:

  • Battery A: 192 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 192 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery C: 61 shot and 112 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery E: 192 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery G: 290 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 11(?) canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 142(?) shot, 64 shell, 171(?) case, and 100 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L: 96 shot, 56 case, and 48 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery M: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Only two batteries with 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  So not many Hotchkiss lines to account for:

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  • Battery B:  209 canister, 296 percussion shell, and 164 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery I: 50 canister for 3-inch rifles.

For the next page, we can focus down on the Parrott columns:

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Three batteries reporting quantities:

  • Battery D: 193 shell, 360 case, and 160 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery F: 480 shell, 480 case, and 144 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery H:  54 shot, 240 shell, and 94 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

The last page of rifled projectiles has Schenkl types:

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We see a mix of 3-inch and 10-pdr calibers… which differed by a tenth of an inch:

  • Battery B: 221(?) shell and 513 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery D: 599 shell for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery F: 120 shell for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery I: 318 case for 3-inch rifles.

With ammunition out of the way, we move to the small arms:

0236_3_Snip_5thUS

By battery:

  • Battery A: Twenty-seven Army revolvers and sixty-four horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Fourteen Army revolvers and 135 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery C: Three Army revolvers, one Navy revolver, and nineteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery D: Thirteen Navy revolvers, fourteen cavalry sabers, and thirty-six horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery E: Twelve Army revolvers and 107 horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F: Nineteen Army revolvers and twenty-six horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Twenty-one (?) horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H: Sixteen Navy revolvers, eight cavalry sabers, and thirty-nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery I: Nine Army revolvers and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery K: Fifty-two Army revolvers and sixteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery L: Nothing….. for the second straight quarter.
  • Battery M: Twenty-four Navy revolvers and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • Adjutant: Twenty-seven horse artillery sabers.

In addition, the adjutant reported six nose bags, twenty-seven saber belts, eight bridles, five currycombs, six girths, six halters, five horse brushes, five lariats, four picket pins, six Model 1859 pattern saddles, six sweat-leathers, two surcingles, six artillery-type saddle blankets, six sets of spurs, and six screw-drivers.  And as mentioned above, Lieutenant P. McElrath was likely the officer accounting for those items – either as the adjutant or the quartermaster.  And once again…. all government property was accounted for.

Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Batteries from Minnesota

Minnesota provided three light batteries to the Federal cause.  All three of those were on active service at the end of the second quarter, 1863:

0193_1_Snip_MN

All three offered returns for the quarter, though posted in Washington with some delays:

  • 1st Battery: Received in September 1863, with location of Vicksburg, Mississippi.  This is probably correct, as the battery supported Sixth Division, Seventeenth Corps at this juncture.  In fact, the battery would spend most of its time through the subsequent fall and winter around Vicksburg.  The battery reported two 12-pdr field howitzers and two 3.67-inch (6-pdr) rifles.  Captain William Z. Clayton commanded.
  • 2nd Battery:  For the second quarterly return in a row, we see Chattanooga, Tennessee as the location for this battery.  Certainly valid for a posting date of January 1864.  But as of June 30, 1863, the battery was assigned to First Division, Twentieth Corps, and active on the Tullahoma Campaign through middle Tennessee.  Chattanooga was the objective, but not quite yet reached.  Two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 10-pdr Parrotts were in the battery’s charge.  Lieutenant Albert Woodbury remained in command.  Woodbury would be mortally wounded at Chickamauga later in the summer.  Lieutenant Richard L. Dawley did get the battery off the field, however.
  • 3rd Battery:  Reporting from Fort Snelling, Minnesota with two 6-pdr field guns and six 12-pdr field howitzers (But… see note below).  Captain John Jones commanded this battery assigned to the District of Minnesota, Department of the Northwest.  Far away from the big battles in Mississippi, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania, the 3rd did not have a quiet summer by the lake.  At the end of June, the Battery was among the forces on an expedition against the Sioux.   Lieutenant J. C. Whipple, commanding a section (of howitzers, if my memory is correct), served with distinction at Stony Lake later in July.

Three batteries.  Three different campaigns. No light duty for the Minnesota batteries.

The 3rd Battery’s howitzers deserve some attention… or question marks, perhaps.  We see field howitzers on the cannon summary page.  But later in the summary, we find the ammunition reported was for mountain howitzers.  And Brigadier-General Henry H. Sibley, commanding the expedition against the Sioux, specifically mentioned a section of 6-pdrs and two sections of mountain howitzers in his official report.  I would make the case for four mountain howitzers, and the tally being placed in the wrong column.

Turning to their ammunition, we look at the smoothbore page first:

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All three had some quantities to report:

  • 1st Battery: 74 shell, 128 case, and 90 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 2nd Battery: 96 shot, 32 shell, 96 case, and 32 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 3rd Battery:  130 shot, 230 case, and 42 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 60 shell, 224 case, and 84 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzer.  (That last entry, I’m suggesting is another column entry error and should have been entered one to the right.)

Moving to the rifled projectiles, we saw the 1st Battery reported rifled 6-pdrs.  These were, based on the column entry, REAL 6-pdrs that were rifled.  In other words 3.67-inch caliber.  And that’s the ammunition they reported:

0195_2_Snip_MN

These on the first page of Hotchkiss projectiles:

  • 1st Battery: 122 shot, 36 percussion shell, and 26 bullet shell for 3.67-inch rifles.

Note the Ordnance Department called this “Wiard” caliber, related to the rifled guns from that inventor.  But we know that caliber pre-dated Wiard’s guns.

More Hotchkiss on the next page, which we will break down into sections:

0196_1A_Snip_MN

  • 1st Battery:  116 canister for 3.67-inch.  Again “Wiard” is the association, but we should properly disassociate from the eccentric inventor.

Moving over to the right, there are some Parrott projectiles to account for:

0196_1B_Snip_MN

  • 2nd Battery:  444 shell, 207 case, and 143 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

There were no Schenkl or Tatham projectiles reported.  So we move quickly to the small arms:

0196_3_Snip_MN

By battery:

  • 1st Battery: Two rifles (type, non-specific) and eleven Navy revolvers.
  • 2nd Battery: One Navy revolver and nine cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Thirty Army revolvers and 126 cavalry sabers.

3rd Battery must have issued a saber to every man when stepping out on Sibley’s Sioux Expedition.

Looking ahead to the next installments, one might wonder “Where’s Michigan?”  Well the clerks at the Ordnance Department, never ones to be constrained by the alphabet, shifted that state’s batteries to the next page.  That gave room for all the batteries of Missouri to be considered in one contiguous group.

Rebel bounty: Captured guns at Chickamauga

As the sun rose on September 21, 1863, the Confederates in the Army of Tennessee experienced a rare experience – possession of a battlefield following a clear victory.  Taking inventory of the debris of the battle, Confederate ordnance officers found a substantial amount of artillery equipment – on paper enough cannons to equip over six batteries.

In his report of the battle, Colonel James Barnett detailed the loss of 39 cannons and carriages.  By type these were:

  • Six 3-inch rifles
  • Seven 10-pdr Parrotts
  • Four 12-pdr Napoleons
  • Nine James rifles
  • Six 6-pdr field guns
  • Six 12-pdr field howitzers
  • One 12-pdr mountain howitzer

In addition, Barnett recorded the loss of 13 limbers, 30 caissons, and one battery wagon.  Oh, and thousands of rounds of ammunition.

On the other side of the line, Captain O.T. Gibbs, ordnance officer for the Army of Tennessee, recorded a different quantity and breakdown in his statement of stores received at Ringold, Georgia:

  • Six 3-inch rifles
  • Two 12-pdr Napoleons
  • Eleven James rifles
  • Eight 6-pdr field guns
  • Fifteen 12-pdr field howitzers
  • Seven 12-pdr mountain howitzers
  • Two 24-pdr howitzers

Fifty-one total.  The reason for the discrepancy?  Gibbs tallied the weapons received by his office, including old, worn out, or simply disfavored weapons.  Gibbs also appears to have included in his list guns captured by Federals on the field, then recaptured by the Confederates, and turned in for repairs.  Furthermore, in several cases, the batteries helped themselves to Federal guns and turned in their old weapons to the ordnance depot. (And in at least one case, a battery ‘horded’ a field howitzer without letting the ordnance officers know about it.) In short, Gibbs’ list is far from definitive for the tally of captured guns.  Although it does offer a wealth of details about those guns.

The numbers are interesting on both sides.  Looking first to Barnett’s tally, I consider three types to be “top notch” favored weapons of the Civil War – 3-inch Ordnance Rifles, 10-pdr Parrotts, and 12-pdr Napoleons.  The Federals gave up only seventeen of those.  Or enough for four four-gun batteries (or three six-gun batteries).  The remainder of the lost guns were of less favored types.

Many would return to action in the spring in a different guise – melted down by the Confederate foundries into 12-pdr Napoleons.  Gibbs’ inventory reads like a “who’s who” of ordnance manufacture, with vendors, both north and south, represented:

6-pounder bronze gun, with carriage and limber, made at Greenwood’s,  Cincinnati, Ohio. 1861….

12-pounder howitzer, with carriage and limber, Saint Louis, Mo., Marshall  &Co., 1862….

12-pounder bronze howitzer, with carriage, damaged, A. B. R. & Bro., Vicksburg, Miss….

3-inch iron rifled gun, with carriage and limber, Rome, Ga., Noble &  Bro.. 1862….

12-pounder bronze howitzer and carriage, J. Clark, New Orleans….

A substantial number of weapons turned in to the depot included early war Tredegar products:

12-pounder iron howitzer, with carriage. J. R. & Co., 1861

12-pounder iron howitzer, with carriage. J. R. & Co., 1862

3-inch rifled gun, with carriage, No. 1480, J. R. & Co

The foundry number of the 3-inch rifle matches one invoiced in May 1862:

Page 380b

Although the receipt does not indicate, other weapons cast around that time were iron.  So it leads to the logical inference that #1480 was an iron 3-inch rifle. We might also presume that, just as in the eastern theater, the iron 3-inch rifle and iron 12-pdrs had fallen into disfavor among the gunners of the western theater.  So these were selected for return to the ordnance depot when nice new Yankee cannon were in hand.

With Gibbs’ tally, only three of the “top notch” guns were turned in to the ordnance depot – two Napoleons and one 3-inch Ordnance Rifle.  Two of the Napoleons captured on the field were immediately incorporated into Battery D, 9th Georgia Artillery (Captain Tyler M. Peeples), who turned in the two 24-pdr howitzers seen in Gibbs’ report.   All the Parrott rifles and five of the 3-inch Ordnance Rifles were put to immediate use.  The one 3-inch Ordnance Rifle received at Ringold had the detailed listing of:

3-inch steel rifled gun, U.S., No. 86, P.A. & Co., 817 pounds.

That gun is still around, but on another field.

Gettysburg 199

Where would that be?  Don’t click on the photo… no cheating!

Gettysburg 203

This gun stands today on Hancock Avenue at Gettysburg, representing Battery H, 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery.

Gettysburg 205

Practically a world away from the woods of Northern Georgia.  I’ve long wondered if a swap arrangement might be appropriate.  But then again, every time I pass the gun at Gettysburg, I pause to recall that the war was not ONLY fought for three days in July 1863.

(Barnett’s and Gibbs’ reports are from OR, Series I, Volume 30, Part I, Serial 50, pages 237-9, Part II, Serial 51, pages 40-43.)