Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – 1st Michigan Light Artillery

Michigan “regimented” its batteries in the fall of 1862, and from that time the batteries were officially “lettered” within that regimental system. However, old habits died hard. The clerks at the Ordnance Department continued to reference those units by their numbered designations through the end of 1863. And in their defense, the state’s Adjutant General, in his end of year report, gave the numbered designation in parenthesis after the lettered regimental battery designation (A convention I use here to avoid any ambiguity). We see those twelve batteries with a couple of non-regimental lines in the fourth quarter summaries for 1863:

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Focusing on the 1st Michigan Light Artillery for this post, Colonel Cyrus O. Loomis, originally the captain of Battery A, commanded. Loomis also served as the chief of artillery for First Division (Rousseau), Fourteenth Corps. When Major-General Lovell Rousseau transferred to command the District of Nashville, Loomis transferred as well. At the start of the fall, Loomis had no field-grade officers. That would change in September with a round of promotions which we will note within the administrative details. So looking at the twelve batteries, we find ten of twelve submitted returns:

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  • Battery A / 1st Battery: Reporting from Chattanooga, Tennessee with five 10-pdr Parrott rifles.  Also known as the Loomis Battery, for its first commander.  As related in last quarter’s entry, this battery suffered heavily at Chickamuaga. Among those dead on the field was Lieutenant George W. Van Pelt, the battery commander. Lieutenant Almerick W. Wilbur led the battery to Chattanooga, with what guns and equipment that had been extracted from Chickamauga.  One Parrott was recaptured on Missionary Ridge, presumably rounding out the battery’s set. Francis E. Hale (or Hall, on state records) accepted a promotion to Captain at the end of September to command the battery. The battery remained with First Division, Fourteenth Corps to the end of December. Then it transferred to the garrison of Chattanooga, where it remained for the rest of the war.
  • Battery B / 2nd Battery: Reporting from Pulaski, Tennessee with two 3-inch Ordnance rifles and two 10-pdr Parrotts. Lieutenant Albert F. R. Arndt, still in command, was promoted to Captain in early September.  The battery remained assigned to Second Division, Sixteenth Corps.
  • Battery C / 3rd Battery: At Prospect, Tennessee, four 10-pdr Parrotts.  Captain George Robinson remained in command of this battery. Still with the Sixteenth Corps, the battery was, at the end of December, part of Fuller’s Brigade, Second Division.
  • Battery D / 4th Battery: No return.  From the state Adjutant General’s report, the battery “has always been irregular and remiss in its returns to this office….” Good to see they were consistent in their administrative habits! Captain Josiah W. Church remained in command.  The battery transferred out of the Fourteenth Corps, going to Second Brigade, Second Division, Artillery Reserve for the Army of the Cumberland (Church commanded the brigade in addition to the battery). Having lost almost all its equipment at Chickamauga, the battery reorganized in Chattanooga and received four 20-pdr Parrotts and one 10-pdr Parrott. On November 23, the battery moved to Fort Negley (old Confederate Fort Cheatham) and engaged Confederates at the base of Lookout Mountain, continuing that effort the following day. On the 25th, the battery supported the movement against Missionary Ridge. Church reported firing 135 rounds in those actions. The battery remained at Chattanooga through the winter.
  • Battery E / 5th Battery: At Nashville, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain John J. Ely commanded this battery. With the breakup of the Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland, the battery transferred commands, if not locations, to the Garrison of Nashville.
  • Battery F / 6th Battery: At Knoxville, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  Captain Luther F. Hale commanding this battery, was promoted to Major in September. In his place, Lieutenant Byron D. Paddock was promoted to captain. In October, the battery was stationed at Glasgow, Kentucky, in the District of Central Kentucky, Department of the Ohio.  From there, in January 1864, the battery moved over the Cumberland Mountains to Knoxville. Thus we have an explanation for the reported location.
  • Battery G / 7th Battery:  Reporting from Indianola, Texas with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain Charles H. Lanphere resigned his post on September 1, and was replaced by James H. Burdick (promoted to captain on the same day Lanphere resigned). However, Burdick served as an ordnance officer in Thirteenth Corps. In his place, Lieutenant George L. Stillman led the battery. The battery transferred out of the Thirteenth Corps to the Department of the Gulf in August, and was assigned to the garrison of New Orleans. On November 13, the battery boarded steamers for passage to the Texas coast to reinforce Thirteenth Corps operations. After arrival on Matagorda Island, the battery moved to Indianola during the first days of January 1864.
  • Battery H / 8th Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with two 12-pdr field howitzers and two James (3.80-inch) rifles.  Promoted on August 8, Captain Jacob L. Richmond commanded the battery. However, Richmond did not spend much time in command, and resigned due to disability in February. Lieutenant Marcus D. Elliot led the battery, appearing on returns through the winter.  The battery was assigned to Third Division, Seventeenth Corps.
  • Battery I / 9th Battery: Now reporting at Nashville, Tennessee with four 3-inch rifles.  Captain Jabez J. Daniels commanded this battery, then part of the Eleventh Corps. The battery made the move with that formation to reinforce Chattanooga starting in October. Daniels resigned on December 15, and was replaced by Lieutenant (promoted to Captain in January 1864) Addison N. Kidder.
  • Battery K / 10th Battery : At Chattanooga, Tennessee, with four 3-inch rifles.  Captain John C. Schuetz commanded.  The battery was at Camp Barry, Washington, D.C. through the last week of October. On October 28, it was transferred to Eleventh Corps and moved with that formation to reinforce Chattanooga. At the close of the year, Schuetz was absent from the battery, and Lieutenant Adolph Schill is listed as temporary commander.
  • Battery L / 11th Battery:  No return.  Under Captain Charles J. Thompson.  As part of Third Division, Twenty-Third Corps, Department of the Ohio, the battery served in the advance to Knoxville in August. In September, the battery joined General Orlando Wilcox’s Division, Left Wing of the Department of the Ohio. With that command, the battery participated in movements around east Tennessee, eventually moving to the Cumberland Gap. For want of supplies, the battery would lose its horses and become, essentially, static artillery for many months into 1864. With Thompson taking ill in December, Lieutenant Thomas Gallagher led the battery.
  • Battery M / 12th Battery:  At Tazewell, Tennessee with six 3-inch rifles.. Captain Edward G. Hillier commanded. The battery joined Wilcox’s Division, advancing on the Cumberland Gap, in September. The battery was part of a brigade-sized force pushed out to Tazewell in January.

We move forward with those administrative details to the ammunition on hand, starting with smoothbore rounds:

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  • Battery E (5th Battery): 198 shot and 115 case for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery F (6th Battery): 157 shot and 185 case for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery H (8th Battery): 89 shell for 12-pdr field howitzers.

More on the next page:

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  • Battery E (5th Battery): 137 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery F (6th Battery): 89 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery H (8th Battery): 40 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.

Hotchkiss rounds to the right of the page:

  • Battery B (2nd Battery): 72 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E (5th Battery): 102 time fuse shell for 10-pdr Parrott rifles.
  • Battery G (7th Battery): 242 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery I (9th Battery): 120 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K (10th Battery): 179 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M (12th Battery): 868 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles!

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

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  • Battery B (2nd Battery): 72 percussion fuse shell, 240 bullet shell, and 83 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E (5th Battery): 47 percussion fuse shell, 140 bullet shell, and 170 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery G (7th Battery): 80 percussion fuse shell, 989 bullet shell, and 203 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery I (9th Battery): 60 percussion fuse shell, 360 bullet shell, and 60 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K (10th Battery): 165 percussion fuse shell, 402 bullet shell, and 96 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M (12th Battery): 154 percussion fuse shell and 265 canister for 3-inch rifles.

To the right are columns for James projectiles:

  • Battery H (8th Battery): 1 shot, 127 shell, and 13 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

But look closely, as the column header banner is interrupted across the pages, there are two entry lines for Parrott lines on the far right:

  • Battery B (2nd Battery): 57 shot for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery C (3rd Battery): 57 shot for 10-pdr Parrotts.

More Parrott rounds on the next page:

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  • Battery A (1st Battery): 462 shell, 55 case, and 275 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery B (2nd Battery): 183 shell and 77 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery C (3rd Battery): 40 shell, 601 case, and 95 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery F (6th Battery): 177 shell, 141 case, and 62 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

But one entry line for Schenkl projectiles on the right:

  • Battery E (5th Battery): 60 shell for 10-pdr Parrott.

This brings us to the small arms:

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  • Battery A (1st Battery): Twelve cavalry sabers.
  • Battery B (2nd Battery): Twenty Colt army revolvers and forty-three cavalry sabers.
  • Battery C (3rd Battery): Seventeen cavalry sabers.
  • Battery E (5th Battery): Twenty-five cavalry sabers and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F (6th Battery): Twenty-five Colt army revolvers and twelve cavalry sabers.
  • Battery G (7th Battery): Nine Colt army revolvers and one cavalry saber.
  • Battery I (9th Battery): Ten Remington army revolvers and thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery K (10th Battery): Fifteen Colt army revolvers and sixty-nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery M (12th Battery): Fourteen Colt army revolvers and thirteen foot artillery swords.

Turning next to the cartridge bags reported on hand:

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  • Battery F (6th Battery): Fifty 10-pdr Parrott cartridge bags.
  • Battery K (10th Battery): Fifty 3-inch rifle cartridge bags.

Much busier is the next page with pistol cartridges, fuses, powder, and other miscellaneous items:

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  • Battery A (1st Battery): 1,500 friction primers and 12 portfires.
  • Battery B (2nd Battery): 1,278 army caliber pistol cartridges; 464 paper fuses; 773 friction primers; 20 yards of slow match; and 278 pistol percussion caps.
  • Battery C (3rd Battery): 850 friction primers.
  • Battery E (5th Battery): 1,661 friction primers; 16 yards of slow match; and 38 portfires.
  • Battery F (6th Battery): 262 friction primers.
  • Battery G (7th Battery): 1,321 paper fuses; 78 pounds of cannon powder; 537 friction primers; and 40 yards of slow match.
  • Battery H (8th Battery): 100 portfires.
  • Battery I (9th Battery): 385 paper fuses; 850 friction primers; 24 yards of slow match; and 36 portfires.
  • Battery K (10th Battery): 400 army caliber pistol cartridges; 300 paper fuses; 700 friction primers; and 50 yards of slow match.
  • Battery M (12th Battery): 1,000 friction primers and 3 yards of slow match.

I would say the only real gap with the 1st Michigan Light Artillery’s summary is with Battery L (11th Battery). We have a fair written report from Captain Church to indicate what weapons Battery D (4th Battery) had at the battles around Chattanooga. But for Battery L, stuck up on the Cumberland Gap, I do not know what cannon types they had on hand.

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Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Minnesota

In the previous quarter, we saw Minnesota represented by three light artillery batteries. For the fourth quarter, we see the same three batteries… but four lines:

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Yes, the 3rd Minnesota Battery reported by section. So let’s break those lines down:

  • 1st Battery: Reporting at Gaylesville, Alabama, as of November 1864, with with two 12-pdr field howitzers and two 3.67-inch (6-pdr) rifles. The report location is “as of” the reporting date, after the Atlanta Campaign when the battery was involved with the pursuit of Hood’s forces in northern Alabama. Captain William Z. Clayton commanded. But while he was on recruiting duty, Lieutenant Henry Hunter led the battery.  The battery remained with the First Division, Seventeenth Corps at Vicksburg through the spring. At some point that winter, the battery received three new 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery:  At Chattanooga, Tennessee with six 10-pdr Parrott rifles.  In October, with reorganizations of the Army of the Cumberland, the battery shifted from First Division, Twentieth Corps to Second Division, Fourteenth Corps. Captain William A. Hotchkiss, the battery commander, served as Artillery Chief for the division.  And Lieutenant Richard L. Dawley led the battery. The battery supported the division in the battles around Chattanooga in November. They wintered at Rossville, Georgia, just outside of that city.
  • 3rd Battery:  Reporting from Fort Snelling, Minnesota with two 6-pdr field guns and six 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  Captain John Jones commanded this battery assigned to the District of Minnesota, Department of the Northwest.  Actually, this battery four sections were spread out across the department. The 1st Section was at Fort Snelling in December. 2nd Section was at Pembina, Dakota Territories (see below). The 3rd Section at Fort Ridgely, Minnesota. And the 4th Section served at Fort Ripley, Minnesota. I am not sure which officer drew particular sections, but Lieutenants John C. Whipple, Horace H. Western, Don A. Daniels, and Gad Merrill Dwelle were with the battery.
  • Section of 3rd Battery: Reporting from Pembina, Dakota Territories (so this must be the 2nd Section) but not listing their assigned cannon. I believe this section’s gun were rolled up with the battery’s, but for some reason their other stores were accounted separately. For what reason, we are left to guess.

And about those stores, we see some with the smoothbore ammunition tallies:

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  • 1st Battery: 117 shells and 128 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 102 shot and 130 case for 6-pdr field guns; 48 shell and 134 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 2nd Section, 3rd Battery: 24 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

Continuing with smoothbore:

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  • 1st Battery: 90 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 42 canister for 6-pdr field guns and 84 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

To the right is a lone tally for Hotchkiss shot:

  • 1st Battery: 122 shot for 3.67-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

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  • 1st Battery: 40 percussion fuse shell, 26 case shot/bullet shell, and 110 canister for 3.67-inch rifles.

On the far right of this, is a tally for the one column of Parrott projectiles on this page:

  • 2nd Battery: 22 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.

That brings us to the rest of the Parrott columns:

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  • 2nd Battery: 780 shell, 383 case, and 188 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

We then skip forward to the small arms:

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  • 1st Battery: Eleven Colt navy revolvers.
  • 2nd Battery: One Colt navy revolver and nine cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Thirty Colt army revolvers and 126 cavalry sabers.

The next page has totals for cartridge bags, only two batteries reporting such:

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  • 1st Battery: 254 cartridge bags for 6-pdr field guns or 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 2nd Battery: 834 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.

The last page covers small arms cartridges and other articles:

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  • 1st Battery: 800 navy-caliber pistol cartridges and 450 friction primers.
  • 3rd Battery: 550 army-caliber pistol cartridges, 21 fireballs, and 259 friction primers.
  • 2nd Section, 3rd Battery: 12 fireballs.

Fireballs? Well, specifically it is a column for fireballs loaded for 8-inch or 10-inch mortars. Which, of course, the 3rd Battery didn’t have. Recall we discussed fireballs some time back in reference to use with the heavy mortars. These were a canvas bag loaded with a shell and explosive composition and covered with pitch. The idea was to throw such a projectile over the enemy position, timed to ignite in the air with the objective of illuminating the ground. A similar projectile, called the “light ball” was without the shell and intended to ignite closer to friendly lines, also providing illumination.

I doubt that the 3rd Battery, out there on the frontier, actually had regulation fireballs on hand. However, what would make for sound speculation is the battery reported locally fabricated fireballs (or light balls) for use from their howitzers. At a remote outpost they would find need of artificial light for many reasons.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Iowa’s Batteries

Iowa became a state just a decade and a half prior to the outbreak of the Civil War. In those antebellum years, Iowa transitioned from a frontier state into one with a growing industrialization, all the while retaining its strong agrarian base (which is still there to this day). While not a populous state, Iowa sent over 10% of its population into uniform for the war (76,242 men in arms out of a total population of 674,913 in 1860). And of that total, we have focused on the story of four batteries and one attached artillery section within the scope of these summaries. For the fourth quarter, 1863, summary, the clerks at the Ordnance Department tallied three batteries and the attached section. They omitted the 4th Iowa Battery, which had just mustered in November.

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  • 1st Iowa Battery: Reporting from Woodville, Alabama with one 12-pdr field howitzer and three 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Henry H. Griffiths commanded, however he also served as division artillery chief and also departed in December on recruiting duty.  In his place Lieutenants William H. Gay led the battery. The battery remained with First Division, Fifteenth Corps, participating in the relief of Chattanooga in November. Afterwards, the battery followed its parent formation into winter quarters in northern Alabama.  The armament listed is noteworthy. The battery reported its long-serving smoothbores were worn out. And starting in December they received new Parrott rifles.
  • 2nd Iowa Battery: Reporting at LaGrange, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers. As Captain Nelson T. Spoor served as division artillery chief, Lieutenant Joseph R. Reed led this battery. The battery remained with Third Division, Fifteenth Corps, and moved to Memphis with that formation in early November.  As part of the movement toward Chattanooga, the battery was assigned to the garrison guarding the railroad lines in vicinity of LaGrange. And with that assignment, the battery transferred to the First Division, Sixteenth Corps.
  • 3rd Iowa Battery: At Little Rock, Arkansas with two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, one 3-inch Ordnance Rifle, and one 10-pdr Parrott. Captain Mortimer M. Hayden remained in command, but served in staff positions. Lieutenant Melville C. Wright led the battery in his absence.  The battery served in the Third Division, Department of Arkansas (which would become the Seventh Corps later in 1864). After accompanying an expedition to Arkadelphia, the battery returned to Little Rock and remained there through the winter.
  • 4th Iowa Battery:  Not listed.  Captain Philip H. Goode’s battery mustered on September 24, 1863. They had two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery’s first assignment was to the Department of the Northwest. But that was a short posting. By February the battery was moving to St. Louis, with New Orleans as their ultimate destination.
  • Section attached to 2nd Cavalry –  At Collierville, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons, two 12-pdr mountain howitzers, and two 10-pdr Parrotts. However, I think, based on the ammunition reported, the section had two 12-pdr field howitzers instead of the Napoleons. And section? Well, more like a battery.   Recall from our discussion in the previous quarter, Lieutenant Perry L. Reed is mentioned in charge of two howitzers in a dispatch from November.  So he is likely the officer in charge of these cannon. Still, that’s a lot of cannon for a bunch of cavalrymen to handle. The 2nd Iowa Cavalry was part of the First Cavalry Division, Sixteenth Corps and operated in the Memphis area at this time of the war.

We have a majority of smoothbore cannon in the aggregate, so we have a lot of smoothbore rounds to talk about:

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  • 2nd Battery: 57 shot and 42 case for 6-pdr field guns; 74 shell and 20 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 175 shot and 165 case for 6-pdr field guns; 109 shell and 156 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 2nd Cavalry: 94 shell and 163 case for 12-pdr field howitzers; 192 shell and 192 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzer. (The ammunition tallies are why I suggested the 2nd Cavalry had howitzers vice Napoleons).

Continuing smoothbore ammunition totals on the next page:

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  • 2nd Battery: 80 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 60 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 60 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 32 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 2nd Cavalry: 52 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; 276 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

To the right is one entry of Hotchkiss rifled projectiles:

  • 3rd Battery: 40 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

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  • 3rd Battery: 40 Percussion fuse shell and 60 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

Next we have Parrott projectiles:

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  • 1st Battery: 218 shell, 6 case, and 3 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 3rd Battery: 130 shell, 99 case, and 45 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

No quantities on the next page, so we move to the small arms:

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  • 1st Battery: Eleven cavalry sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: Four cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Three Colt navy revolvers, two cavalry sabers, and nine horse artillery sabers.

Not much in the way of cartridges:

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  • 3rd Battery: 50 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
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  • 3rd Battery: 50 paper fuses; 1,000 friction primers; and 1,000 percussion caps.
  • 2nd Cavalry: 360 friction primers.

That rounds out our look at the status of the Iowa batteries, as they were in December 1863… at least according to the Ordnance Department. Next up… the not-well-known Indian Home Guard Brigade.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Indiana Independent Batteries, Part 1

While the 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery wore one of the war’s most colorful nicknames, it was “heavy” artillery, and after all, raised as an infantry regiment. Most of the artillerists from Indiana formed into independent batteries. And most of those were light artillery. Their returns were consolidated into a lengthy section of the fourth quarter summaries:

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We will break these into two groups for ease of discussion (along with a separate post for the oddity in the bunch – an entry from the 89th Indiana Infantry). So we take up a baker’s dozen with the first part:

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  • 1st Battery:  Reporting, at New Orleans, Louisiana with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch guns.  Captain Martin Klauss remained in command of this battery. Lieutenant Lawrence Jacoby (an officer from the 1st Missouri Artillery) lead the battery while Klauss was absent through December. The battery remained with First Division, Thirteenth Corps.  Following the Second Bayou Teche Campaign in October-November, the battery was assigned to the District of LaFourche, a parish away from New Orleans.
  • 2nd Battery:  Reporting at Fort Smith, Arkansas, with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. With Captain John W. Rabb departing for a commission in the reformed 2nd Missouri (Light) Artillery Regiment, Lieutenant Hugh Espey, Jr. led this battery. His promotion to Captain would follow in January. With 2nd Brigade, District of the Frontier, the battery operated in the Indian Territories through much of the summer and fall. They moved to Fort Smith in October, remaining there through the winter.
  • 3rd Battery: No location offered, but with two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr Napoleons, and two 3.80-inch James rifles.  Captain James M. Cockefair remained in command of this battery.  The battery consolidated in St. Louis in October. Then in November, the battery reenlisted with “veteran” status. December found them operating in West Tennessee with a column dispatched in response to a raid by Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest. After which, the battery prepared for movement to Louisiana as part of the Third Division, Sixteenth Corps (to operate in the Red River Campaign).
  • 4th Battery:  At Chattanooga, Tennessee with three 12-pdr Napoleons, three 12-pdr field howitzers and two 3.80-inch James Rifles. With Captain David Flansburg in a Confederate prison, Lieutenant Henry J Willits led the battery. In October, the battery moved from the Fourteenth Corps to the garrison command at Chattanooga.
  • 5th Battery: Also at Chattanooga, but with six 10-pdr Parrott rifles. Captain Peter Simonson remained in command. Lieutenant Alfred Morrison filled in as commander when Simonson picked up duties as division artillery chief. Reorganizations of the Army of the Cumberland moved this battery to First Division, Fourth Corps.
  • 6th Battery: At Pocahontas, Tennessee, with two 6-pdr field guns and two 3.67-inch rifles (though this battery was associated with two James rifles earlier in the year).  With Captain Michael Mueller in command, the battery supported Third Division, Fifteenth Corps. The battery participated in several minor operations in the fall, then moved with its parent formation to Memphis. They wintered at Pocahontas, a railroad town to the east of that place.
  • 7th Battery: Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee, with six 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain George R. Swallow’s battery transferred from the Third Division, Twenty-First Corps to Third Division, Fourteenth Corps (more so a lateral move of the division) as the Army of the Cumberland reorganized in October. With Swallow serving as division artillery chief, Lieutenants Ortho H. Morgan and George M. Repp had turns leading the battery.
  • 8th Battery: No return. Captain George Estep retained command of this battery. With the Twenty-First Corps broken up, the battery transferred to the garrison of Chattannooga.  As the battery lost all its guns at Chickamauga, they maned heavy guns defending the city.
  • 9th Battery: No return. Lieutenant George R. Brown commanded this battery from Sixteenth Corps.  Brown’s battery was part of the garrison at Union City, Tennessee, and were involved with operations against Forrest in December. Later the battery was dispatched to Louisiana for the Red River Campaign.
  • 10th Battery: Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee with five 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain William A. Naylor remained in command of this battery. With the breakup of Twenty-First Corps, the battery transferred to Second Division, Fourth Corps. 
  • 11th Battery: Another battery at Chattanooga, Tennessee, boasting two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, four 20-pdr Parrott rifles, and four 4.5-inch siege rifles. With the breakup of the Twentieth Corps, Captain Arnold Sutermeister’s battery became part of the Chattanooga garrison for a while. Then by December was assigned as the Siege Artillery of the Army of the Cumberland.
  • 12th Battery: Reporting at Nashville, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns, two 24-pdr field howitzers, three 24-pdr smoothbore siege guns, one 24-pdr rifled siege gun, and five 30-pdr Parrotts.  I believe the 12th passed their four 4.5-inch siege rifles to the 11th Battery. Those sections deployed forward to Chattanooga returned to Nashville in November.  Captain James E. White remained in command.  White also presided over the 20th Indiana battery, which was also stationed at Nashville. 
  • 13th Battery: No report. Captain Benjamin S. Nicklin’s battery remained at Gallatin, Tennessee, garrisoning Fort Thomas, in the Army of the Cumberland.

So of these thirteen batteries, eleven operated in Tennessee at the close of the year. Though a couple of those batteries were earmarked for operations in Mississippi and Louisiana in the early months of 1864.

Moving to the smoothbore ammunition columns:

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  • 1st Battery: 294 shell and 402 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 2nd Battery: 193 shot and 155 case for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 3rd Battery: 105 shot and 138 case for 6-pdr field guns; 96 shot, 316 shell, and 109 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 4th Battery: 60 shot, 46 shell, and 173 case for 12-pdr Napoleons; 129 shell and 196 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 6th Battery: 111 shot and 182 case for 6-pdr field guns
  • 11th Battery: 110 shot and 150 case for 6-pdr field guns; 79 shell and 125 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 12th Battery: 56 shot and 54 case for 6-pdr field guns; 198 shells for 24-pdr siege guns.

More smoothbore on the next page:

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  • 1st Battery: 102 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 2nd Battery: 14 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 3rd Battery: 129 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 170 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 4th Battery: 94 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; 123 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 6th Battery: 103 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 11th Battery: 120 canister for 6-pdr; 56 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 12th Battery: 108 case for 24-pdr siege guns; 140 canister for 6-pdrs; 300 canister for 24-pdr siege guns; and 56 stands of grape for 24-pdr siege guns.

Hotchkiss rounds tallied on the right side of this page:

  • 1st Battery: 190 Hotchkiss time fuse shells for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 153 Hotchkiss time fuse shells for 3.80-inch James.

Hotchkiss rounds continue on the next page:

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  • 1st Battery: 31 Hotchkiss percussion shell and 46 Hotchkiss canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 51 Hotchkiss percussion shell and 194 Hotchkiss bullet shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 4th Battery: 33 Hotchkiss percussion shell and 20 Hotchkiss canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 6th Battery: 30 Hotchkiss percussion shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 11th Battery: 10 Hotchkiss percussion shell and 10 Hotchkiss bullet shell for 4.5-inch siege rifles.

To the right on this page is a tally for James projectiles:

  • 2nd Battery: 111 shot, 792 shell, and 58 canister of James pattern for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 3rd Battery: 52 shot, 143 shell, and 24 canister of James pattern for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 10 shot, 55 shell, and 20 canister of James pattern for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 6th Battery: 59 shot, 109 shell, and 123 canister of James pattern for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery: 25 shot and 51 shell of James pattern for 3.80-inch rifles.

And further to the right is one lone column for Parrott projectiles:

  • 5th Battery: 10 shot of Parrott patent for 10-pdr Parrotts
  • 7th Battery: 25 shot of Parrott patent for 10-pdr Parrotts.

The next page continues with Parrott patent projectiles:

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  • 5th Battery: 555 shell, 295 case, and 161 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 7th Battery: 636 shell, 482 case, and 218 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 10th Battery: 169 shell, 73 case, and 112 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 11th Battery: 30 shot, 54 shell, and 22 case for 20-pdr Parrotts.
  • 12th Battery: 505 shell and 150 canister for 30-pdr Parrotts.

To the right are columns for Schenkl projectiles:

  • 1st Battery: 174 Schenkl shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 168 Schenkl shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 11th Battery: 10 Schenkl shot for 4.5-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery: 180 Schenkl shot for 4.2-inch siege rifles (same bore diameter as the 30-pdr Parrott).

No projectiles under the “miscellaneous” headings. So we turn to the small arms:

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  • 1st Battery: 25 cavalry sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: 7 Enfield .577 muskets, 22 Colt army revolvers, and 21 cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: 4 musketoons (.69 caliber smoothbore), 4 Colt navy revolvers, and 20 horse artillery sabers.
  • 4th Battery: 22 Remington army revolvers and 20 horse artillery sabers.
  • 5th Battery: One Colt army revolver, 9 cavalry sabers, and 7 horse artillery sabers.
  • 6th Battery: 6 cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery: 2 cavalry sabers and 13 horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: 17 Colt army revolvers and 11 cavalry sabers.
  • 11th Battery: 8 Colt army revolvers, 11 Colt navy revolvers, and 9 cavalry sabers.
  • 12th Battery: 12 Colt navy revolvers and 50 horse artillery sabers.

On to the next page with cartridge bags and small arms cartridges:

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  • 1st Battery: 391 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 680 cartridge bags for 20-pdr Parrotts (why those are in Fort Smith, Arkansas is anyone’s guess… mine is transcription error); and 2,000 musket cartridges.
  • 3rd Battery: 300 cartridge bags for field guns/howitzers.
  • 4th Battery: 172 cartridge bags for James rifles and 3 cartridge bags for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 5th Battery: 355 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 7th Battery: 447 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 11th Battery: 56 cartridge bags for 20-pdr Parrotts.
  • 12th Battery: 1,045 cartridge bags for 30-pdr Parrotts.

On to the last page for pistol cartridges, fuses, and other items:

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  • 1st Battery: 1,525 friction primers; 10 yards of slow match; and 17 portfires.
  • 2nd Battery: 373 army revolver and 1000 navy revolver cartridges; 509 friction primers; and 7 portfires.
  • 3rd Battery: 2,709 friction primers; 50 yards of slow match; and 300 pistol percussion caps.
  • 4th Battery: 500 navy revolver cartridges; 1,839 friction primers; 6 yards of slow match; 450 pistol percussion caps; and 16 portfires.
  • 5th Battery: 326 paper fuses and 1,615 friction primers.
  • 6th Battery: 900 friction primers and 18 portfires.
  • 7th Battery: 643 paper fuses; 1,995 friction primers; 12 yards of slow match; and 24 portfires.
  • 10th Battery: 1,154 paper fuses and 168 friction primers.
  • 11th Battery: 80 army revolver and 600 navy revolver cartridges; 446 paper fuses; 1,923 friction primers; 2 yards of slow match; 1,815 pistol percussion caps; and 14 portfires.
  • 12th Battery: 100 pounds of mortar powder; 1,810 friction primers; and 55 musket percussion caps.

I would say, at least those reporting for the quarter, the Indiana independent batteries were well armed. Our next installment will look at the rest of those independent batteries.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Independent Illinois Batteries

We turn now to “below the line,” or at least on the next page, for the listings for independent batteries from Illinois. Nine batteries listed:

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  • Battery A, 3rd Illinois Artillery: At Little Rock, Arkansas with six 3.80-inch James Rifles. As mentioned in earlier summaries, this battery was better known as the Springfield Light Artillery, or Vaughn’s Battery. Commanded by Captain Thomas F. Vaughn, the battery was part of the Arkansas Expedition. By the late fall, with reorganizations, the battery fell under the Second Division, Army of Arkansas. With Vaughn absent, Lieutenant Edward B. Stillings was in temporary command at the end of December.
  • Chicago Board of Trade Battery: At Huntsville, Alabama, with four 6-pdr field guns and two 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain James H. Stokes was still the battery commander. But as he was detailed to command a division of the Artillery Reserve, Army of the Cumberland, Lieutenant George I. Robinson led the battery. The battery was assigned to Second Division, Cavalry, Army of the Cumberland. They spent most of the fall supporting operations against Confederate raiders, before settling into winter quarters at Huntsville.
  • Chicago Mercantile Battery: At Pass Cavallo, Texas, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Patrick H. White remained in command. Assigned to the Third Division, Thirteenth Corps, the battery was part of a force sent to the Texas coast at the end of the year.
  • Colvin’s Battery: At Knoxville, Tennessee, with two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles and two 10-pdr Parrotts. This battery was formed in the late summer with men from the 107th Illinois and 33rd Kentucky Infantry (along with some from the 22nd Indiana Battery). By October it was officially carried on the rolls as a battery. Captain John H. Colvin remained in command. The battery participated in the Knoxville Campaign as part of Fourth Division, Twenty-Third Corps. At the end of the year, the battery transferred to the Cavalry, Army of the Ohio.
  • Bridge’s Battery: At Chattanooga, Tennessee, with two 12-pdr Napoleons and six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Lyman Bridges commanded. With reorganizations after Chickamuaga, the battery was assigned to Third Division, Fourth Corps. The battery participated in the operations around Chattanooga that fall. They were among the batteries thrown forward to Orchard Knob. After victory at Chattanooga, the battery participated in the relief of Knoxville.
  • Elgin or 5th Battery(?): Also known as Renwick’s Battery, after its first commander. Reporting at Mossy (as written, Mofry?) Creek, Tennessee, with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 24-pdr field howitzers. Captain Andrew M. Wood remained in command. And the battery with Second Division, Twenty Third Corps. The battery saw action at the battle of Mossy Creek, on December 29.
  • Henshaw’s Battery: At Loudon, Tennessee, but with no artillery reported. In the previous quarter the battery reported four 6-pdr field guns and two 3.80-inch James rifles. Captain Edward C. Henshaw remained in command. The battery remained with Second Division, Twenty-Third Corps. After the relief of Nashville, the division moved to Loudon. However, they would from there move to Strawberry Plains, east of Knoxville, before wintering at Mossy Creek.
  • Cogswell’s Battery: At Nashville, Tennessee, with four 3.80-inch James rifles. William Cogswell remained the battery captain. As part of Second Division, Seventeenth Corps, the battery was among the force sent to Chattanooga. The battery covered Sherman’s crossing and subsequent actions as the siege of that place was lifted. Then afterward participated in the relief of Knoxville. The battery went into winter quarters in north Alabama. In December the battery was assigned to Third Division, Fifteenth Corps. The Nashville location alludes to the reporting date of August 1864, after the battery was transferred to garrison duties.
  • Lovejoy’s battery: Reporting at Brownsville, Arkansas with two 12-pdr mountain howitzer. This listing does not match with any of the “according to Dyer’s” Indiana batteries. We discussed Lovejoy’s Battery last quarter, but under the Missouri heading. It was a section from the 2nd Missouri Cavalry, Merrill’s Horse, then serving at Brownsville. I’m rather sure this is Lieutenant George F. Lovejoy’s section. But I cannot explain why the Ordnance Department would change the state attribution here.

Let us table Lovejoy’s for the time being and move on to the ammunition. Starting with the smoothbore:

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  • Board of Trade Battery: 139 shot and 224 case for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Bridge’s Battery: 32 shell for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Elgin Battery: 34 shot, 36 shell, and 117 case for 12-pdr Napoleons; 135 shell for 24-pdr field howitzers.
  • Lovejoy’s Battery: 28 shell and 96 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

We’ll break the next page down into sections, starting with the rest of the smoothbore:

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  • Board of Trade Battery: 197 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Bridge’s Battery: 17 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Elgin Battery: 25 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 116 case and 48 canister for 24-pdr field howitzers.
  • Lovejoy’s Battery: 11 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

To the right are listings for Hotchkiss rifled projectiles:

  • Mercantile Battery: 512 shot and 281 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Bridge’s Battery: 262 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

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  • Springfield Light Artillery: 334 percussion fuse shell and 268 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Board of Trade Battery: 23 percussion fuse shell and 30 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Mercantile Battery: 240 percussion fuse shell and 138 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Colvin’s Battery: 23 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Bridge’s Battery: 240 percussion fuse shell, 240 case shot, and 160 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Cogswell’s Battery: 170 percussion fuse shell and 149 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

To the right are columns for James patent projectiles:

  • Springfield Light Artillery: 236 shot, 212 shell, and 30 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Board of Trade Battery: 40 shot and 41 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Cogswell’s Battery: 31 shot, 247 shell, and 109 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Then the Parrott and Schenkl sections:

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  • Colvin’s Battery: 56 shell and 19 case Parrott patent for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Board of Trade Battery: 104 Schenkl shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

Nothing reported on the next page:

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So on to the small arms:

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  • Springfield Light Artillery: ten horse artillery sabers.
  • Board of Trade Battery: 104 Colt army revolvers, three cavalry sabers, and eighteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Mercantile Battery: One Colt army revolver and four horse artillery sabers.
  • Bridge’s Battery: Ten Remington army revolvers, fifteen cavalry sabers, and five horse artillery sabers.
  • Elgin Battery: Six Remington navy revolvers and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • Henshaw’s Battery: Sixteen Colt army revolvers, seven cavalry sabers, and nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Cogswell’s Battery: Two Colt navy revolvers and two cavalry sabers.

Cartridge bags reported on hand:

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  • Springfield Light Artillery: 720 bags for James rifles.
  • Board of Trade Battery: 312 bags for James rifles.
  • Mercantile Battery: 40 bags for 3-inch rifles and 165 bags for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Bridge’s Battery: 198 bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • Cogswell’s Battery: 752 bags for James rifles.

Lastly, small arms cartridges, fuses, friction primers, and other items to cause a boom:

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  • Springfield Light Artillery: 939 friction primers.
  • Board of Trade Battery: 2128 friction primers and 250 percussion caps.
  • Mercantile Battery: 550 paper fuses, 123 friction primers, and two yards of slow match.
  • Bridge’s Battery: 800 pistol cartridges, 600 paper fuses, 595 friction primers, six yards of slow match, 150 percussion pistol caps, 560 percussion caps, and 27 portfires.
  • Elgin Battery: 800 friction primers.
  • Cogswell’s Battery: 740 friction primers and 12 portfires.

Between December 1863 and the end of the war, many of these Illinois independent batteries ceased to be independent. As the batteries from the 1st and 2nd Illinois Artillery saw their members mustering out, and as some of those lettered batteries consolidated, the independent batteries were redesignated. Because of that, the Illinois records appear disconnected at points in 1864 and 1865. Sad, because many of these are batteries with enviable service records.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – 2nd Illinois Artillery

At the end of 1863, Colonel Thomas S. Mather remained the commander of the 2nd Illinois Light Artillery. Mather had been Chief of Staff for Major-General John McClernand. But with that officer’s relief during the Vicksburg Campaign, Mather had hitched his wagon to a falling star. Mather would go on to serve in other staff positions while remaining the colonel of the regiment. As for the rest of the regiment, batteries served in the Mississippi River Valley in Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Mississippi.

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  • Battery A:  No report. The battery remained with First Division, Thirteenth Corps (minus one detached section).  Captain Herman Borris remained in command.  Starting the fall at Carrollton, Louisiana, the battery supported some campaigning in October and November through west Louisiana. At the end of December the battery was assigned to the Defenses of New Orleans. At some point in the fall, the first section of the battery, which had served on detached service in Missouri, rejoined the command.
  • Battery B: No report. Captain Fletcher H. Chapman commanded the battery, part of the Sixteenth Corps and assigned to the District of Corinth. The battery would move to Memphis when Corinth was abandoned in January.
  • Battery C: At Fort Donelson, Tennessee with four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain James P. Flood’s was assigned to Third Division, Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland. But with that corps disbanded with the army’s reorganization, the garrison was part of the District of Nashville, Department of the Cumberland.
  • Battery D: Indicated at Grand Junction, Tennessee with four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain Charles S. Cooper remained in command of this battery, then assigned to Fifth Division, Sixteenth Corps, out of the Memphis District.
  • Battery E: No report. In the previous quarter, this battery was at Carrollton, Louisiana with three 6-pdr field guns and one 12-pdr field howitzer.  Captain George L. Nipsel, promoted in the late summer, commanded the battery, which was assigned to Third Division, Thirteenth Corps, Department of the Gulf. After supporting campaigns in west Louisiana during the fall, the battery was assigned duty at Plaquemine, Louisiana, District of Baton Rouge. Lieutenant Emil Steger was acting commander at the close of the quarter.
  • Battery F: Indicated at what appears to be Hebron, Mississippi with two 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers.  The battery was assigned to Fourth Division, Seventeenth Corps with Captain John W. Powell in command. But with him serving as division artillery chief, Lieutenant Walter H Powell led the battery. During the fall, the battery participated in an expedition into Louisiana (Harrisonburg). Then returned to Nachez, which is the actual battery location at the close of the year. Hebron, may be a contraction of New Hebron and a place associated with the Meridian Campaign. Thus may allude to the battery location in February 1864, when the report was filed.
  • Battery G: At Columbus, Kentucky with four rifled 6-pdr (3.67-inch) guns. Captain Frederick Sparrestrom commanded this battery. After duty in Vicksburg and Memphis through the summer and early fall, the battery was assigned to District of Columbus, Sixteenth Corps (with duty at times in Union City, Tennessee).
  • Battery H: Reporting at Clarksville, Tennessee  two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain Henry C. Whittemore remained in command.  With the reorganization of the department’s Reserve Corps, the battery was listed in the garrison of Clarksville, District of Nashville, Department of the Cumberland.
  • Battery I:  At Chattanooga, Tennessee, turning in an assortment of weapons for six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain Charles M. Barnett commanded this battery, assigned to Second Division, Fourteenth Corps.
  • Battery K: No report.  This battery, under Captain Benjamin F. Rodgers, was at Natchez at this time of the war. A series of reorganizations brought the battery back to Fourth Division, Seventeenth Corps. In the new year, the battery would be assigned to the Defenses and Post of Natchez.
  • Battery L: Listed at Vicksburg with four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Part of Third Division, Seventeenth Corps. Captain William H. Bolton commanded.
  • Battery M: No report. In the previous quarter, the battery reported four 3.80-inch James Rifles and a location of Greenville, Tennessee.  Captain John C. Phillips command this battery, which assigned to the Twenty-third Corps, Army of the Ohio. Confederate advances in east Tennessee, in October, forced the withdrawal of Federal forces east of Knoxville, and that included Battery M. And around that time, Phillips was recalled to Nashville on other duties, leaving Lieutenant W.C.G.L. Stevenson in command. The battery was sent out in support of two regiments of cavalry scouting for Confederate raiders. This force was camped four miles outside Rogersville, Tennessee on November 6 when attacked by Confederates under Brigadier-General William E. Jones. Ill-prepared, outnumbered, and outmaneuvered, the force was all but destroyed. The battery spiked their guns. Survivors who were not captured reassembled under Phillips and assigned duty at Camp Nelson, Kentucky. Such events explain the lack of reporting for this battery.

Moving on to the ammunition and stores reported, we begin with smoothbore rounds:

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  • Battery F: 184 shot and 135 case for 6-pdr field guns; 120 shell and 133 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery H: 166 shot and 140 case for 6-pdr field guns.
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  • Battery F: 28 canister for 6-pdr field guns and 31 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery H: 42 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

On the right side of this page are the Hotchkiss columns for rifled projectiles:

  • Battery C: 100 shot and 68 shell (time fuse) for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery G: 566 shell (time fuse) for 3.67-inch rifles.
  • Battery H: 10 shot for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery I: 222 shell (time fuse) for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 123 shell (time fuse) for 3.80-inch James rifles.

Additional Hotchkiss on the next page:

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  • Battery C: 385 shell (percussion fuse) and 346 canister for 3.80-inch James.
  • Battery G: 80 canister for 3.67-inch rifles.
  • Battery H: 32 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery I: 125 shell (percussion fuse) and 286 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 161 shell (percussion fuse) and 60 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Moving to the right, we see James projectiles also on this page:

  • Battery C: 7 shot, 24 shell, and 2 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery D: 45 shot, 203 (?) shell, and 60 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery H: 105 shot, 242 shell, and 214 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 128 shell and 129 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

On the next page we focus on the Schenkl projectiles:

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  • Battery D: 64 shot and 128 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery I: 252 shot for 3-inch rifles.

One last entry for Schenkl on the next page:

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  • Battery D: 64 case shot for 3.80-inch rifles.

Turning now to the small arms reported:

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  • Battery C: Seventy-four Colt army revolvers, four cavalry sabers, and six horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F: Twenty-three Colt army revolvers and twenty-three cavalry sabers.
  • Battery H: Fifty-four Colt army revolvers and seven cavalry sabers.
  • Battery I: Thirteen Colt navy revolvers and fifteen horse artillery sabers.

Notice, no long guns…. On the next page there are cartridge bags reported:

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  • Battery C: 728 6-pdr or 12-pdr bags.
  • Battery D: 540 James rifle bags.
  • Battery G: 746 6-pdr or 12-pdr bags.

The last page lists small arms cartridges, fuses, primers, and other materials:

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  • Battery C: 1,880 army revolver cartridges; 1,150 friction primers; and 503 percussion caps.
  • Battery D: 222 navy revolver cartridges and 660 friction primers. (We might wonder if there are some un-reported revolvers with Battery D.)
  • Battery F: 1,010 army revolver cartridges and 365 friction primers.
  • Battery G: 566 paper fuses and 895 friction primers.
  • Battery H: 1,000 army revolver cartridges; 1,200 friction primers; 50 yards of slow match; and 500 percussion caps.
  • Battery I: 460 paper fuses and 1,694 friction primers.
  • Battery L: 800 friction primers.

At the close of 1863 the 2nd Illinois was sort of at an organizational cross-roads. Batteries from this regiment had participated in several of the important western campaigns of the year, in some cases playing an important role. Some would continue at the fore of the 1864 campaigns. But many of these batteries were sent to garrison duties. Some, such as Battery M, would never serve as a battery again. By the end of the year, enlistments would come due. Instead of recruiting up to full strength, the state consolidated many of these batteries. So this “snapshot” by way of the ordnance summary is in some ways a last good look at the unit as a full organization.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – 1st Illinois Artillery

I contend the 1st Illinois Artillery Regiment punched well above its weight during the war. Not just in terms of where they served or battles fought. Though, from a western theater perspective, batteries from this regiment always seemed in the tick of the fight. But the regiment’s impact was beyond just the metal it threw around in battle. This regiment produced several officers who went on to serve in important positions outside the regiment. In last quarter’s post, I mentioned Colonel Joseph D. Webster, the regiment’s first commander, who served as a chief of staff for both Grant and Sherman. Colonel Ezra Taylor, who replaced Webster in May 1863, was dual-hatted as Sherman’s chief of artillery from Shiloh through Vicksburg (in the latter, formally the Chief of Artillery, Fifteenth Corps). Major Charles Houghtaling, who would later become the regimental Colonel, served a similar role for the Fourteenth Corps, in the Army of the Cumberland. Lieutenant-Colonel Charles H. Adams left the regiment for the top spot in the 2nd Tennessee Heavy Artillery, forming at Memphis. Major Allen C. Waterhouse lead the artillery brigade of the Seventeenth Corps, at times filling in as Artillery Chief. And those are just a few notables. As we look down to the battery officers, many very capable officers with fine records stand out. Let’s look at a few of those as we walk through this summary:

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  • Battery A: Larkinsville, Alabama, with five 12-pdr Napoleons and one 10-pdr Parrott.  The battery remained with Second Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, with Captain Peter P. Wood in command.  The battery was part of Sherman’s force sent to relieve Chattanooga, and later sent to relieve Knoxville. They would winter in north Alabama.
  • Battery B: Also at Larkinsville, Alabama, with four 6-pdr field guns and one 12-pdr field howitzer. Like Battery A, this battery was also assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Corps.  Likewise, the battery supported the reliefs of Chattanooga and Knoxville. Captain Israel P. Rumsey remained in command.
  • Battery C:  Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee, now with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles, being refitted after the campaigns around that city. Captain Mark H. Prescott remained in command, but the battery transferred to the First Division, Fourteenth Corps as the Army of the Cumberland reorganized in October.
  • Battery D: At Vicksburg, Mississippi, now reverting back to reporting four 24-pdr field howitzers, vice four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles reported the previous quarter… which implies a transcription error. Regardless, battery remained with Third Division, Seventeenth Corps, and part of the occupation force at Vicksburg. The battery participated in a couple of expeditions out of Vicksburg in the fall. Then moved, with the division, to duty on the Big Black River, east of Vicksburg. Lieutenant George P. Cunningham was promoted to captain of the battery in December 1864.
  • Battery E: At Corinth, Mississippi, with five 12-pdr Napoleons and one 3.80-inch James Rifle.  Lieutenant John A. Fitch remained in command, and the battery remained under Third Division, Fifteenth Corps. The battery participated in a couple of expeditions across Mississippi during the fall. The division reached Corinth as part of the movement to Chattanooga, but was not forwarded. In November, the division, along with the battery, moved to Memphis (part of the rundown of the Corinth garrison at that time).
  • Battery F: No report. Captain John T. Cheney remained in command of this battery.  As part of Fourth Division, Fifteenth Corps, the battery was part of the reinforcement sent to Chattanooga. Like the other Fifteenth Corps batteries, Battery F played a supporting role at Chattanooga and later at Knoxville.
  • Battery G:  Serving as siege artillery at Corinth, Mississippi, with four 24-pdr siege guns. The battery was assigned to Second Division, Sixteenth Corps.  Captain Raphael G. Rombauer remained in command. When the Corinth garrison was disbanded, Battery G moved to Fort Pickering, in Memphis, in January.
  • Battery H: At Bellefonte, Alabama with three 20-pdr Parrotts.  Assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Corps, Lieutenant Francis DeGress remained in command of this battery (he would receive promotion to captain in December, after Captain Levi W. Hart was discharged).  As with the other Fifteenth Corps Illinois batteries, DeGress’ were setup to support Sherman’s crossing of the Tennessee in the ill-fated assault on Tunnel Hill. After the march to Knoxville, the battery returned to north Alabama with the division.
  • Battery I: At Scottsboro, Alabama with four 3.80-inch James Rifles. The battery came to Chattanooga as part of Fourth Division, Fifteenth Corps. However, Captain Albert Cudney, who had taken over the battery in June, was not present. Lieutenant Josiah H. Burton, of Battery F, led the battery in support, alongside Battery H (above).  After the relief of Knoxville, the battery followed the division into winter quarters in northern Alabama.
  • Battery K: No return. This battery was stationed at Memphis, Tennessee as part of Grierson’s Cavalry Division, Sixteenth Corps. Recall this battery was, at least up through the spring, equipped with Woodruff guns. Without a return, the equipment at the end of 1863 cannot be confirmed. Captain Jason B. Smith remained in command. 
  • Battery L: In Washington, D.C., with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Captain John Rourke commanded this battery, assigned supporting Mulligan’s Brigade, Scammon’s Division, then in West Virginia. So the location given for the return is in question. 
  • Battery M:  Reporting at Loudon, Tennessee with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles (losing its Napoleons and converting to a uniform battery of rifles). Captain George W. Spencer, promoted in September, commanded this battery. With the reorganization of the Army of the Cumberland, the battery transferred to Second Division Fourth Corps.

Those particulars out of the way, we can look to the ammunition reported for this varied lot of cannon. Starting with the smoothbore:

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  • Battery A: 207 shot, 80 shell, and 270 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery D: 177 shell for 24-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery E: 163 shot, 159 shell, and 246 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery G: 314 shot and 120 shell for 24-pdr siege guns.
  • Battery L: 70 shot and 504 shell for 6-pdr field guns; 385 shot (unprepared) for 12-pdr “heavy” guns; 134 shot and 639 case for 12-pdr Napoleons; and 189 shell and 48 case for 12-pdr field howitzers (a wide array of ammunition types perhaps reflecting garrison duty in West Virginia).

We’ll split this next page into groupings for the rest of the smoothbore and then the first columns of rifle ammunition:

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Smoothbore:

  • Battery A: 69 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery D: 140 case and 33 canister for 24-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery E: 158 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery G: 72 case, 89 canister, and 113 stands of grape for 24-pdr siege guns.
  • Battery L: 255 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers; 923 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

And the other half of this section covers rifled projectiles:

  • Battery C: 448 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E: 93 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery L: 580 Dyer’s case for 3-inch rifles; 1005 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles; 186 Hotchkiss shot and 144 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3.80-inch James rifles. (Apparently Battery L was managing an ammunition dump.)
  • Battery M: 343 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

Hotchkiss and James Projectiles on the next page:

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The remaining Hotchkiss first:

  • Battery C: 238 percussion fuse shell, 11 bullet shell, and 252 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E: 17 percussion fuse shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery H: 49 canister for 20-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery L: 232 bullet shell and 268 canister for 3.80-inch rifles; and 115 percussion fuse shell and 504 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M: 232 percussion fuse shell, 409 bullet shell, and 29 canister for 3-inch rifles.

And the James columns:

  • Battery E: 50 canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery I: 64 shot, 214 shell, and 256 canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery L: 387 shot, 106 shell, and 19 canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.

Parrott and Schenkl on the next page:

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First the Parrotts:

  • Battery A: 121 shell, 24 case, and 16 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery H: 163 shell, 77 case, and 17 canister for 20-pdr Parrott.

Then Schenkl:

  • Battery L: 300 shell for 3-inch rifles; and 282 shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.

On to the small arms:

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  • Battery A: Three Colt army revolvers, thirty Colt navy revolvers, and four horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Six Colt navy revolvers and two cavalry sabers.
  • Battery C: Seven Colt army revolvers, ten Colt navy revolvers, and ten cavalry sabers.
  • Battery D: Five cavalry sabers.
  • Battery E: Two cavalry sabers.
  • Battery G: Sixty .58 caliber Springfield muskets and thirteen cavalry sabers.
  • Battery I: Eleven Colt navy revolvers and three cavalry sabers.
  • Battery L: Seventeen Sharps carbines, twenty-eight Colt army revolvers, and 148 cavalry sabers.
  • Battery M: One Colt army revolver and one cavalry saber.

Lots of cartridge bags, cartridges, and fuses over the last two pages:

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  • Battery C: 33 cartridge bags for case shot (field guns or howitzers).
  • Battery E: 161 cartridge bags for James rifles.
  • Battery G: 120 cartridge bags for 24-pdr siege guns and 2,400 musket cartridges.
  • Battery I: 515 cartridge bags for James rifles.
  • Battery L: 2,283 cartridge bags for James rifles and 765 cartridge bags for case (for 12-pdr Napoleons)
  • Battery M: 872 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
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  • Battery A: 550 army caliber and 900 navy caliber pistol cartridges.
  • Battery B: 120 navy caliber pistol cartridges and 1,336 friction primers.
  • Battery C: 344 paper fuses and 275 friction primers.
  • Battery D: 500 friction primers.
  • Battery E: 1,750 friction primers and four portfires.
  • Battery G: 2,620 pounds of cannon powder and 569 friction primers.
  • Battery H: 1,410 paper fuses, 1,850 friction primers, 19 yards of slow match, and 48 portfires.
  • Battery I: 240 navy caliber pistol cartridges and 556 friction primers.
  • Battery L: 3,000 army pistol cartridges, 609 paper fuses, 4,540 friction primers, and 3,600 percussion caps (pistol).
  • Battery M: 1.096 paper fuses, 628 friction primers, 250 percussion caps (musket?), and 10 portfires.

That covers the 1st Illinois Artillery. We’ll pick up the 2nd Illinois in the next installment.