Last week, I offered a transcription of a letter from Captain William W. Folwell, Company I, 50th New York Engineers, dated June 17, 1863. We left Folwell as he went about preparing his command for movement from Alexandria across the Potomac (by steamer) to be loaded onto canal boats on the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal. Folwell’s company was part of a force under Major Ira Spaulding, equipped with pontoon bridges, ordered to Nolan’s Ferry. With that short introduction, let us turn to Folwell’s lengthy letter for June 18. Folwell began by describing the activities starting at 9 a.m. the previous day (thus the “discrepancy” in my headline for this post):
On the “Raging Canal”
Near Seneca, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, June 18th, 1863.
Before I drank the cup of coffee and ate the cookies the men gave me, I thought I was not well. Now, I am all right except that the constant labor and rapid change of scene which we have experienced for the last few days has put me all out of joint. My mind is in such a state of diffusion that I hardly remember myself. I wrote you a hasty note yesterday morning from Alexandria. We left there at 9 A.M. on board Steamer “Sylvan Shore.” After putting Gen. Benham’s horses off at 6th St. Wharf, (I saw the place where I bade you and Jennie what I thought to be my last good bye) we proceeded to Georgetown, where we found the Regulars with the train, which we had made up the night before. Disembarked, stacked arms, and went to work at locking our rafts, 4 boats in each., [through the] locks from the river into the canal. Bain [Lieutenant Mahlon Bainbridge Folwell, brother] was unwell and Lt. [Daniel M] Hulse had gone to Washington to get his pay. I was alone with my Co. and had to work very hard. The men were beset with swarms of women and boys, having pies, cakes, gingerbread and “ice cold lemonade” for sale. Before we got through, many of them found out the “gin mille” and began to be merry for work. it cost me my most diligent efforts to keep my men together at work. I am glad that Co.I, although very many of the men drank somewhat, had more but were able to do duty. Of the regulars, dozens of them lay dead drunk on the boats. Others were left along the bank. It was three o’clock when, having been ordered by the Major to bring up the rear, I got my last raft through the locks. At 4, I got the mules hitched on (3 to each raft) and followed the body of the train. I don’t think I could be more tired than I was. The day was terribly hot, and we are unused to the close air of cities. The canal runs right through Georgetown.
This passage is full of the candid observations that attracts us to soldier’s letters. One can sense the fatigue as Folwell considers the day’s work that hot summer day. But what stands out most is the “distractions” from work all around the docks. Again, I would remind readers of the heated inquiries directed towards the engineers during the later half of June. At Army headquarters, the impression was the engineers were moving slowly and in particular that Benham didn’t have control. Well… pies, lemonade, and some of that stronger drink will cause some delay!
The particulars here are worthy of pause to consider. Folwell started boarding transport across the Potomac at nine that morning. Not until four that afternoon were they ready to move up the canal. And please note the engineers floated the pontoons in the canal (not shipped inside the canal barges). Four pontoons were joined to make one raft. These pontoons were roughly 31 feet long and 5 ½ feet wide. C&O barges came in several classes, but varied between 50 and 92 feet long, but were usually 14 ½ feet wide. The latter dimension, determined by the width of the canal’s locks, was the important governing factor. We can, from that, venture educated guesses as to the exact arrangements made to form pontoon rafts.
One last note, Folwell mentions the steamer Sylvan Shore. She was a sidewheel steamer, reported at 217 tons. The ship was first chartered by the Army in August 1861. She operated in North Carolina and Virginia. In fact, just two months earlier, the Sylvan Shore was involved with operations on the Neuse River. Milton Martin, who owned the steamer, originally contracted the vessel for $200 per day. But in May 1863, Army officials altered that deal to $100 per day. Why do I know so much about this vessel? Well it was the subject of a post-war court case, in which Martin called for reimbursement at the original, higher rate. I have not, however, been able to conclusively match the steamer to an image of a similarly named vessel. (Of note, the orders moving the Spaulding’s engineers mentioned the sidewheel steamer Rockwell. So at least two steamers were required to move the bridging equipment, men, and animals.)
Those details out of the way, let us continue with Folwell’s eventful cruise up the canal:
The ride up the canal is delightful. The luxuriance of the hard wood forest, such strong contrast to the barren plains and pines of the “near Falmouth” region. Before dark, we reached Chain Bridge, which, by the way, is not a chain Bridge, nor even a Suspension Bridge, but a wooden arch truss bridge….
The scenery about it is very romantic. At sunset, I ordered the Sergeants with their squads to relieve each other during the night in navigating the raft, and unstrapping my blankets, I made a bed on top of some bulks and lay down to sleep. I had taken a bath in the canal, which disposed me to sleep, and presently I forgot all my cares, and thought no more of them till after daylight this morning. I slept, of course, in my clothes, with a handkerchief tied about my head and a shelter tent spread over me.
As that closed Folwell’s eventful June 17. For ease of reading, let us stop the transcription here and pick up the rest of the letter in the next post on this thread.
(Citations from William Watts Fowell, Civil War Diary, unpublished, transcription retrieved from University of Minnesota Library, pages 405-6 (pages 411-12 of scanned copy).)