Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – New York Independent Batteries, Part 1

After a long break, let us resume this line of march. Picking up where we left off with in the New York section of fourth quarter summary statements for 1863. Next up are the independent batteries and miscellaneous lines:

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No we won’t try to jump all thirty-six lines at once. Rather in batches, as was our convention, starting with the first dozen:

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Of those first dozen, eight offered returns. Three of which were timely, posted within thirty days. However, one was tardily received in August. And for the data received, we see a lot of familiar placenames:

  • 1st Independent Battery: At Brandy Station, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.   Captain Andrew Cowan remained in command of the battery, assigned to Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac.
  • 2nd Independent Battery:  No return.  The original battery mustered out on June 13, 1863.  Captain Wolfgang Bock received authority to recruit a reorganized 2nd Independent Battery.  However, on October 14, that authority was revoked and men recruited into the new 2nd were instead was made part of the 15th New York Heavy Artillery.
  • 3rd Independent Battery: Also at Brandy Station, Virginia and now with six 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery was also part of Sixth Corps, under Captain William A. Harn.
  • 4th Independent Battery: No return.  With Lieutenant William T. McLean in command, the battery was discontinued on December 4, 1863.  Remaining men of the battery transferred to the 5th New York Battery, 15th New York Battery, and to Battery B, 1st New York Light Artillery. In addition, one officer and 40 enlisted transferred to the 1st New York Engineers. At the time the battery disbanded, it was assigned six 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 5th Independent Battery: Also at Brandy Station.  Reporting with six 20-pdr Parrotts.  Captain Elijah D. Taft remained in command of this battery, in the Second Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve.
  • 6th Independent Battery: At Camp Barry, District of Columbia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Joseph W. Martin held command of this battery, assigned to the First Brigade, Horse Artillery, Army of the Potomac.  So, as of the end of December 1863, the battery was actually at Brandy Station. The reporting location reflects the date of posting – June 1864 – when the battery was reassigned to the Defenses of Washington.
  • 7th Independent Battery: At Norfolk, Virginia with two 12-pdr Napoleons and six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Peter C. Regan’s battery was part of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.
  • 8th Independent Battery: At Gloucester Point, Virginia with  six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain Butler Fitch commanded this battery, also in the Department of Virginia and North Carolina. 
  • 9th Independent Battery: Fort Reno, District of Columbia with no reported cannon. Captain Emil Schubert remained in command.  Battery assigned to the Twenty-Second Corps, defending Washington, serving as heavy artillery. 
  • 10th Independent Battery: No Return. This battery was broken up the previous summer. A detachment remained, under Lieutenant Charles T. Bruen, and served in the Washington Defenses through June of 1864.
  • 11th Independent Battery: No return.  Detachments from this battery served with Battery K, 1st New York Light.  Captain John E. Burton was busy bringing this battery back up to strength. In January 1864 the battery, fully manned, would re-appear in the Army of the Potomac’s order of battle, in the Second Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve.
  • 12th Independent Battery: At Brandy Station, Virginia reporting six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery remained with Third Corps, under Captain George F. McKnight.

Traversing on to the ammunition columns, we start with the smoothbore rounds:

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  • 3rd Battery: 288 shot, 96 shell, and 288 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 7th Battery: 41 shot, 46 shell, and 89 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.

More rounds to count on the next page:

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  • 3rd Battery: 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleon.
  • 5th Battery: 91 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 7th Battery: 65 canister for 12-pdr Napoleon.

The 5th Battery line offers an interesting question. What would they need with smoothbore canister in a battery of big Parrott rifles? Well, I again go to my “if it fits the bore, it is of some use” speculation. 3.67-inches is the caliber of the 20-pdr Parrott. I’ll offer that until a better explanation is proffered.

To the right are rifled projectiles. First the Dyer Patents:

  • 8th Battery: 321 Dyer shell and 650 Dyercase for 3-inch rifles.

And further right, Hotchkiss:

  • 1st Battery: 3 Hotchkiss shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 6th Battery: 10 Hotchkiss shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 223 Hotchkiss shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery: 142 Hotchkiss shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss from the next page:

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  • 1st Battery: 7 shell, 432 case, and 120 canister, all for 3-inch rifles.
  • 6th Battery: 28 case and 93 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 56 shell, 566 case, and 132 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 8th Battery: 40 case and 175 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery: 9 shell, 116 case, and 67 canister for 3-inch rifles.

The next page has entries for Parrott and Schenkl rounds:

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First the Parrotts:

  • 5th Battery: 75 shell and 74 case for 20-pdr Parrott. Note, no canister.

Then the Schenkl:

  • 1st Battery: 217 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 5th Battery: 215 shell for 3.67-inch rifles.
  • 6th Battery: 544 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 8th Battery: 44 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery: 90 shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Schenkl on the next page:

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  • 1st Battery: 420 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • 5th Battery: 202 case for 3.67-inch rifles.
  • 6th Battery: 15 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery: 200 case for 3-inch rifles.

Turning next to the small arms:

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  • 1st Battery: 15 Colt navy revolvers and 6 horse artillery sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: 4 Colt navy revolvers and 9 cavalry sabers.
  • 5th Battery: 25 Colt army revolvers and 21(?) horse artillery sabers.
  • 6th Battery: 103 Colt army revolvers, 10 Colt navy revolvers, and 10 cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery: 18 Colt navy revolvers and 17 horse artillery sabers.
  • 8th Battery: 13 Colt navy revolvers and 20 horse artillery sabers.
  • 9th Battery: 84 Springfield .58 caliber muskets and 6 foot officer’s swords.
  • 12th Battery: 28 Colt army revolvers and 8 horse artillery sabers.

The next page, we see the tally of cartridges:

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  • 5th Battery: 572(?) cartridge bags for 20-pdr Parrott.
  • 6th Battery: 166 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • 8th Battery: 81 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • 9th Battery: 2000 musket cartridges and 170 of something… in a column with no title?
  • 12th Battery: 987 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.

The last page we cover tallies pistol cartridges, powder, fuses, and other items:

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  • 3rd Battery: 600 navy pistol cartridges; 1,480 friction primers; 17 pounds of quick match; and 29 yards of slow match.
  • 5th Battery: 161 paper fuses.
  • 6th Battery: 370 navy pistol cartridges; 154 paper fuses; and 921 friction primers.
  • 7th Battery: 46 army and 550 navy pistol cartridges and 420 paper fuses.
  • 8th Battery: 444 navy pistol cartridges; 360 paper fuses; and 760 friction primers.
  • 12th Battery: 100 army pistol cartridges; 290 paper fuses; 1,515 friction primers; 50 yards of slow match; and 100 percussion caps.

In the snapshot of time, that was the end of 1863, the records of these first twelve of the New York Independent batteries speak to the intensity of war in that year. Batteries disbanded and mustered out. Others recruiting up to replace losses. And the rest armed after a hard season of campaigning, preparing for the worst the next year would offer.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – 1st New York Artillery

For the second quarter in a row, the clerks shifted entries around to allocate New York it’s own pages within the summaries:

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Our focus for this post is the top set of entry lines, for the 1st New York Light Artillery:

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Colonel Charles S. Wainwright commanded this regiment.  Wainwright, as we well know, commanded the artillery of First Corps. Lieutenant-Colonel Edward R. Warner was second in command within the regiment.  Regimental majors included Robert H. Fitzhugh, John A. Reynolds (Artillery Chief, Twelfth Corps), and Thomas W. Osborne (Artillery Chief, Eleventh Corps).  The remainder of the regimental staff included Edward L. Bailey, Quartermaster and Julius A. Skilton, Surgeon.

This being Wainwright’s regiment, we know a bit more about the “cooking” of the reports than other units.  We do know Wainwright’s staff consolidated these returns in the middle of January.  However, that process was incomplete, as we see three batteries failing to file.  And those three batteries were arguably within “hailing distance” of Wainwright, either being around Culpeper County (where he wintered) or at least up the railroad in Washington, D.C.   So let us look at the particulars:

  • Battery A: At Pottsville, Pennsylvania, on an April 1864 receipt date, with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Under Captain Thomas H. Bates, the battery was part of the Department of the Sesquehanna.
  • Battery B: At Brandy Station, Virginia with four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Albert S. Sheldon commanded this battery but was absent, recovering from his Gettysburg wound. Lieutenant Robert E. Rogers, from Battery C, commanded in his place. The battery transferred to the 1st Volunteer Brigade, Reserve Artillery, Army of the Potomac, in December.
  • Battery C: No return.  As assigned to Fifth Corps, Battery C wintered at Rappahannock Station.  The battery retained four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain Almont Barnes remained in command.
  • Battery D: Reporting from Brandy Station, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Supporting Third Corps, Captain George B. Winslow remained in command. With Winslow taking leave at the end of the year, Lieutenant Thomas H. Crego led the battery.
  • Battery E: No return.  With personnel attached to Battery L, Battery E was reorganized and recruited to strength over the winter.  Under Captain Henry W. Davis, the battery returned to the order of battle in May, 1864.
  • Battery F: No return.  At Camp Barry, Washington, D.C. with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain William R. Wilson remained in command.  The battery, assigned to the Artillery Camp of Instruction, was in the Twenty-second Corps.
  • Battery G: Reporting at Stevensburg, Virginia, with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Nelson Ames’s battery supported Second Corps, Army of the Potomac.
  • Battery H: At Culpeper, Virginia, and re-equipped with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Charles E. Mink remained in command of this battery, now under Wainwright’s Brigade in First Corps.  With Mink on leave, Lieutenant David F. Ritchie would lead the battery.
  • Battery I: Now at Bridgeport, Alabama, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Michael Wiedrich commanded this battery, assigned to Eleventh Corps.   The battery saw action in the battles to take Lookout Mountain in November then settled into winter quarters.
  • Battery K: Reporting at Brandy Station, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery remained with the battery assigned to Third Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve.  The 11th New York Independent Battery was attached to Battery K at this time, and manned two of the guns.  With Robert H. Fitzhugh was promoted to Major and Lieutenant Edward L. Bailey serving on regimental staff, command fell to Captain John E. Burton of the 11th Battery.  At the end of the year, the battery transferred out of the Army of the Potomac to Camp Barry and the Artillery Camp of Instruction.
  • Battery L: At Culpeper, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Listed on the order of battle as a combined Batteries E & L, Captain Gilbert H. Reynolds commanded.  The battery supported First Corps and camped adjacent to the Alexander House, where Wainwright maintained his headquarters.
  • Battery M: Reporting from Bridgeport, Alabama, in January 1864, with four 10-pdr Parrott rifles.  Captain John D. Woodbury returned to command of this battery in the fall, as it supported Twelfth Corps.

Looking to the ammunition on hand, we start with the smoothbores:

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  • Battery A: 192 shot, 64 shell, and 320 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery D: 288 shot, 96 shell, and 288 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery G: 262 shot, 93 shell, and 262 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 192 shot, 64 shell, and 192 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.

To the next page:

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  • Battery A: 136 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery D: 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery G: 144 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

To the right are tallies for Hotchkiss rifled projectiles:

  • Battery I: 281 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K:  260 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

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  • Battery I: 114 percussion fuse shell, 564 bullet shell, and 116 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K: 120 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 39 percussion fuse shell and 120 canister for 3-inch rifles.

To the next page were we find Parrott projectiles:

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  • Battery B: 354 shell, 297 case, and 95 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery M: 298 shell, 412 case, and 94 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

To the right are some Schenkl listings:

  • Battery B: 57 shell for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery K: 338 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 438 shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Schenkl on the next page:

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  • Battery K: 343 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 600 case for 3-inch rifles.

Turning to the small arms:

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  • Battery A: Seventeen Colt navy revolvers, sixty-eight Remington army revolvers, and eighty-five horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Sixteen Colt army revolvers and twenty cavalry sabers.
  • Battery D: Eight Colt army revolvers and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Eighteen Colt army revolvers and twenty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H: Twenty Colt navy revolvers, fifteen cavalry sabers, and five horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery I: Seven horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery K: Nine Colt army revolvers and eighteen cavalry sabers.
  • Battery L: Sixteen Colt navy revolvers and nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery M: Eight Colt army revolvers and two horse artillery sabers.

Turning next to the cartridge bags:

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  • Battery A: 582 cartridge bags for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery B: 460 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery I: 940 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K: 1,187 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M: 22 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Our last page is a busy one… try to keep up:

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  • Battery A: 3,500 navy pistol cartridges and 2,160 friction primers.
  • Battery B: 600 army pistol cartridges; 1,625 paper fuses; 1,300 friction primers, and 50 yards of slow match.
  • Battery D: 300 army pistol cartridges; 650 friction primers; twelve yards of fast match; twelve yards of slow match.
  • Battery G: 50 army pistol cartridges and 1,190 friction primers.
  • Battery H: 800 navy pistol cartridges; 584 friction primers, and 7 yards of slow match.
  • Battery I: 676 paper fuses; 1,000 friction primers; and 25 yards of slow match.
  • Battery K: 1,507 paper fuses; 2,960 friction primers; 5 yards of fast match; 10 yards of slow match; and 36 portfires.
  • Battery L: 50 navy pistol cartridges.
  • Battery M: 390 paper fuses; 720 friction primers; and 250 pistol percussion caps.

The twelve batteries of the 1st New York Light Artillery was among the hardest fighting in the war on either side.  We have a very good record, from the Official Records, letters, and post-war accounts, of the batteries’ wartime service.  And with their regimental commander’s diary preserved, we have some interesting insight into the administrative activities of the batteries.  What stands out here is two of the three “no report” batteries.  Battery E can be excused as being consolidated with Battery L.  But Battery C was just two stops up the railroad from Wainwright.  And Battery F was in Washington, where one would think formal reporting was encouraged, if not mandated.  And we know, from his diary, Wainwright was quick to mention when one of his subordinates were not performing to expectations.  I tend to think what we see here is evidence, though not of some lax administrative habits.  But rather evidence pointing back to the way the summaries were complied and used by the Ordnance Department, for their functions.  A filter, if you will, that we must consider when taking these raw numbers into account.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Maine

I apologize to readers for the scarcity of posts for the last few months. As a part-time hobby enterprise, blogging must take a back seat sometimes. Let us move forward, however, with our discussions of the fourth quarter, summary statements. The next state to consider is Maine. As of the end of December 1863, there was one heavy artillery regiment and seven light artillery batteries from Maine on active Federal service. The summary returns only indicate six:

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We will put the heavy artillery regiment on hold for now, as I promise a review of the “heavies” at the end of the quarter. It is the light batteries which interest us here:

  • 1st Battery: No location indicated, but reporting four 12-pdr Napoleons (which they received in mid-August). Captain Albert W. Bradbury remained in command.  Battery remained assigned to First Division, Nineteenth Corps, Department of the Gulf.  And by the end of the year, the battery was at New Iberia, having participated in an expedition into the Teche in October-November. For his report to the state adjutant-general, Bradbury hoped to increase his battery to full strength and add a pair of ordnance rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: At Camp Barry, D.C., with four 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  With James A. Hall’s promotion to Major (on paper in June, but effective in July) and then to Lieutenant-Colonel (in September), Captain Albert F. Thomas took command of the battery. Reduced somewhat from attrition during the year, the battery left First Corps, Army of the Potomac in November and reported to Camp Barry. Their stay was just for the winter.
  • 3rd Battery:  No report.  At this stage of the war, 3rd Battery was re-designated Battery M, 1st Maine Heavy Artillery (it would later revert to light artillery). Captain Ezekiel R. Mayo commanded.  The battery was stationed in the Defenses of Washington, on the north side of the Potomac.  
  • 4th Battery: Reporting at Brandy Station, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  Captain O’Neil W. Robinson, Jr. remained in command, then attached to Third Corps, Army of the Potomac. The battery was very active during the fall. In a sharp engagement at Union Mills (McLean’s Ford) on October 15, the battery dismounted two Confederate guns. The battery crossed the Rappahannock at Kelly’s Ford on November 7. After the Mine Run campaign, the battery returned with its parent unit to Culpeper, going into winter quarters at Brandy Station. Robinson became the corps artillery brigade commander in December. After which Lieutenant Melville C. Kimball led the battery.
  • 5th Battery: No location given, but with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Greenleaf T. Stevens remained in command of this battery, which remained with First Corps, Army of the Potomac, through the end of the reporting period.  Their location, as of the end of December was just outside Culpeper Court House, adjacent to the Alexander house.
  • 6th Battery: Also giving no location and reporting four 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery started the fall in the First Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac (commanded by its original commander – Lieutenant Colonel Freeman McGilvery). Lieutenant Edwin B. Dow commanded. With a reorganization of the Artillery Reserve in the first week of December, the battery shifted to the Third Volunteer Brigade. They went into winter camp, with the rest of the reserve, behind Fleetwood Hill at Brandy Station.
  • 7th Battery: Not listed. This battery officially mustered on December 31, 1863. As such we can justify the omission on this summary. Captain Adelbert B. Twitchell commanded. The battery would not leave Augusta, Maine, until February. They brought with them six 12-pdr Napoleons.

Napoleons and Ordnance Rifles. None of the 6-pdrs, James Rifles, or odd mountain howitzer we’ve seen from the western theater. These guys got the “new stuff.” So let us look to see about the ammunition issued to those “new stuff” cannon:

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  • 1st Battery: 64 shot for 6-pdr field guns… which I think is a transcription error, and should be one column over under 12-pdr Napoleons; 64 shell and 318 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 5th Battery: 192 shot, 64 shell, and 188 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 6th Battery: 192 shot, 64 shell, and 192 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
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  • 1st Battery: 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 5th Battery: 68 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 6th Battery: 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

To the right are listings for Hotchkiss projectiles:

  • 2nd Battery: 71 shot and 240 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 311 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

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  • 2nd Battery: 99 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 349 case shot and 120 canister for 3-inch rifles.

Moving to the next page, we see tallies for Schenkl projectiles:

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  • 2nd Battery: 375 shot and 115 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 74 shell for 3-inch rifles.

One more Schenkl column on the following page:

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  • 4th Battery: 150 case shot for 3-inch rifles.

Small arms? Yes these Mainers had small arms:

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  • 1st Battery: Eleven Colt army revolvers, seventeen cavalry sabers, and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: Sixteen Colt navy revolvers and twenty-four cavalry sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Eighteen Colt army revolvers and ten cavalry sabers.
  • 5th Battery: Ten Colt army revolvers and eleven cavalry sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Seven Colt army revolvers and 100 Remington army revolvers. Yes… a lot of pistols.

Reporting cartridge bags:

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  • 2nd Battery: 800 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 668 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.

On the last page we cover are listings for pistol cartridges, fuses, primers, and other items:

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  • 1st Battery: 421(?) friction primers; 20 yards of slow match; and 39 portfires.
  • 2nd Battery: 435 paper fuses and 729 friction primers.
  • 4th Battery: 150 cartridges for army revolvers; 718 friction primers and six yards of slow match.
  • 5th Battery: 50 (?) yards of slow match.
  • 6th Battery: 1,200 cartridges for army revolvers; 550 friction primers; 20 yards of slow match; and 23 portfires.

With the exception of the, just formed, 7th Battery and the 3rd Battery, then serving as heavy artillery, we have a comparatively complete record for the Maine batteries. In campaign season of 1864 all seven of these batteries would see active field service, mostly in the eastern theater in support of the Overland and Petersburg Campaigns.