Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – New Jersey

Next we turn to the batteries from the Garden State. Five entries representing the artillerymen from New Jersey:

0359_1_Snip_NJ

As the state’s batteries were at times referenced by number, yet at others by letter, I’ll provide both here:

  • 1st Battery / Battery A: At Brandy Station, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain William Hexamer remained in command.  The battery was with the Fourth Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve through the end of October. Then, with reorganizations of the reserve, moved to the Third Volunteer Brigade. 
  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: Reported at Petersburg (!), Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons, reflecting a July 1864 receipt date. Captain A.Judson Clark commanded the battery, and it remained with Third Corps.  And with that assignment, the battery was likely going into winter camp outside Brandy Station, though not over in the woods where Hexamer’s battery stayed.
  • 3rd Battery / Battery C: At Camp Barry, D.C. with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Christian Woerner commanded. One of three batteries from New Jersey we find at the Artillery Camp of Instruction, Twenty-Second Corps.
  • 4th Battery / Battery D: Reporting at Camp Barry, D.C with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain George T. Woodbury commanded. 
  • 5th Battery / Battery E: Also at Camp Barry with four 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Zenas C. Warren commanded.  The third New Jersey battery in the Artillery Camp.

Turning to the ammunition, we start with those for the Napoleons:

0361_1_Snip_NJ
  • 2nd Battery: 288 shot, 96 shell, and 288 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Note, the three batteries in the Artillery School were not issued ammunition for service details. Such may indicate the batteries were indeed training, with ammunition issued only when required for training needs.

One entry on the next page:

0361_2_Snip_NJ
  • 2nd Battery: 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

No Hotchkiss rounds reported. So we turn to the Parrott columns:

0362_2_Snip_NJ
  • 1st Battery: 400 shell, 480 case, and 163 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

To the right is an entry for Schenkl shells:

  • 1st Battery: 245 shell for 10-pdr Parrott.

No additional ammunition reported for the cannon. So we turn to the small arms:

0363_2_Snip_NJ
  • 1st Battery: 14 Colt army revolvers and 26 cavalry sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: 7 Colt navy revolvers and 13 horse artillery sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: 20 Colt navy revolvers and 50 cavalry sabers.
  • 4th Battery: 20 Colt navy revolvers and 30 cavalry sabers.
  • 5th Battery: 20 Colt navy revolvers, 25 cavalry sabers, and 5 horse artillery sabers.

The next page has three entries for cartridge bags:

0364_2_Snip_NJ
  • 1st Battery: 48 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 2nd Battery: 40 cartridge bags for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 5th Battery: 9 cartridge bags for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Lastly, we cover the entries for pistol cartridges, fuses, powder, primers, and miscellaneous articles:

0365_1_Snip_NJ
  • 1st Battery: 337 army caliber pistol cartridges; 1,042 paper fuses; and 793 friction primers.
  • 2nd Battery: 50 yards of slow match.
  • 4th Battery: 558 navy caliber pistol cartridges and 2 yards of slow match.
  • 5th Battery: 34 friction primers and 50 yards of slow match.

I find it interesting to see the differences in allocations, in particular to the ammunition, for batteries in the field and those in the school. Of course we know there was plenty of ammunition stashed around Camp Barry. However, apparently that was counted by the “school” and not assigned to the batteries. While I didn’t include those here, the allocation of implements and other equipment likewise follows pattern.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – New Hampshire

New Hampshire was represented by one line in the fourth quarter summary for 1864. That one line accounted for the lone field battery from the state:

0339_1_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: At Brandy Station with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery remained under command of Captain Frederick M. Edgell. In October the battery transferred out of the Third Brigade, Reserve Artillery to the Third Corps, Army of the Potomac. And with that formation, they were in winter quarters during the February when their return was submitted.

Allow me to expand upon this battery’s service through the fall a bit, as we have space to do so and… well… anytime we have a Brandy Station story I like to pontificate. The winter quarters was the 1st New Hampshire’s fourth visit to Brandy Station, if my count is correct. The first being at the opening of the 2nd Manassas Campaign, in the late summer of 1862, as part of Pope’s command.

Going forward to 1863, as part of the Reserve artillery, the battery passed through Brandy Station, and Culpeper at the close of the Gettysburg Campaign. Of course, that stay ended when Confederates initiated the Bristoe Campaign. In November, the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rappahannock into Culpeper County again. And on November 8, Edgell’s battery fought around Brandy Station. I’ll let his words summarize the engagement:

My battery marched with the reserve batteries of the Third Corps, on the morning of the 7th. Crossed the river at Kelly’s Ford at dark the same day and took position with the Second Division, reporting to General Prince. On the morning of the 8th, reported to General Carr, Third Division, and marched with his advanced brigade, arriving at the railroad at 10 a.m. About noon the enemy were found posted with artillery on a ridge east of the railroad and about a mile north of Brandy Station. One section of my battery was ordered up, and opened on the enemy with shell at about 2,000 yards distance. This, with the advance of our skirmishers, caused them to retire after firing a few rounds. My section immediately occupied the position, but finding the enemy out of range, pushed on and took position in the edge of the wood to the left of and near Brandy Station. The enemy now opened, with two 20-pounders and two smaller guns, at about 1,800 yards distance, to which we replied, and they again retired. My remaining section now came up and took position to the right of the railroad, and fired a few shots at bodies of the enemy’s cavalry, but with what effect is not known. This closed the operations for the day.

My battery expended in the whole affair 56 rounds of percussion and time shell, but a strong wind blowing across the line of fire much impaired its accuracy.

I have no casualties to report.

OR, Series I, Volume 29, Part I, Serial 48, page 573

Captain George E. Randolph, commanding the artillery brigade of Third Corps, recorded in more detail the number and type of rounds fired by the New Hampshire gunners – 20 Schenkl case, 10 Schenkl shell, and 30 Hotchkiss fuse (time or percussion not specified) shell. Randoph said 60 rounds, while Edgell said 56. Perhaps the New Hampshire battery fired four additional rounds on the previous day. Randolph went on to relate Edgell complained about the Schenkl percussion fuses, as they failed to burst on occasion. But added “I was surprised at this, for I have seldom known them to fail.” However, he did note the other batteries did not seem to have a problem.

After the fight on November 8, the Army of the Potomac pressed the Army of Northern Virginia out of Culpeper for the last time in the war. That, in turn, setup the Mine Run Campaign with the Federals moving over the Rapidan into the Wilderness. After the anti-climatic close of that campaign, the Army of the Potomac returned to Culpeper for winter quarters. First Sergeant Samuel S. Piper later described, in a service narrative for the state’s Adjutant General, the battery’s quarters as, “at Brandy Station, Va., on the plantation of the Hon. John Minor Botts.” Piper went on to call it the best camp the battery ever had. While I have not seen a photo of the New Hampshire battery in those quarters, we do have a photo of Auburn, Botts’ house on the plantation:

I am not certain exactly where the Third Corps’ artillery park was that winter. Likely between Auburn and the railroad station. Readers will recall Auburn still stands. Hopefully some future owner will recognize the significance of the structure and restore the house to its past prominence.

There are two other formations from New Hampshire that we should mention here. Both were employed as heavy artillery, and thus didn’t have cannon or stores of their own to report:

  • 1st New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Company: Not listed. Garrison of Fort Constitution, Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Captain Charles H. Long remained in command.
  • 2nd New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Company: Not listed.  Garrison of Fort McClary, Portsmouth Harbor, across the entrance in Maine. Captain Ira M. Barton commanded. 

Both companies spent the winter months guarding Portsmouth. In May, both moved to Washington, D.C. to replace the other “heavies” sent forward to the front lines. Later, those two companies formed the nucleus of a full regiment of New Hampshire heavy artillery formed starting in the late summer of 1864.

The stories aside, we turn to the ammunition reported. No smoothbore, so we can move right to the Hotchkiss columns:

0341_2_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: 169 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

On to the next page for more Hotchkiss rounds:

0342_1_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: 26 percussion fuse shell, 182 bullet shell, and 80 canister for 3-inch rifles.

The next page tallies those Schenkl shells that Edgell complained of:

0342_2_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: 180 shell for 3-inch rifles.

And another Schenkl entry on the next page:

0343_1_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: 145 case shot for 3-inch rifles.

Turning to the small arms:

0343_2_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: Eight Colt army revolvers, seven Colt navy revolvers, and twelve cavalry sabers.

Cartridge bags reported on the next page:

0344_2_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: 12 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.

Lastly, pistol cartridges, fuse, primers, and other items:

0345_1_Snip_NH
  • 1st Light Battery: 200 navy caliber pistol cartridges; 485 paper fuses; 1,300 friction primers; 23 yards of slow match; 500 pistol percussion caps; and 5 portfires.

One might call attention to the lack of metallic fuses reported here. Edgell complained about the Schenkl fuses in November. Then in February had no tallies. Had he discarded the object of his ire? I don’t think so. It seems the returns counted the rounds, with fuses, as a whole unit. And the columns on this page were used to account for fuses issued separate from the projectile. Regardless, we have Edgell reporting both Hotchkiss and Schenkl, a mix not preferred by Brigadier-General Henry Hunt in charge of the Army of the Potomac’s artillery.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Maine

I apologize to readers for the scarcity of posts for the last few months. As a part-time hobby enterprise, blogging must take a back seat sometimes. Let us move forward, however, with our discussions of the fourth quarter, summary statements. The next state to consider is Maine. As of the end of December 1863, there was one heavy artillery regiment and seven light artillery batteries from Maine on active Federal service. The summary returns only indicate six:

0329_1_Snip_ME

We will put the heavy artillery regiment on hold for now, as I promise a review of the “heavies” at the end of the quarter. It is the light batteries which interest us here:

  • 1st Battery: No location indicated, but reporting four 12-pdr Napoleons (which they received in mid-August). Captain Albert W. Bradbury remained in command.  Battery remained assigned to First Division, Nineteenth Corps, Department of the Gulf.  And by the end of the year, the battery was at New Iberia, having participated in an expedition into the Teche in October-November. For his report to the state adjutant-general, Bradbury hoped to increase his battery to full strength and add a pair of ordnance rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: At Camp Barry, D.C., with four 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  With James A. Hall’s promotion to Major (on paper in June, but effective in July) and then to Lieutenant-Colonel (in September), Captain Albert F. Thomas took command of the battery. Reduced somewhat from attrition during the year, the battery left First Corps, Army of the Potomac in November and reported to Camp Barry. Their stay was just for the winter.
  • 3rd Battery:  No report.  At this stage of the war, 3rd Battery was re-designated Battery M, 1st Maine Heavy Artillery (it would later revert to light artillery). Captain Ezekiel R. Mayo commanded.  The battery was stationed in the Defenses of Washington, on the north side of the Potomac.  
  • 4th Battery: Reporting at Brandy Station, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  Captain O’Neil W. Robinson, Jr. remained in command, then attached to Third Corps, Army of the Potomac. The battery was very active during the fall. In a sharp engagement at Union Mills (McLean’s Ford) on October 15, the battery dismounted two Confederate guns. The battery crossed the Rappahannock at Kelly’s Ford on November 7. After the Mine Run campaign, the battery returned with its parent unit to Culpeper, going into winter quarters at Brandy Station. Robinson became the corps artillery brigade commander in December. After which Lieutenant Melville C. Kimball led the battery.
  • 5th Battery: No location given, but with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Greenleaf T. Stevens remained in command of this battery, which remained with First Corps, Army of the Potomac, through the end of the reporting period.  Their location, as of the end of December was just outside Culpeper Court House, adjacent to the Alexander house.
  • 6th Battery: Also giving no location and reporting four 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery started the fall in the First Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac (commanded by its original commander – Lieutenant Colonel Freeman McGilvery). Lieutenant Edwin B. Dow commanded. With a reorganization of the Artillery Reserve in the first week of December, the battery shifted to the Third Volunteer Brigade. They went into winter camp, with the rest of the reserve, behind Fleetwood Hill at Brandy Station.
  • 7th Battery: Not listed. This battery officially mustered on December 31, 1863. As such we can justify the omission on this summary. Captain Adelbert B. Twitchell commanded. The battery would not leave Augusta, Maine, until February. They brought with them six 12-pdr Napoleons.

Napoleons and Ordnance Rifles. None of the 6-pdrs, James Rifles, or odd mountain howitzer we’ve seen from the western theater. These guys got the “new stuff.” So let us look to see about the ammunition issued to those “new stuff” cannon:

0331_1_Snip_ME
  • 1st Battery: 64 shot for 6-pdr field guns… which I think is a transcription error, and should be one column over under 12-pdr Napoleons; 64 shell and 318 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 5th Battery: 192 shot, 64 shell, and 188 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 6th Battery: 192 shot, 64 shell, and 192 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
0331_2_Snip_ME
  • 1st Battery: 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 5th Battery: 68 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 6th Battery: 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

To the right are listings for Hotchkiss projectiles:

  • 2nd Battery: 71 shot and 240 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 311 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

0332_1_Snip_ME
  • 2nd Battery: 99 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 349 case shot and 120 canister for 3-inch rifles.

Moving to the next page, we see tallies for Schenkl projectiles:

0332_2_Snip_ME
  • 2nd Battery: 375 shot and 115 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 74 shell for 3-inch rifles.

One more Schenkl column on the following page:

0333_1_Snip_ME
  • 4th Battery: 150 case shot for 3-inch rifles.

Small arms? Yes these Mainers had small arms:

0333_2_Snip_ME
  • 1st Battery: Eleven Colt army revolvers, seventeen cavalry sabers, and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: Sixteen Colt navy revolvers and twenty-four cavalry sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Eighteen Colt army revolvers and ten cavalry sabers.
  • 5th Battery: Ten Colt army revolvers and eleven cavalry sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Seven Colt army revolvers and 100 Remington army revolvers. Yes… a lot of pistols.

Reporting cartridge bags:

0334_2_Snip_ME
  • 2nd Battery: 800 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 668 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.

On the last page we cover are listings for pistol cartridges, fuses, primers, and other items:

0335_1_Snip_ME
  • 1st Battery: 421(?) friction primers; 20 yards of slow match; and 39 portfires.
  • 2nd Battery: 435 paper fuses and 729 friction primers.
  • 4th Battery: 150 cartridges for army revolvers; 718 friction primers and six yards of slow match.
  • 5th Battery: 50 (?) yards of slow match.
  • 6th Battery: 1,200 cartridges for army revolvers; 550 friction primers; 20 yards of slow match; and 23 portfires.

With the exception of the, just formed, 7th Battery and the 3rd Battery, then serving as heavy artillery, we have a comparatively complete record for the Maine batteries. In campaign season of 1864 all seven of these batteries would see active field service, mostly in the eastern theater in support of the Overland and Petersburg Campaigns.