Colonel Ambrosio José Gonzales served as the Chief of Artillery for the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida through much of the war. Gonzales was an exiled Cuban revolutionary when the war began, living in South Carolina. And of course, at the onset of hostilities, he volunteered his services to the seceded state.
I’ve mentioned this interesting officer on several occasions while plotting the 150th events – most often in regard to his periodic reports of ordnance available to defend Charleston and other points in the department. On January 19, 1865, Gonzales submitted one such report. The timing provides a snapshot of the Confederate defenses opposing the Federal offensive into South Carolina.
The report was complied in a tabular format, making it difficult to reproduce here without a lot of white space and tabs. So I’ll break down the particulars in a “fort by fort” format below. Most of these works I’ve mentioned in earlier posts, so I’ll ask you to look back at some of those for particulars of the defensive arrangements. Working, as the report did, from north to south through the department, we start with the defenses north of Charleston:
- Battery White, protecting Georgetown, South Carolina, contained three rifled 32-pdr guns, six 24-pdr smoothbore guns, two rifled 12-pdr guns, one 12-pdr siege gun, and one 6-pdr field gun. The report thus indicates the 10-inch columbiads placed there earlier in the war had been removed by January 1865.
- Battery Warren, on the Santee River had one 12-pdr rifle and one 32-pdr smoothbore.
Around Charleston itself, starting with the works on Sullivan’s Island:
- Battery Marshall – two 8-inch columbiads, one 7-inch Brooke rifle, one 32-pdr rifle, two 12-pdr rifles (one of which was the old English gun), a 4-inch Blakely rifle, three 8-inch seacoast howitzers, and one 12-pdr siege gun.
- Two Gun Batteries, four in total, with four 32-pdr and four 24-pdr smoothbores.
- Battery Beauregard – one 10-inch columbiad, one 8-inch rifled columbiad, one 8-inch columbiad, three 8-inch seacoast howitzers, two rifled 32-pdrs, one 32-pdr smoothbore, two 24-pdr smoothbores, and three 10-inch mortars.
- Battery Rutledge -three 10-inch columbiads and one rifled columbiad (8 or 10-inch).
- Fort Moultrie – four 10-inch columbiads, two rifled 8-inch columbiads, one rifled 32-pdr, and one 10-inch mortar.
- Battery Marion – three 10-inch columbiads, a 7-inch Brooke Rifle, one 8-inch columbiad, and five 10-inch mortars.
- Battery Bee – one XI-inch Dahlgren, one 10-inch rifled columbiad, four 10-inch columbiads, and one 8-inch columbiad.
Behind Sullivan’s Island were the defenses of the Christ Church District:
- Battery Evans – one 32-pdr smoothbore.
- Battery Palmetto – one IX-inch Dahlgren.
- Battery Gary – two 8-inch columbiads.
- Battery Kinloch – one 32-pdr smoothbore.
- Christ Church Lines – two 20-pdr Parrott rifles, two 8-inch shell guns and two 24-pdr smoothbore guns.
Fort Sumter’s armament at this point was one 10-inch columbiad, one 8-inch rifled columbiad, and four rifled 42-pdrs in those “three gun batteries.” Castle Pinckney contained four 10-inch columbiads and one 7-inch Brooke rifle.
Defending the city of Charleston itself were a formidable array of batteries along the waterfront:
- Battery Waring – two 10-inch columbiads.
- Battery Ramsey (White Point Battery) – one XI-inch Dahlgren, one 12.75-inch Blakely, one 42-pdr rifle, and three 10-inch columbiads.
- Frazer’s Wharf Battery with one 12.75-inch Blakely.
- Calhoun Street Battery with one rifled 8-inch columbiad.
- Vanderhorst’s Wharf Battery with one 7-inch Brooke rifle and one 42-pdr rifled gun.
- Half-Moon Battery with one 42-pdr rifle and one 32-pdr rifle.
- Spring-Street Battery – one 10-inch columbiad.
- Battery over the Ashley – one 10-inch columbiad.
On James Island, the fortifications still bristled with guns defending that approach to Charleston:
- Battery Wampler – two 10-inch columbiads.
- Battery Harleston – three 10-inch columbiads, one 7-inch Brooke rifle, and one 6.4-inch Brooke rifle.
- Battery Glover – three 8-inch rifled columbiads.
- Fort Johnson – two 10-inch columbiads, one rifled 10-inch columbiad, one rifled 8-inch columbiad, one 7-inch Brooke Rifle, and two 24-pdr Austrian howitzers.
- Battery Simkins – two 8-inch columbiads, two 6.4-inch Brooke rifles, and three 10-inch mortars.
- Battery Cheves – three 8-inch columbiads.
- Battery Haskell – one 8-inch columbiad, one 8-inch seacoast howitzer, two 42-pdr carronades, one rifled 32-pdr fitted as a mortar, and two 6-pdr field guns.
- Battery Tatum – one 32-pdr smoothbore and two 24-pdr Austrian howitzers.
- Battery Ryan – one 32-pdr smoothbore, one rifled 24-pdr, five 24-pdr Austrian howitzers.
- Redoubt No. 1 – one 8-inch columbiad and one 32-pdr smoothbore.
- Fort Lamar – three 8-inch columbiads, one 32-pdr rifle, two 32-pdr smoothbore, and one 18-pdr smoothbore.
- Secessionville – one 8-inch siege howitzer, one 42-pdr smoothbore, two 32-pdr rifles, three 32-pdr smoothbores, one 24-pdr rifle, one 24-pdr smoothbore, one rifled 18-pdr, and two 6-pdr field guns.
- The “New Lines” with six specific battery locations (Battery Seroy was named “Battery No. 0″ in this report – two 8-inch columbiads, two 8-inch seacoast howitzers, 8-inch siege howitzer, four 32-pdr smoothbores, eight 24-pdr smoothbores, two 18-pdr smoothbores, two 12-pdr rifles, and three 12-pdr smoothbores.
- Battery Tynes – two 8-inch columbiads and one rifled 42-pdr.
- Battery Pringle – two 10-inch columbiads, two 8-inch columbiads, two rifled 42-pdrs, and two rifled 32-pdrs.
- Fort Trendholm – two 10-inch columbiads, one rifled 8-inch gun, two rifled 42-pdrs, two rifled 32-pdrs, two 32-pdr smoothbores, two 24-pdr smoothbores, and six 6-pdr field guns.
Covering the approaches to Charleston from the southwest, via the Edisto River:
- Battery Washington – one 32-pdr smoothbore, one 24-pdr smoothbore, and one 18-pdr smoothbore.
- Battery Haig – two 24-pdr smoothbores.
- Battery Wilkes – one 24-pdr smoothbore.
- Battery Geddes – one 24-pdr smoothbore.
- Battery Palmer – one 8-inch columbiad, two 32-pdr smoothbores, two 24-pdr smoothbores, and one 12-pdr smoothbore.
- Overflow works – one 32-pdr smoothbore, three 24-pdr smoothbores, and one 12-pdr smoothbore.
Further to the southwest, along the Charleston & Savannah Railroad:
- Church Flats – two 12-pdr smoothbores and one 8-inch shell gun.
- Pineberry – one 32-pdr smoothbore and one 4.62-inch rifle.
- Willstown – one 32-pdr smoothbore, one rifled 24-pdr, and two 3.5-inch Blakely rifles.
- Caw Caw – two 24-pdr smoothbore.
- Stock’s Causeway – one 12-pdr smoothbore and one 4.75-inch smoothbore siege gun.
- Ashepoo battery – one 24-pdr rifle, one rifled 18-pdr, and one rifled 12-pdr.
- Burnett’s – one 4.62-inch rifle, two rifled 32-pdrs and one 32-pdr smoothbore.
- Dawson’s Bluff – one 24-pdr smoothbore and one 3-inch rifle.
Beyond those works, curiously Gonzales reported a battery at Red Bluff, which had been abandoned in December including one 8-inch Columbiad and two 24-pdr rifled guns. Those guns were withdrawn, with great effort, by Major-General Joseph Wheeler’s cavalry after the fall of Savannah. Likewise, Gonzales listed two 24-pdr Austrian howitzers and one 24-pdr flank howitzer at Old Pocotaligo, which had been withdrawn a few days before the report’s date.
In Florida, the Confederates maintained works on the Appalacicola River (five 32-pdr smoothbores and six 24-pdr smoothbores) and St. Mark’s (two 32-pdr rifles and two 32-pdr smoothbores).
In addition to those listed above, Gonzales noted twenty 6-pdr guns, six James rifles, and two 12-pdr howitzers distributed around the department at fixed positions in undesignated posts.
The cannon listed in Gonzales’ January 19 report were all fixed in fortifications. While some weapons were field guns or could be adapted for field use, in most cases the garrisons lacked sufficient equipment and horses to move them with a field army. In an earlier report, dated January 6, 1865, Gonzales detailed the field batteries in the department:
- 14th Battalion Georgia Artillery, Company B, Captain Ruel W. Anderson, four 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Georgia Regulars Battalion, Company C, Captain A. Smith Barnwell, four 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Beaufort Light Artillery, Captain H.M. Stuart, two 12-pdr Napoleons and two 12-pdr howitzers.
- Chatham Light Artillery, Captain John F. Wheaton, four 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Chesnut Light Artillery, Captain Frederick C. Schulz, four 12-pdr howitzers.
- Georgia Regulars Battalion, Company B, Captain Charles Daniell, four 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Palmetto Artillery, Battery G, Captain W.L. DePass, two 12-pdr Napoleons and two 10-pdr Parrotts.
- Furman Light Artillery, Captain William E. Earle, one 12-pdr Napoleon, two 12-pdr howitzers, and one 10-pdr Parrott.
- German Artillery, Company A, Captain F.W. Wagener, two 12-pdr Napoleons and two 12-pdr howitzers.
- Bachman’s German Artillery, Captain W.K. Bachman, four 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Guerard’s (Georgia) Battery, Captain John M. Guerard, two 12-pdr Napoleons and two 12-pdr howitzers.
- Inglis Light Artillery, Captain William E. Charles, four 6-pdr field guns.
- Kilcrease Light Artillery, Captain F.L. Villepigue, two 12-pdr howitzers and two 6-pdr field guns.
- Lafayette Light Artillery, Captain J.T. Kanapaux, four 12-pdr howitzers.
- Leon Light Artillery, Captain Robert H. Gamble, two 12-pdr howitzers and two 3-inch rifles.
- Louisiana Guard Artillery, Captain Camille E. Girardey, four 12-pdr Napoloens and two 3.5-inch Blakely rifles.
- Marion Light Artillery, Captain Edward L. Parker, four 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Milton Light Artillery, Company A, Captain Joseph L. Dunham, four 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Milton Light Artillery, Company B, Captain Henry F. Abell, two 12-pdr Napoleons and two 12-pdr howitzers.
- Orleans Guard Artillery, Captain G. LeGardeur, Jr., two 12-pdr Napoleons and two 12-pdr howitzers.
- Georgia Regulars Battalion, Company A, Captain J.A. Maxwell, four 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Santee Light Artillery, Captain Christopher Gaillard, two 6-pdr field guns and two 3-inch rifles.
- Terrell Light Artillery, Captain John W. Brooks, four 12-pdr Napoleons.
- Waccamaw Light Artillery, Captain Mayham Ward, two 12-pdr howitzers and two 6-pdr field guns.
- Wagner Light Artillery, Captain Charles E. Kanapaux, two 12-pdr Napoleons and two 12-pdr howitzers.
- Washington (South Carolina) Light Artillery, Captain George H. Walter, two 12-pdr Napoleons and two 10-pdr Parrotts.
- Section supporting Colonel Colcock’s cavalry, Lieutenant Richard Johnson, two 12-pdr Napoleons.
So the field batteries included fifty-nine Napoleons, five 10-pdr Parrotts, four 3-inch rifles, two Blakely rifles, twenty-eight 12-pdr howitzers, and ten 6-pdr field guns. This gave Lieutenant-General William Hardee 108 cannon to support the mobile forces charged with opposing Sherman’s advance into South Carolina.
In total, 322 fixed and 108 field artillery pieces opposed the Federals as the embarked on the march into South Carolina. In Sherman’s two wings, the Federals brought only 68 field guns. Yet, much like they say about real estate, when it comes to artillery on the battlefield it is all about “location, location, location.” With less infantry and cavalry to oppose the Federals, the Confederates could not bring their numerical advantage in artillery to bear.
(Gonzales’ reports appear in OR, Series I, Volume 47, Part II, Serial 99, pages 992 and 1024-6.)