Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Missouri Miscellaneous Mix-up

Having looked at the First and Second Missouri Volunteer Artillery regiments, we find nine lines at the bottom of the state’s section on the summary for the third quarter.  For most states, the “other” area, if there at all, is simply a short list of independent batteries and perhaps some artillery-equipped sections manned by cavalry or infantry.  But with Missouri, there are militia units on active service that must also be accounted for.  So let’s consider those nine lines:

0265_1_Snip_MO3

Let us first establish the “names” assigned to those nine lines:

  • 1st Battery Artillery.  This is most likely a Missouri State Militia battery.
  • 2nd Battery Artillery. This is most likely a Missouri State Militia battery.
  • Lovejoy’s Battery.  A section with the 2nd Missouri Cavalry.
  • Colonel, 3rd Colored Infantry?  Or is this the 3rd Volunteer Infantry? We will try to sort this out below.
  • 5th Missouri State Militia (M.S.M.) Cavalry.
  • 1st Battery Missouri State Militia: Appears to be a duplicate… we will sort out below.
  • Company G, 5th Cavalry.  But hold on… this isn’t the 5th Volunteer Cavalry, but I’ll save that explanation for the moment.
  • Company G, 6th Cavalry.
  • Company A, 10th Cavalry.

So these nine lines break down into four categories – militia; sections from the militia cavalry; sections from the volunteer cavalry; and sections with the infantry.  (Though I might argue for Lovejoy’s as an “independent” battery.. it was dependent upon its parent organization for the most part.)

So looking at lines 47, 48, and 52, we have some reconciliations to work.  The Missouri State Adjutant-General’s report of 1862 identified two Missouri State Militia batteries then in service.  The 1st was under Captain Horace B. Johnson.  The 2nd was under Captain Albert Waschman (See note below).  Johnson’s battery was armed with Woodruff guns, and is of some interest for that alone.   This battery was closely associated with the 1st Cavalry, Missouri State Militia.  By December 1862, Johnson was formally in command of Company L of that regiment, and it appears his “battery” was incorporated in that company.  At any rate, by the third quarter of 1863 the battery was not in existence… or at least was not in Federal service.

With Johnson’s being redesignated, or subsumed, as cavalry, the state changed Waschman’s to the 1st Battery.  In May 1863, Waschman was demoted to lieutenant and Captain Charles H. Thurber took command of the battery.  That battery was employed in sections, with one at Sedalia and the other at Westport.  Thus I believe we can interpret the three militia battery (47, 48, and 52) entries as such:

  • 1st Battery Artillery was First Section, 1st Battery Light Artillery, Missouri State Militia (or simply 1st Battery M.S.M.):  Reporting at Sedalia, Missouri with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers and four 10-pdr Parrotts.  Thurber was in command of this section.
  • 2nd Battery Artillery:  This was an obsolete line, left in because the clerks were confused (who wouldn’t be?) with the changes regarding Missouri State Militia.
  • 1st Battery Missouri State Militia: Line 52 indicates duty at Westport, which matches with the Second Section, under Waschman.  No guns listed. But we’ll see ammunition reported later.

With respect to those “Parrott” rifles, if you look to the comments from last quarter’s post, there is a good thread identifying these as 2.9-inch English Rifles.  Specifically Robert F. Mushet’s steel rifles, cast in Whales and bored out in London to an “off the books” purchase in October 1861.

And, as alluded to in two earlier posts, Thurber’s Battery would soon be pulled into the 2nd Missouri Artillery Regiment reorganization as Battery L.

Staying within the militia formations, we have line 51 with “5th M.S.M. Cav.”  This regiment was originally the 13th M.S.M. Cavalry, redesignated to the 5th in February 1863 (when we are talking about Missouri units, you can’t tell the players without a program).  The regiment had companies stationed around south-central Missouri at Rolla, Houston, Salem, and Waynesville.  And the regiment was rather active chasing irregulars and law-breakers.  We saw an entry, without cannon, for the regiment in the previous quarter.  So let’s see what they have in the third quarter:

  • 5th M.S.M. Cavalry: At Waynesville, with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers. The regimental headquarters was at Waynesville for some time before moving to Rolla in April.  However, companies A, E, and H, under Major Waldemar Fischer remained at Waynesville.  And going to the returns, we can pinpoint the officer in charge of these particular guns – Lieutenant John Sanger, of Company A.  He was detailed to the section of howitzers starting in March, and remained with them until at least June 1864.  At that time, he was ordered to take the howitzers (minus the men) to St. Louis.  Sanger turned over the mountain howitzers and equipment to Colonel Nelson Cole, 2nd Missouri Artillery. So we’ll know where those cannon are going.  I am going to track this as “Company A, 5th M.S.M. Cavalry“, however, for reasons that will appear below.

Lines 49, 53, 54, and 55 all represent sections in volunteer cavalry regiments.  Two of these carry over from the previous quarter.

  • Lovejoy’s Battery/2nd Missouri Cavalry: Reporting at Brownsville, Arkansas with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  Lieutenant George Lovejoy “commanded the regimental battery” of the 2nd Missouri Cavalry starting in June 1863, according to returns.  Colonel Lewis Merrill commanded the regiment. But while Merrill served as commander of First Brigade, First Cavalry Division, District of Southeast Missouri (later transferred to the Department of Arkansas), Major Garrison Harker led the regiment.  The regiment, and battery, saw action on the advance to Little Rock in August and September 1863.  And their location given is valid for the end of that month.
  • Company G, 5th Missouri Cavalry: Reporting at Houston, Texas County, Missouri (rather specific), with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  Well, let’s hold off on that identification.  The 5th Missouri consolidated with the 4th Missouri Cavalry in November 1862.  And as far as I can tell, the 5th was never posted around Houston.  BUT…. recall the 5th M.S.M. Cavalry (above) indeed had detachments at Houston. And through the fall of 1863, Company G of the 5th M.S.M. was posted at that town.  Captain Thomas Thomas commanded the company.  I don’t know who, specifically, managed the howitzers.  But we will track this as Company G, 5th M.S.M. Cavalry.
  • Company G, 6th Missouri Cavalry: Reporting at Carrollton, Louisiana with four 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  After Vicksburg, the 6th Missouri Cavalry remained with Thirteenth Corps as it transferred to the Department of the Gulf.  The regiment was active on several expeditions in lower Louisiana.  But I cannot specifically place it at Carrollton (New Orleans) in the time period, just generally “around” in the theater of operations.  Furthermore, I have not located any references to confirm the presence of howitzers with the regiment.
  • Company A, 10th Missouri Cavalry: At Memphis, Tennessee with four 12-pdr mountain howitzers. The 10th Missouri Cavalry was assigned to the Sixteenth Corps at the start of the summer.  Lieutenant Peter Joyce of Company A had charge of two sections of mountain howitzers. These were cited as “The Banshees” in some accounts of action outside Iuka, Mississippi.

This leaves us with one line remaining – line 50.  And this one is difficult to square up with the records.  The arrow points at the unit designation:

0265_1A_Snip_MO3

I interpret this to read “Col. 3rd Col’d Infy.” or Colonel, 3rd Colored Infantry.  Missouri did raise regiments of colored troops, designated as such and attributed to the state.  But those were soon re-designated in the USCT system.  The 3rd Missouri Colored Infantry began organizing at Benton Barracks, St. Louis, in December 1863.  But the regiment was not mustered until February the following year.  And in March, the regiment became the 67th US Colored Troops.  Thus it is not likely the 3rd Missouri Colored, even as the 67th USCT, are the unit represented by that line.

The other candidate here is the 3rd Missouri Infantry.  As part of the Fifteenth Corps, after Vicksburg the 3rd Missouri remained around Vicksburg.  The regiment moved with its parent formation to reinforce Chattanooga. And there is no record of artillery assigned to this regiment.  So let’s rule them out.

The place name reported, Goodrich’s Landing, is along the Mississippi River about thirty miles upriver from Vicksburg.  It was the site of a contraband camp which was raided by Confederates in June 1863.  Federals reoccupied the camp and maintained a presence there through the war.  And consulting Dyer’s Compendium, there were two USCT artillery batteries posted there in 1864 – Batteries C and D, 2nd US Colored Artillery (re-designated from the 1st and 2nd Louisiana Artillery, African Descent).  Furthermore, among the supporting infantry sent to Goodrich’s Landing was the 3rd Mississippi Colored Infantry, which was later the 53rd USCT.  That, I would submit, is the best set of leads.  Perhaps the clerks in Washington hastily ascribed the 3rd Mississippi to Missouri.  As we know, that occurred with respect to the Mississippi Marine Brigade, despite a loose affiliation with Missouri.   I’ll leave it open for now, but identify this line as such:

  • 3rd Colored Infantry: Reporting at Goodrich’s Landing, Louisiana with two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 3.80-inch James rifles.  A full, but mixed, battery.

So of those nine lines, I think we have solid identification, down to the officer in charge, for five units.  Of the others, one didn’t exist (2nd M.S.M. Battery). Two others are clearly attributed properly to cavalry sections.  Only the 3rd Colored Infantry defies specific identification.  Not bad for the mysterious Missouri batteries.

Moving on to the ammunition pages, we have smoothbore ammunition to account for:

0267_1_Snip_MO3

Lots of mountain howitzer ammunition on hand.  For clarity, I’ll work these in the order they appear, but use my “adjusted” designations:

  • 1st Section, 1st M.S.M. Battery: 36 shell, 50 case, and 40 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • Lovejoy’s Battery, 2nd Cavalry: 14 shell, 44 case, and 11 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 3rd Colored Infantry: 25 shot, 125 case, and 170 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 157 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Company A, 5th M.S.M. Cavalry: 67 shell and 126 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • Company G, 5th M.S.M. Cavalry: 108 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • Company G, 6th Cavalry: 24 shell and 26 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • Company A, 10th Cavalry: 72 shell, 203 case, and 102 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

Turning to the rifled projectiles, the first page offers one lone entry for Hotchkiss:

0267_2_Snip_MO3

  • 3rd Colored Infantry: 90 bullet shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

And one entry on the over page for Hotchkiss:

0268_1H_Snip_MO3

Same unit again:

  • 3rd Colored Infantry: 50 canister for 3.80-inch James.

Interesting, entries on the Parrott columns:

0268_1P_Snip_MO3

  • 1st Section, 1st M.S.M. Battery: 91 shot, 255 shell, and 79 canister for 2.9-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Section, 1st M.S.M. Battery: 12 shell for 2.9-inch rifles.

These entries seem to imply the rifled guns were distributed between the sections.  Though I would also point out, these were not Parrott rounds, but rather rounds purchased for those English rifles.  I think the clerks simply used the Parrott columns as a handy expedient in the accounting.

No other projectile entries.  So we move to the small arms:

0268_3_Snip_MO3

Three batteries accounting for small arms here:

  • 1st M.S.M. Battery: Twenty navy revolvers, forty-three cavalry sabers, thirty-two horse artillery sabers, and forty-nine foot artillery swords.
  • Company G, 6th Cavalry: Eight Army revolvers and seven cavalry sabers.
  • Company A, 10th Cavalry: Sixty-eight Army revolvers and fifty cavalry sabers.

This post has run longer than most of in the summary series.  I figured it best to take the time to break down the different units by type and at the same time properly attribute the lines to units.  If nothing else, it’s fun to relate these numbers to names.

Note: The proper spelling of Albert Waschman’s name is, in my opinion, up for debate.  We find several derivations in the military records – Wachsman, Waschsman, Wachman, and others. However, most state records have it as Waschman.  And his grave stone says Waschman (which… if there’s anyplace the name would be correct, it has to be the gravestone).  So I’m convinced Waschman is the proper spelling.  I’ve circled back to old posts to make that consistent here on the blog.  If I missed any, please let me know.

Waschman, by the way, was the son-in-law of Jim Bridger, noted “mountain man” and subject of a great Johnny Horton ballad that I’ll leave in your head

Summary Statement: December 31, 1862 – Missouri’s Second Regiment and Militia

The first half of the Missouri entries on the Fourth Quarter, 1862 Summary Statements offered no small number of questions and gaps to fill.  The second half of the entries offer, what I think, are the widest gaps in any section of the summary.  There’s just no getting around the need for conjecture during the examination.  One reader, who wishes to remain anonymous, has aided me greatly in the effort to properly identify and match these entries to batteries.  But in the interest of keeping the level of conjecture down to the minimum, allow me to first present those entries “as is” for review.

Here is the first page of those entries:

0051_Snip_Dec62_2MO_1

Four entries with three different originating sources – The 2nd Missouri Light Artillery Regiment, a “1st Battery” of some unstated formation, and two from the militia (the Missouri State Militia).  Two of these lines are relatively easy to link with Official Reports.  The other two are lacking details needed for such positive identification.  Furthermore, we are missing most of the 2nd Regiment.  For now, let us table those discussions and look at the numbers on the paper.

Looking strictly at those entries, without attempting to interpret further, we have:

  • Battery M, 2nd Missouri: At Pilot Knob, Missouri reporting a regulation “mixed” battery of four 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers.  The battery was commanded by Captain Gustave Stange and assigned to the 2nd Division Army of Southeast Missouri. The battery was at St. Louis at the end of 1862, but moved to Pilot Knob later in the spring.  Note the report received date of April 1863.
  • 1st Battery:  No location indicated.  Three 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers.  We’ll discuss the question mark over this entry below.
  • 1st Battery Artillery, Militia (1st Militia Battery): Reporting at Warrensburg, Missouri (in April 1864!) with three 6-pdr field guns.  Just working from the designation, this would be Captain Albert Waschman’s battery which was at the time stationed in the Central District of Missouri.  But let us mark the identification as tentative and discuss below.
  • 2nd Battery Artillery, Militia (2nd Militia Battery): Reporting at Jefferson City, Missouri with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers and four 10-pdr Parrotts.  And we’ll also discuss the organization below.

Turning now to the ammunition reported, we start with the smootbore calibers:

0053_Snip_Dec62_2MO_1A

By battery:

  • Battery M, 2nd Missouri: 6-pdr field guns – 502 shot, 165 case, and 53 canister; 12-pdr field howitzer – 92 shell, 120 case, and 24 canister.
  • 1st Battery:  6-pdr field guns – 75 shot, 201 case, and 48 canister; 12-pdr field howitzer – 70 shell and 48 case;  And… oh by the way, 26 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 1st Militia Battery:  6-pdr field guns – 294 shot, 134 case, and 168 canister.
  • 2nd Militia Battery:  12-pdr mountain howitzer – 113 case and 16 canister.

Not a lot of rifled weapons among the four reporting batteries.  The only entries are under Parrott and Schenkl patents:

0054_Snip_Dec62_2MO_1

And only for the 2nd Militia. Of Parrott patent type, 245 10-pdr shells and 80 10-pdr canister.  Also 108 (?) Schenkl shot, for Parrott 10-pdrs.

Lastly, small arms:

0054_Snip_Dec62_2MO_3

  • Battery M, 2nd Missouri: 30 Army revolvers and 68 cavalry sabers.
  • 1st Battery: 20 Army revolvers and 71 cavalry sabers.
  • 1st Militia Battery: 60 percussion pistols and 10 cavalry sabers.
  • 2nd Militia Battery: 20 Navy revolvers, 23 cavalry sabers, and 51 foot artillery swords.

With those remarks entered into the “record” let us attempt to fill in some of the gaps.

Firstly, some clarification about the 2nd Missouri Regiment of Light artillery.  As with any regiment, the allocation was twelve lettered batteries (A through I, skipping J, thence K to M).   The 2nd Missouri was organized from from batteries assigned to the US Reserve Corps (a volunteer formation, but raised with the expectation of service only in Missouri).  Formally designated the 2nd Missouri in the fall of 1861, the regiment’s primary duty up to the summer of 1863 was defending St. Louis, as part of the garrison assigned there.  And, as one might guess, many of those batteries were assigned equipment from the garrison, be that heavy or light artillery.  Such would explain the lack of reports, since that equipment would be reported by the garrison’s ordnance officer on a separate set of documents.  However there were exceptions based on situations of war.  Battery M was one of those.  That all said, for the sake of complete coverage here allow me to list the elements of the 2nd Missouri by battery and their assignments for the end of 1862:

  • Battery A: District of Rolla, at Rolla.
  • Battery B: Garrison of St. Louis.
  • Battery C: District of Rollla, at Hartville.
  • Battery D: Garrison at Cape Girardeau.
  • Battery E: Garrison of St. Louis.
  • Battery F:  District of Rolla, at Hartville.
  • Battery G: District of Rolla, at Rolla.
  • Battery H: Garrison of St. Louis.
  • Battery I: Garrison of St. Louis.
  • Battery K: Garrison of St. Louis.
  • Battery L: District of Rolla, at Hartville.
  • Battery M: Department of Southeast Missouri.

Other than Battery M, the details of the individual battery equipment is a misty subject.

The militia batteries present yet another series of gaps.  Before proceeding too far, we must remember that there was not just one militia formation in Missouri during the war.  In fact, it is a deep and complicated subject.  For a short premier, there is a helpful page offered by the St. Louis Public Library.  I think one important aspect to consider about those various militia, volunteer, and guard formations is if they qualified for a Federal pension.  Short explanation here, which is fought with holes and slippery slopes, is that if the members qualified for a pension, then likely the battery was “in” the Army service at some point during the war – be that in an emergency or as part of an organized garrison formation.  Otherwise, the unit was unlikely to be a formal part of the Federal organization… and thus would likely not supply an ordnance report to Washington.  Not perfect logic, but that does narrow things down a bit.  But I think we can focus, given that logic, specifically on the Missouri State Militia (3 years), commonly referred to by the abbreviation MSM.

As the St. Louis Public Library page indicates, the MSM included two batteries.  Oh, but that’s just simplifying things.  When formed during the first half of 1862, those “batteries” included “companies” which may have been a reference to separate sections, as organized or deployed.  Enough to split the hairs of hairs.  Waschman, mentioned above, commanded one battery which was reported at Jefferson City in December 1862.  Another battery was assigned to Independence.  (And I think we take the reported location from the summary with a grain of salt, based on the belated receipt in Washington…. however, I’m leaning towards this being a transcription error in which the clerk transposed the locations of 1st and 2nd Batteries MSM.).

Now… about those cannons…. Waschman was particularly fond of a set of English 2.9-inch rifled guns in his battery.  And I’m very sure Waschman had those rifles with him in December 1862.  The only thing close to those weapons in the summary are the four 10-pdr Parrotts indicated for 2nd Battery MSM.  As we’ve seen in the past with the Woodruff guns, when presented with a square peg and only round holes, the clerks tended to find a place to enumerate the tallies.  What is the difference, from the clerk’s side of the desk, between a 2.9-inch caliber 10-pdr Parrott and a 2.9-inch Blakely, for instance?  And, compounding the confusion, maybe the clerk flipped the entries for the 1st and 2nd batteries?

Oh, and speaking of Woodruff guns, there should be entries for those also.  Captain Horace M. Johnson commanded a battery of the MSM which also should be on our “list” above.  Johnson’s men crewed a pair of Woodruff guns along with mountain howitzers and 6-pdr field guns.  Johnson’s battery was sometimes referred to as the Saint Joseph Battery, but appears to have been formally the 1st Missouri Battery of Horse Artillery, MSM.  Later in the spring of 1863, Johnson’s battery was changed to a cavalry company (some sources say the 1st Missouri Cavalry MSM, others say 10th Missouri, and others just say unattached company), though apparently retaining the Woodruff guns.

Though Johnson’s might be a candidate for that “First Missouri,” I believe that line refers instead to the 1st Missouri Flying Artillery, aka. 1st Missouri Horse Artillery,  Pfennighausen’s Battery or  Landgraeber’s Battery.  That battery was assigned to Brigadier-General Frederick Steele’s Division in the ill-fated Chickasaw Bayou expedition outside Vicksburg, at the end of December 1862, and at the time commanded by Captain Clemens Landgraeber.  This battery would later become part of the 2nd Missouri Artillery Regiment.  The original Battery F was broken up (transferred to Battery D, 2nd Missouri, officially) in September 1863.  At that point, Landgraeber’s became Battery F, 2nd Missouri Artillery, often mentioned with the qualifier “New” in secondary sources to avoid (or create) confusion.

As you can see, there are still many gaps and questions about these Missouri batteries.  Unfortunately, these issues are not resolved with summaries from later quarters.  My home state’s artillery organization was an administrative mess.  What can I say?