Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Heavy Artillery

Let me give the heavy artillery batteries, battalions, and regiments their due for this quarter of the summary.  While looking at each of the state sections, we’ve mentioned a few of these batteries.  But not the whole.  The omission, by those at the Ordnance Department, was mostly due to bureaucratic definitions than any overt action.

Briefly, the summary statements we are reviewing here are focused only on ordnance rated as “field artillery.” A further qualification is that only units assigned roles to use field artillery (as in for use as “mobile” artillery) are included.  So, IF a field howitzer was assigned to a fort’s garrison, AND that howitzer was considered part of the fort’s armament, and not part of the garrisoning unit’s property, THEN it was accounted for in a different set of sheets for accounting.  Such means a great number of field artillery pieces, not to mention the siege, garrison, and seacoast artillery, escapes mention in these summaries.  And we don’t have, to my knowledge, a full record for those anywhere in the surviving documents.  However, I would point out that in 1864 the Ordnance Department began using a common form to account for field, siege, garrison, and seacoast artillery.

But for the second quarter of 1863, that accounting is lacking in the known records.  We do have a handful of “heavies” that were assigned roles which required mobile artillery.  And those were mentioned as we proceeded through the summary.  For sake of completeness, let me list all the heavy units in service as of June 1863 and match those to summary lines where mentioned.  Keep in mind the varied service of these formations.  Traditionally, these were assigned to garrison fortifications.  But wartime contingencies would see the “heavies” employed as infantry or even cavalry were needed.  And those needs would evolve as the war continued.

By unit, ordered by state (these are regiments unless otherwise noted):

  • 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery:  As mentioned earlier, Batteries B and M served with the Army of the Potomac, in 2nd Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve.  They, and their 4.5-inch rifles, were left behind and missed Gettysburg (though were active in the pursuit which followed).  The remainder of Colonel Henry L. Abbot’s regiment served in Third Brigade of the Defenses South of the Potomac (DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-Second Corps), defending Washington, D.C.  Regimental headquarters were at Fort Richardson.
  • 2nd Connecticut Heavy Artillery: Serving at this time as the 19th Connecticut Infantry (designation would change in November 1863) under Lieutenant Colonel Elisha S. Kellogg, and assigned to Second Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-Second Corps.  Companies B, F, and G manned Fort Ellsworth; Company A assigned to Redoubt A (in that sector); Company D to Redoubt B; Companies C and K to Redoubt C; and Companies E, H, and I were in Redoubt D.
  • 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery: Assigned to the Department of the Gulf, the regiment was in First Division, Nineteenth Corps (having converted from the 21st Indiana Infantry earlier in the year).  We discussed Batteries A and E and their work at Port Hudson.  Colonel John A. Keith commanded, with detachments at Baton Rouge and New Orleans.
  • 1st Maine Heavy Artillery: Second Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps under Colonel Daniel Chaplin.  Batteries assigned mostly to the defenses on the west side of Washington, and along the Potomac.
  • 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery: Assigned to First Brigade of the Defenses South of the Potomac – DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-Second Corps.  Colonel Thomas R. Tannatt commanded the regiment, and also commanded the brigade.
  • 2nd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery:  Authorized in May 1863, this regiment, under Colonel Jones Frankle, would not complete formation until later in the fall.
  • 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery Battalion: This battalion was formed with four previously independent batteries and served primarily at Fort Warren, Boston harbor.  The four companies were originally the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 5th unassigned heavy companies (becoming Companies A, B, C, and D respectively).  Major Stephen Cabot commanded this consolidated battalion.  In addition the 3rd and 6th unassigned companies also appear in the list of garrison troops around Boston.
  • 1st New Hampshire Heavy Artillery: This regiment, commanded by Colonel George A. Wainwright, would not officially form until later in July.
  • 2nd New York Heavy Artillery:  We discussed Colonel Joseph N. G. Whistler’s regiment while covering a lone entry for Battery L (which later became the 34th New York Independent Battery).  The 2nd New York Heavy was assigned to First Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, South of the Potomac.
  • 4th New York Heavy Artillery:  Under Colonel Henry H. Hall, this regiment formed the Fourth Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, Defenses South of the Potomac.  Detachments manned Fort Marcy and Fort Ethan Allen.
  • 5th New York Heavy Artillery:  Assigned to the defenses of Baltimore, Maryland, as part of the Middle Department.  Commanded by Colonel Samuel Graham, but with Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Murray in charge of two battalions then at Baltimore.  Another battalion, under Major Gustavus F. Merriam, appears on the returns for First Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, South of the Potomac.
  • 6th New York Heavy Artillery:  Assigned to the First Division, Eighth Corps.  Colonel J. Howard Kitching commanded.  The regiment was part of the Harpers Ferry garrison before the Gettysburg Campaign, and soon brought into the Army of the Potomac.
  • 7th New York Heavy Artillery: Second Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps under Colonel Lewis O. Morris (who also commanded the brigade).
  • 8th New York Heavy Artillery: Under Colonel Peter A. Porter, this regiment had garrison duty at Forts Federal Hill, Marshall, and McHenry around Baltimore, as part of Eighth Corps, Middle Department.  On July 10, the regiment moved forward to Harpers Ferry, staying there until August 3.
  • 9th New York Heavy Artillery: Second Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps under Colonel Joseph Welling.
  • 10th New York Heavy Artillery: This regiment was all of the Third Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps.  Commanded by Colonel Alexander Piper.  One battalion (four companies) moved from the defenses of New York to Washington in June, joining the rest of the regiment. Their service was mostly on the southeast side of the perimeter around the Anacostia.
  • 11th New York Heavy Artillery:  We discussed their saga in an earlier post.  Colonel William B. Barnes’ regiment was still forming when thrust into the Gettysburg Campaign.
  • 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th New York Heavy Artillery:  These regiments were all authorized by the spring of 1863, but in various states of organization at the end of June.
  • 3rd New York Heavy Artillery Battalion: Also known as the German Heavy Artillery.  Under Lieutenant-Colonel Adam Senges, and assigned to Second Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-Second Corps, on the south side of the Potomac.  This battalion was, later in the year, consolidated into the 15th New York Heavy Artillery, and came under Colonel Louis Schirmer.  For some reason, Schirmer’s name is associated with the command as early as June 1863.
  • 1st Ohio Heavy Artillery: Lieutenant-Colonel Chauncey G. Hawley’s command garrisoned Covington, Kentucky as part of Twenty-third Corps, Department of Ohio.
  • 2nd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery:  (the 112th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers.) Under Colonel Augustus A. Gibson and assigned to First Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac.  Regimental headquarters at Fort Lincoln.
  • 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery: We discussed Battery H and their “impressed” service at Gettysburg. While that battery was on detached service (Baltimore, then pushed out to guard the railroad), the remainder of the regiment served out of Fort Monroe providing detachments for garrisons in the Department of Virginia. Colonel Joseph Roberts commanded.
  • 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery: We looked at this regiment, assigned to the Department of the South, in detail earlier.  Colonel Edwin Metcalf commanded the regiment
  • 5th Rhode Island Heavy Artillery:  Colonel George W. Tew commanded this regiment, serving in North Carolina, and being reorganized from an infantry formation.
  • 1st Vermont Heavy Artillery:  Colonel James M. Warner commanded this regiment, assigned to First Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-second Corps.  Batteries garrisoned Forts Totten, Massachusetts, Stevens, Slocum, and others.
  • 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery:  Only Battery A of this regiment was mustered as of the end of June 1863. Captain Andrew J. Langworthy’s battery was assigned to the defenses of Alexandria, within DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-second Corps.
  • 1st Tennessee Heavy Artillery (African Descent): I mentioned this regiment briefly at the bottom of the Tennessee section. Colonel Ignatz G. Kappner commanded this regiment, at the time more of battalion strength, garrisoning Fort Pickering in Memphis. The regiment later became the 3rd US Colored Troops Heavy Artillery.
  • 2nd Tennessee Heavy Artillery (African Descent): Also mentioned in the Tennessee section, this regiment, under Colonel Charles H. Adams, was forming up in June 1863.  The regiment would later be designated the 4th US Colored Troops Heavy Artillery.
  • 1st Alabama Siege Artillery (African Descent): Organized from the contraband camps around LaGrange, LaFayette, and Memphis, Tennessee starting on June 20, 1863. Captain Lionel F. Booth appears to be the ranking officer in the regiment in those early months.  The regiment would later be designated the 6th US Colored Troops Heavy Artillery, and then later the 11th USCT Infantry.
  • 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery (African Descent):  Later in the year designated the 1st Corps de Afrique Heavy Artillery.  And still later in the war becoming the 10th US Colored Heavy Artillery.  And at times, the regiment appears on the rolls as the 1st Louisiana Native Guards Artillery (a name also associated with another USCT formation).  This regiment served throughout the war in the defenses of New Orleans, in the Department of the Gulf.

Yes, a lengthy post.  But this summarizes the status of over thirty regiments.  As you might deduce from reading the entries, the service of the “heavies” was weighted to the defenses of Washington, D.C.  However, the “heavies” also garrisoned places such as Baltimore, Boston, New Orleans, and other remote points.

Some other trends one might note – a good number of these regiments formed in the spring and summer of 1863.  We can, in some cases, link that to the draft and those seeking light service.  But at the same time, let us not “Shelby Foote” our way through these units.  At the time of mustering, the Army wanted troops for garrison defense.  And that was a valid requirement, given the posture at the time.

Lastly, it is important to also frame the context of the four USCT regiments listed above.  These were largely formed out of contraband camps.  And their duties were, for the most part, to provide garrison troops that would free up the white volunteers for service in the field.  But, as the course of events played out, one of those regiments would defend Fort Pillow in April 1864.

So much for easy duty in those heavy regiments!


Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Indiana, miscellaneous lines

Before we can leave the Indiana batteries, here for the 2nd quarter, 1863, there is the matter of six lines below the numbered independent batteries:


One of these, Wilder’s Battery on line 28, is familiar from the previous quarter.  Furthermore, that battery would receive a number designation, the 26th, later in the war.  But the others are “new” formations from the perspective of the summary reports.  So we should allow space for detailed “administrative” discussion:

  • Wilder’s Battery (26th Battery): At Somerset, Kentucky with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Lieutenant Casper W. McLaughlin was in command, with battery assigned to Second Brigade, First Division, Twenty-third Corps.  A Department of the Ohio artillery report, dated June 30, 1863, indicated the battery had six 3-inch steel rifles.  However, as we have often seen, the description of wrought iron guns was often imprecise, from a metallurgical standpoint.
  • Arty Det. 65th Vols“- or 65th Indiana Infantry (mounted):  First the listed particulars – this detachment reported from Raleigh, North Carolina with one 12-pdr field howitzer and three 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  The location most likely reflects the date of report receipt in Washington – May 6, 1865.  And in June 1863, the 65th Indiana had many, many miles to travel before reaching Raleigh.  Backing up to that spring, the regiment was mounted, and assigned to the Second Division, Twenty-third Corps, then serving in Kentucky.  Other than that, I don’t have details of the artillery detachment.
  • Battery [attached] to 1st Ind. Cavalry“: At Pine Bluff, Arkansas with three 10-pdr Parrott rifles.  During the spring of 1863, a portion of the 1st Indiana Cavalry operated in eastern Arkansas, at least six companies.  (Detachments of the regiment were assigned to both Eastern and Western theaters, with varied service histories.)  A June 1863 return has Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas N. Pace in command.  In his report for the Battle of Helena (July 4), Pace indicated First Lieutenant Samuel Lefler, Company B, had command of “our battery.”
  • Battery A, 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery: At Port Hudson, Louisiana with four 20-pdr Parrotts.  Part of the siege operations at that place, and assigned to the First Division, Nineteenth Corps.  Captain Eden H. Fisher was in command.  Interesting to note the clerks rated this battery as “field” and those 20-pdr Parrotts as field guns, despite the battery’s tactical role as siege artillery.
  • Battery E, 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery: Reporting from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, with four 20-pdr Parrotts.  Part of the garrison then at the state capital, and part of the Nineteenth Corps.  Captain James W. Hamrick was in command at this time, according to the State Adjutant’s report.  As with the sister battery, it is worth noting the clerks rated this garrison battery as a field battery, with its Parrotts.
  • Lieut. 35 Infy“:  Reporting at Nashville, Tennessee with three 6-pdr field guns.  The 35th Indiana Infantry was at that time assigned to the Third Brigade, Third Division, Twenty-first Corps.  Recruited as an Irish regiment, the unit was under Major John P. Dufficy at this juncture of the war.  But why those Irish infantrymen were assigned three cannon is unknown to me.  No reports link these guns with the regiment (or higher units) during winter months at Murfreesboro or the Tullahoma Campaign.  The receipt date of this return was in 1865.  After the Atlanta Campaign, the regiment was among those sent to middle Tennessee, and fought there in the battles of late 1864.  So the unit has several periods of service in and around Nashville which this return might match with.

So a lot of unanswered questions remain within those six entries.  But, thankfully, the ammunition pages leave few questions.  Starting with the smoothbore rounds:


With only two lines reporting, which appropriately matches to the cannon reported on hand:

  • 65th Infantry Detachment: 250 shell, 20 case, and 470 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; and also 48 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 35th Infantry Detachment: 28 shot and 4 case for 6-pdr field guns.

Perhaps it would have been nice for the 65th Infantry to send over that canister to the 35th?

Moving to the Hotchkiss page:


Two batteries reported 3-inch rifles on hand.  But how about that third entry line?

  • Wilder’s Battery:  600 canister, 174 percussion shell, 350 fuse shell, and 426 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 65th Infantry Detachment: 140 canister and 150 percussion shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery A, 1st Heavy: 439 fuse shell in 3.67-inch rifle caliber.  And that corresponds to the bore of a 20-pdr Parrott.  Interesting entry, as we more often see Hotchkiss of this caliber issued to James Rifles.  And, as seen from the column header, the Ordnance Department considered it a “Wiard” caliber.  Sort of hitting all the spots there.

Moving to the next page, we can focus on the Parrott and Schenkl columns:


Three batteries reported Parrott rifles.  And we have three lines to consider:

  • 1st Cavalry Detachment:  60 shell and 20 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery A, 1st Heavy: 250 shell for 20-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery E, 1st Heavy:  260 shell and 8 canister for 20-pdr Parrott.

Under the Schenkl columns:

  • Battery A, 1st Heavy: 40 shot for 20-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery E, 1st Heavy:  16 shot for 20-pdr Parrott.

There are no entries on the next page of projectiles.  So we move to the small arms reported:


  • Wilder’s Battery: Nineteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery A, First Heavy:  Forty-eight rifles and eighteen foot artillery swords.

I am certain there are lots of “back stories” within the unanswered questions surrounding these six lines.  If any readers have leads, I would greatly appreciate a comment here.

Summary Statement: December 31, 1862 – Indiana’s Batteries

Time now we look to the Hoosier Artillery as reported for December 1862.  Indiana organized twenty-six light batteries for Federal service during the war, all numbered and not within a regimental system.  Twenty-one of those Indiana batteries had entry lines on the December 1862 summary.  Of those, only seven had a posted date for receipt of returns.  I’ll focus on those seven, but mention the status of the other fourteen for our purposes today.  (And note, there was a 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery Regiment serving mostly with the Department of the Gulf, that falls outside the summaries.)

Of the seven batteries with data for the form, we see all posted late. Three were received in the spring of 1863.  Three more trickled in through the summer and fall.  Then the 2nd Indiana Battery’s was received in April 1864.  All must be considered when reviewing the data presented in the summary.


For the battery-by-battery breakdown, let us “fill in” the location and assignment for batteries without a report… just to round things out (Looking here for any patterns of the omissions).  And, for emphasis, these are all “Independent Light Artillery” batteries from Indiana, designated by sequential numbers:

  • 1st Battery: No report.  The battery was part of the short lived Army of Southeastern Missouri, operating in the Ironton area.
  • 2nd Battery: Springfield, Missouri. Three 6-pdr field guns and four James 3.80-inch rifles.  The battery was in the Army of the Frontier.
  • 3rd Battery: No report. Part of the Central District of Missouri and reported at both Rolla and St. Louis during the quarter.
  • 4th Battery: La Vernge or Lafayette (?), Tennessee.  Two 6-pdr field guns and two James 3.80-inch rifles.  The 4th was in the Right Wing, Army of the Cumberland, specifically, Sheridan’s Third Division.  The battery was in action at Stones River on December 31.  Captain Asahel Bush’s official report mentions the battery had one more cannon on hand – a field howitzer (12-pdr).  One 6-pdr and a James rifle were lost on the field.  And the other 6-pdr disabled. The battery fired 1,160 rounds in the battle.  Losses were six killed, seventeen wounded, and three captured or missing.
  • 5th Battery. No report. Was posted to Second Division (Johnson), Right Wing, Army of the Cumberland, and at Stones River.  Captain Peter Simonson mentioned two 10-pdr Parrotts and two 12-pdr Napoleons in his official report of the battle. The battery fired only 213 rounds in the battle but lost two guns.
  • 6th Battery. No report. The battery was in the multi-armed Thirteenth Corps and with McPherson’s Right Wing in northern Mississippi.
  • 7th Battery. Murfreesboro, Tennessee.  Four 10-pdr Parrotts.  The battery was in Van Cleve’s Third Division, Left Wing, Army of the Cumberland.  Captain George Swallow’s battery fired 406 rounds in the battle at Stones River, lost no guns, suffered four killed and eight wounded, along with losing one horse.
  • 8th Battery. No report.  First Division (Wood), Left Wing, Army of the Cumberland.  Lieutenant George Estep’s battery fired 871 rounds at Stones River.
  • 9th Battery. No report. Captain George Brown’s battery was assigned to Fourth Division, Right Wing, Thirteenth Corps.
  • 10th Battery: No report. Captain Jerome Cox’s battery was also assigned to First Division, Left Wing, Army of the Cumberland and at Stones River.   The battery fired 1,442 rounds during the battle.
  • 11th Battery: No report. Though assigned the Army of the Cumberland, this battery was part of the Nashville garrison.
  • 12th Battery: Fort Negley, Nashville, Tennesseee.  Annotated as “siege.”  Four 4.5-inch siege rifles.
  • 13th Battery: No report. Also annotated as a “siege” battery.  I have no particulars on this battery.  It was posted to Gallatin, outside Nashville, and some reports have it operating as cavalry.
  • 14th Battery:  Jackson, Tennessee.  Three 6-pdr field guns and one 3-inch Ordnance Rifle.  The battery was part of Thirteenth Corps at the time.
  • 15th Battery:  No report.  Had surrendered earlier in the fall at Harpers Ferry.  Was still on parole.
  • 16th Battery: Fort Pennsylvania, DC.  Three 20-pdr Parrotts and four James 3.80-inch rifles.  This battery spent most of the war defending Washington.
  • 17th Battery: No report. The 17th Battery was assigned to the Middle Department and the defenses of Baltimore.
  • 18th Battery: No report. Though assigned to the Center Wing, Army of the Cumberland, this battery was not at Stones River but rather supporting troops pursuing Confederates raiders.
  • 19th Battery:  (Illegible), Kentucky.  Four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch steel guns.  Also assigned to the Center Wing, the 19th was likewise active in pursuit of Confederate raiders at this time of the war.
  • 20th Battery: No report.  Assigned to the garrison of Henderson, Kentucky.
  • 21st Battery: No report. On duty at various locations in Kentucky.

Sorry for the lengthy interpretation, but a necessary listing for the purposes of these posts.  There are several batteries (particularly the 19th Indiana) that I’d like to discuss further. But for now let me save those for separate posts in the future.

Turning to smoothbore ammunition on hand:


Just three batteries reporting quantities:

  • 2nd Battery:  6-pdr field gun – 8 spherical case and 191 canister.
  • 4th Battery: 6-pdr field gun – 320 shot, 160 case, and 30 canister.
  • 14th Battery: 6-pdr field gun – 328 shot, 296 case, and 68 canister.

Rifled projectiles followed to the right of the smoothbore listings, with Hotchkiss patent types:


Three batteries reporting:

  • 2nd Battery: James 3.80-inch – 54 shot and 176 (?) bullet shell.
  • 14th Battery: 162 of Hotchkiss pattern 3-inch percussion shell.
  • 19th Battery: 3-inch rifle – 98 canister and 86 fuse shell.

Continuing to the columns for James and Parrott projectiles:


Two batteries with quantities on hand:

  • 7th Battery:  155 Parrott 10-pdr case shot.
  • 14th Battery: James patent 3.80-inch – 188 shell, 120 case shot, and 222 canister; and 650 20-pdr Parrott shells.

Clearly a battery posted to defend the nation’s capital got plenty of ammunition!

And next those of Schenkl and Tatham’s:


Two batteries reporting:

  • 14th Battery: 83 3-inch Schenkl shells and 45 3-inch Tatham’s canister.
  • 19th Battery: 28 3-inch Schenkl canister.

Finally, the small arms:


All seven of the “reporting” batteries listed some small arms on hand, some more than others:

  • 2nd Battery: 134 Army revolvers and 49 cavalry sabers.
  • 4th Battery: 24 cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery: 2 cavalry sabers.
  • 12th Battery: 14 horse artillery sabers.
  • 14th Battery: 16 cavalry sabers.
  • 16th Battery: 2 Army revolvers.
  • 19th Battery: 15 Army revolvers and 16 horse artillery sabers.

Other than the “everyone gets a revolver” in the 2nd Battery, we might consider this a “meager” allotment of sabers and pistols.

That concludes the lengthy summary of the Indiana batteries.  Keep in mind that a quarter of these batteries were in action at the end of December 1862 at Stones River.  And those batteries expended around 4,000 rounds between December 31 and January 2.  Not to mention the lost guns, equipment, horses, and lives in the battle.  What I am left wanting is a “before” and “after” accounting from those batteries of equipment.  Such would offer a measure, on paper, of the violence seen at stones River.