Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Ohio Independent Batteries, Part 1

Ohio, like New York, had both a regimental system for artillery and independent batteries.  With the summaries for the second quarter of 1863, for some reason the Ordnance Department clerks opted to list the independent batteries before those of the 1st Ohio Light Artillery Regiment.  Yet another accounting anomaly to pester historians with OCD.  Looking at the summary, we find twenty-five of the twenty-six independent batteries were allocated a line:

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The 26th Independent Battery?  It was indeed in service at this time of the war, but under a different name.  But we’ll see them listed a little later… and then discuss their interesting story.

For part one, let us focus on the first twelve independent batteries:

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Nine of the first twelve filed returns.  Though several of those were not received by Washington until 1864.

 

  • 1st Battery: No report. Captain James R. McMullin commanded this battery, supporting the Third Division, Eighth Corps. The battery moved from Kanawha Falls, to Charleston, West Virginia near the end of June.  Sketches of the unit’s service indicate the battery had four guns at this time.  Not sure as to the type and caliber.
  • 2nd Battery: From an April 1864 return, this battery was at Ship’s Island, Mississippi with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James rifles.  Lieutenant Augustus Beach commanded this battery assigned to Twelfth Division (later Third Division), Thirteenth Corps.  The battery participated in the Vicksburg Campaign, and was in the lines at Vicksburg at the end of June 1863.
  • 3rd Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.   The battery was assigned to Third Division, Seventeenth Corps.  Captain William S. Williams remained in command.
  • 4th Battery:  Reported, as of October 1863, at Iuka, Mississippi, with two (or three) 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.   However, Captain Louis Hoffman’s battery was assigned to First Divsision, Fifteenth Corps.  And they participated in the Vicksburg Campaign with that formation.
  • 5th Battery:  No location given.  Battery reported two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Commanded by Lieutenant Anthony B. Burton.  The battery served in Fourth Division, Sixteenth Corps through the Vicksburg Campaign.  During the siege, the battery operated a 42-pdr rifle and an 8-inch siege gun captured from the Confederates.
  • 6th  Battery:  Reporting from Hillsboro, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Cullen Bradley remained in command of the battery, which was assigned to First Division, Twenty-First Corps.  The battery participated in the Tullahoma Campaign.  Hillsboro is roughly half-way between Murfreesboro and Chattanooga.
  • 7th Battery: No return.  In the previous quarter, the battery reported four 3.80-inch James Rifles.  The battery was assigned to Fourth Division, Sixteenth Corps.   Captain Silas A. Burnap remained commander.  During the siege of Vicksburg, the battery guarded the rear of the Federal lines.
  • 8th Battery: Reporting in January 1864 as at Vicksburg, Mississippi.  But no guns listed.   Commanded by Captain James F. Putnam, this battery was assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Corps.  During the siege of Vicksburg, the battery manned 30-pdr Parrotts (those not being considered “field guns” may explain the absence of guns on the summary).
  • 9th Battery: Guy’s Gap, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery was commanded by Captain Harrison B. York and assigned to the Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  The battery was among the forces arrayed to protect the Army of the Cumberland’s supply lines.
  • 10th Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Under Captain Hamilton B. White, the battery remained with Sixth Division, Seventeenth Corps.  For a time during the siege of Vicksburg, the battery occupied Fort Ransom. but the end of June found them protecting the Federal rear along the Big Black River.
  • 11th Battery: No report. Was part of the Seventh Division, Seventeenth Corps. On paper, Captain Frank C. Sands was commander.  But with Sands serving as division artillery chief, Lieutenant Fletcher E. Armstrong commanded. The battery through the Vicksburg Campaign though suffered heavily due to sickness.
  • 12th Battery: At Camp Barry, District of Columbia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Aaron C. Johnson commanded this battery.  In June, the battery was among several swapped out of the Army of the Potomac for fresh batteries.  They reported to the Artillery Camp of Instruction.

 

So we see, among these twelve batteries, a focus on Vicksburg, Mississippi.  With of course a couple employed in Tennessee, one in West Virginia, and one just missing the Gettysburg Campaign.

Moving to the ammunition, first we look at the smoothbore rounds:

0211_1_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

With 6-pdr field guns, 12-pdr field howitzers, and Napoleons on hand, this is a busy page:

  • 2nd Battery: 74 shell, 135 case, and 69 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 70 shot, 40 case, and 56 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 4th Battery: 49 shell, 13 case, and 46 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 5th Battery: 4 shot, 235 case, and 155 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 155 shell, 64 case, and 69 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 6th Battery: 48 shot, 52 shell, 76 case, and 80 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 9th Battery: 104 shot, 153 shell, 310 case, and 226 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Moving to the rifled projectiles, we find a wide array of makes and calibers.  Starting with the Hotchkiss patent types:

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Hotchkiss for both the James and Ordnance rifles:

  • 2nd Battery: 100 fuse shell and 90 bullet shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 3rd Battery: 112 percussion shell and 113 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 64 shot and 216 percussion shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 5th Battery: 79 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 9th Battery: 85 canister, 145 fuse shell, and 155 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 30 shot and 160 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery:  492 fuse shell and 403 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

I’ll break down the next page in sections for easier handling.  Starting with the extended Hotchkiss columns and Dyer’s patent:

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Hotchkiss patent:

  • 3rd Battery: 49 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 309 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Dyer’s:

  • 12th Battery: 120 canister for 3-inch rifles.

Then moving to the James patent projectiles:

0212_1B_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

Four batteries reporting:

  • 2nd Battery: 100 shot and 400 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 3rd Battery: 15 shot and 35 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 5th Battery: 4 shot, 112 shell and 95 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 103 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

Only one battery reported Parrott rifles:

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So we find one battery reporting Parrott projectiles:

  • 6th Battery: 440 shell, 347 case, and 60 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

But do remember 8th Battery used 30-pdr Parrotts at Vicksburg, though not listed in the summary.

Tuning to the last page, let us break the projectiles into two sections.  First the Schenkl patent:

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Three lines:

  • 4th Battery: 143 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 64 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery: 167 shell for 3-inch rifles.

Moving to the last columns, we have Tatham’s canister on hand with two batteries:

0212_2B_Snip_Ohio_IND_Pt1

  • 2nd Battery: 143 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 94 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

One might expect a variety of projectiles used by the batteries at Vicksburg, given the extended supply lines.  But 12th Battery, at Camp Barry, had three different patent types of 3-inch projectiles.  And they were right in the Ordnance Department’s back yard!

Last we have the small arms:

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By battery:

  • 2nd Battery: Eight cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Twenty-three Navy revolvers and eight cavalry sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Twenty-five Army revolvers, fifty-two cavalry sabers, six horse artillery sabers, and sixteen foot artillery sabers.
  • 5th Battery: Seven Navy revolvers and sixteen cavalry sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Two Army revolvers and six cavalry sabers.
  • 12th Battery: Four cavalry sabers and twenty horse artillery sabers.

The 4th Battery demonstrated a fondness for edged weapons.

We’ll look at the second half of the Ohio independent batteries in the next installment.

 

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Summary Statement, 1st Quarter, 1863 – Ohio’s Independent Batteries, Part 1

Ohio designated twenty-six batteries as “independent” numbered units during the Civil War.  As with our look at the previous quarter, we’ll split those into halves to facilitate detailed discussion (… and well.. also because the section is split across two pages in the summaries!).  So the first fourteen appear as such:

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With ten of those reporting:

  • 1st Battery: No report. Captain James R. McMullin commanded this battery, supporting the Third Division, Eighth Corps, and posted to Kanawha Falls, West Virginia. The battery had 3-inch Ordnance Rifles at this time.
  • 2nd Battery: Reporting at Helena, Arkansas with  two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. At the start of the winter, Captain Newton J. Smith commanded this battery assigned to Twelfth Division (later Third Division), Thirteenth Corps.  Lieutenant Augustus Beach replaced Smith near the beginning of spring.
  • 3rd Battery: At Berry’s Landing, Louisiana with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.   Berry’s Landing was a placename upstream of Helena, Arkansas, not in Louisiana!  In this case, the battery was around Lake Providence at the end of winter 1863.  So it is likely there were two such placenames in use.  Was assigned to Third Division, Seventeenth Corps.  Captain William S. Williams commanding.
  • 4th Battery:  At Milliken’s Bend, Louisiana with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Captain Louis Hoffmann’s battery assigned to First Divsision, Fifteenth Corps.
  • 5th Battery:  At Memphis, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Commanded by Lieutenant Anthony B. Burton.  Briefly assigned to the Seventeenth Corps at the start of the winter months. Later, in January, moved with the rest of the division (Fourth) to Sixteenth Corps.
  • 6th  Battery:  Reporting from Murfreesboro, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons (replacing 6-pdrs) and four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Cullen Bradley remained in command of the battery, which was assigned to First Division, Twenty-First Corps with the reorganizations that winter.
  • 7th Battery: Memphis, Tennessee with four 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Like the 5th Battery, the 7th was briefly listed in the Seventeenth Corps until the Forth Division transferred to the Sixteenth Corps.   Captain Silas A. Burnap remained commander.
  • 8th Battery: No report.  Commanded by Captain (promoted)  James F. Putnam, this battery was assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Corps.
  • 9th Battery: Brentwood, Tennessee (between Franklin and Nashville) with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Commanded by Captain Harrison B. York and assigned to the Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.
  • 10th Battery: Lake Providence, Louisiana with four 3.80-inch James Rifles. At the start of January 1863, this battery,  under Captain Hamilton B. White, was in Sixth Division, Sixteenth Corps.  But that division moved to the Seventeenth Corps later in the month.  You need a cheat sheet to follow Grant’s old Thirteenth Corps reorganizations!
  • 11th Battery: No report. Was part of the Seventh Division, Sixteenth Corps at the start of January.  When the division transferred to the Seventeenth Corps, the battery went along. By the end of spring, Lieutenant Fletcher E. Armstrong was in command.
  • 12th Battery: At Aquia Creek, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Aaron C. Johnson commanded this battery assigned to the Eleventh corps.
  • 13th Battery: No report. Losing all its guns at Shiloh, this battery ceased to exist after April 1862.
  • 14th Battery: Jackson, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance rifles. The battery part of the District of Jackson (though at Lynnville, Tennessee), Thirteenth Corps at this time, under Lieutenant Homer H. Stull.

What I like about this set of batteries is the variation among gun tubes assigned.  We see some 6-pdrs and field howitzers still on hand.  A lot of James Rifles.  But the Napoleons, Parrotts, and Ordnance Rifles beginning to replace the older weapons. An interesting mix for the middle of the war.

Turning to smoothbore projectiles:

0134_1_Snip_OhioInd1

Like a canister blast pattern!

  • 2nd Battery: 41 shell, 113 case, and 77 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 120 shot, 143 case, and 59 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 4th Battery: 110 shell, 105 case, and 92 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 5th Battery: 40 shot, 267 case, and 93 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 57 shell, 147 case, and 82 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 6th Battery: 118 shot, 52 shell, 76 case, and 80 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 9th Battery: 180 shot, 243 shell, 446 case, and 310 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 14th Battery: 148 shot, 48 shell, 150 case, and 58 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Moving to rifled projectiles, we start with the Hotchkiss types:

0134_2_Snip_OhioInd1

We can split this page between the James Rifles (majority) and the Ordnance Rifles (two battery).  Starting with Hotchkiss projectiles for James rifles:

  • 2nd Battery: 60 shot, 127 percussion shell, and 310 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 3rd Battery: 58 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 55 shot and 240 percussion shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 66 shot for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 39 shot and 71 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

Now the two batteries with Hotchkiss for 3-inch Ordnance Rifles:

  • 12th Battery: 171 percussion shell, 497 fuse shell, and 407 bullet shell in 3-inch.
  • 14th Battery: 148 canister, 160 percussion shell, 160 fuse shell, and 340 bullet shell in 3-inch.

For simplicity, let’s break the next page into batches.  Starting with some “trailing columns” of Hotchkiss and those of Dyer’s Patent:

0135_1A_Snip_OhioInd1

One line for Hotckiss left:

  • 10th Battery: 389 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

And likewise for Dyer’s:

  • 12th Battery: 120 canister for 3-inch.

Moving to the James-patent projectiles, as we would expect there are many entries:

0135_1B_Snip_OhioInd1

  • 2nd Battery: 51 shot in 3.80-inch.
  • 3rd Battery: 63 shot and 210 shell in 3.80-inch.
  • 4th Battery: 170 shell in 3.80-inch.
  • 5th Battery: 55 shot, 151 shell, and 95 canister in 3.80-inch.
  • 7th Battery: 60 shell and 100 canister in 3.80-inch.
  • 10th Battery:  203 shell in 3.80-inch.

Moving to the right, one battery with Parrotts, so….

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  • 6th Battery:  440 shell, 347 case, and 60 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

Turning to the next page…

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Just a few entries for Schenkl shells:

  • 3rd Battery: 122 shells for 3.80-inch.
  • 7th Battery: 320 shells for 3.80-inch.
  • 10th Battery: 176 shells for 3.80-inch.

Where we see James rifles in use, we often see Tatham’s Canister:

  • 2nd Battery: 144 canister in 3.80-inch.
  • 3rd Battery: 78 canister in 3.80-inch.
  • 4th Battery: 90 canister in 3.80-inch.
  • 7th Battery: 80 canister in 3.80-inch.

I find interesting that among these batteries with James rifles, there is a mix of shells from different patent types.  And with the canister, we see the 7th Battery reported both James’ and Tatham’s on hand – thus alluding to differences with the two types.

We close with the small arms:

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By battery reporting:

  • 2nd Battery: Three Army revolvers and twelve cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Twenty-three Army revolvers, eight cavalry sabers, and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Twenty-five Army revolvers, fifty-five cavalry sabers, six horse artillery sabers, and eighteen foot artillery sabers.
  • 5th Battery: Seven Navy revolvers and sixteen cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery: Ten Army revolvers and seven horse artillery sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Five Army revolvers and thirteen cavalry sabers.
  • 14th Battery: Thirty Army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.

Notice the 12th Battery, posted in Virginia, reported no small arms on hand. I would expect the battery to have some arms on hand, but not many.

Summary Statement: December 31, 1862 – Ohio Independent Batteries, Part 2

Let us continue with the Ohio independent batteries and review the second half of their fourth quarter, 1862 summaries:

0067_Snip_Dec62_2_Ohio_1

Again, we see some batteries skipped in the order.  In this case the 13th and 14th. Of the   six reporting, two have returns not posted until 1864.   In addition, just to say we’ve had a complete look, there were some batteries, beyond the 20th, which deserve mention.

  • 11th Battery: No report.  Was part of the Seventh Division, Left Wing, Thirteenth Corps and camped around Germantown, Tennessee, outside Memphis.  Captain Frank C. Sands commanding.  UPDATE:  Phil Spaugy has a great post up about the 11th Battery in action at Iuka.  He passed along a source indicating the battery had two 3.67-inch rifles, two 6-pdr field guns, and two 12-pdr field howitzers at Iuka in September 1862.
  • 12th Battery: At Falmouth, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Aaron C. Johnson commanded this battery assigned to the Eleventh corps.
  • 13th Battery: Not listed.  Losing all its guns at Shiloh, this battery ceased to exist after April 1862.
  • 14th Battery: Not listed.  The battery part of the District of Jackson (though at Lynnville, Tennessee), Thirteenth Corps at this time, under Lieutenant Homer H. Stull.
  • 15th Battery: Tallahachie, Mississippi with four 6-pdr field guns.  The 15th was involved with Grant’s Northern Mississippi , as part of the Fourth Division, Right Wing, Thirteenth Corps.  Captain Edward Spear, Jr. commanded.
  • 16th Battery: No location given, but with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Lieutenant Russell Twist commanded this battery at Helena, assigned to District of Eastern Arkansas, in the Department of Missouri.  But the battery was soon to be pulled into the Vicksburg Campaign.
  • 17th Battery: No report.  Captain Ambrose A. Blount commanded this battery.  Blount’s battery was among the unattached artillery supporting Sherman’s failed attempt at Chickasaw Bayou that December.
  • 18th Battery: Nashville, Tennessee with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The location may be valid for March 1863, as received in Washington.  However, at the close of 1862, Captain Charles Aleshire’s battery had just arrived in Lousiville, Kentucky, as part of Second Division, Army of Kentucky.
  • 19th Battery: Knoxville, Tennessee with six 12-pdr Napoleons. The 19th, under Captain Joseph C. Shield, was also in Second Division, Army of Kentucky, but moving towards Frankfort at the close of 1862.  The Knoxville location was valid for February 1864, when the return was posted to Washington.
  • 20th Battery: Nashville, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  The 20th, under Captain Edward Grosskopff (formerly of the 10th Ohio Independent Battery), arrived a few days late to participate in the Battle of Stones River.  They were, at that time, not assigned to a field formation.
  • 21st Battery, 22nd Battery, and 24th Battery:  Not organized until later in 1863.
  • 23rd Battery: Not listed. Mustered in 1861, this battery was attached to 2nd Kentucky Infantry.  It became the 1st Kentucky Independent Light Battery.
  • 25th Battery: Not listed.  Formed as the 3rd Battery Kansas Artillery, this battery was re-designated as the 25th Ohio Independent Light Battery in February 1863.
  • 26th Battery: Not listed.  This battery was actually Company F, 32nd Ohio Infantry, detached for artillery service.  It was among those units surrendered at Harpers Ferry on September 15, 1862 (thus no report).  Upon receiving their exchange, the battery resumed duty as infantry in Company F.  This began a curious story where by Captain Theobold D. Yost’s men were sometimes a battery and other times infantry.  Only in December 1863 was the 26th permanently established.

So I figure we should have entries for nine batteries, but only six have reports tallied.  We work with what is there.

And we will work first wit the smoothbore ammunition:

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Four batteries reporting quantities:

  • 15th Battery: For 6-pdr field guns – 412 shot, 256 case, and 164 canister.
  • 16th Battery: For 6-pdr field guns – 210 shot, 167 case, and 98 canister.
  • 19th Battery: For 12-pdr Napoleons – 96 shot, 358 shell, 306 case, and 222 canister.
  • 20th Battery: For 12-pdr Napoleons – 150 shot, 50 shell, 150 case, and 50 canister.

For rifled ammunition, starting with Hotchkiss-type:

0069_Snip_Dec62_2_Ohio_2

Again, four batteries to consider:

  • 12th Battery:  350(or 250?) fuse shell and 730 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 16th Battery:  340 shot and 340 fuse shell for 3.80-inch James Rifles.
  • 18th Battery:  144 canister, 225 percussion shell, 530 fuse shell, and 480 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 20th Battery: 100 canister, 160 percussion shell, 160 fuse shell, and 375 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

Just one entry to consider for the next page:

0070_Snip_Dec62_2_Ohio_1

12th Battery reported 125 3-inch Dyer’s canister.

Then a couple of entries on the next page:

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12th Battery also had 125 3-inch Schenkl shells.  16th Battery had 136(?) of Tatham’s canister for their 3.80-inch rifles.

Lastly, the small arms reported:

0070_Snip_Dec62_2_Ohio_3

By battery:

  • 15th Battery: Eight cavalry sabers.
  • 16th Battery: Thirty Navy revolvers and eighty-eight cavalry sabers.
  • 18th Battery:  Thirty Army revolvers, twelve cavalry sabers, and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • 19th Battery: Thirty Navy revolvers and twelve cavalry sabers.
  • 20th Battery: Thirty Army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.

So of those reporting, only the 12th Battery indicated no small arms on hand. Somehow I think that an omission of some sort.