Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Ohio Independent Batteries, Part 1

Ohio provided twenty-six numbered independent batteries to the Federal cause during the Civil War.  As mentioned in last week’s post, two of those twenty-six were discontinued before the middle of the war.  That leaves us, for the purposes of the third quarter, 1863’s summary statement, just twenty-four batteries to account for.   So two batches of a dozen.  Let’s look at the first twelve:

0281_1_Snip_OH_Ind_1

Seven of the twelve submitted returns.  And we see service from Washington, D.C. all the way west to Little Rock, Arkansas:

  • 1st Battery: No report. Captain James R. McMullin commanded this battery, supporting the Third Division (Scammon’s), Department/Army of West Virginia, then based at Charleston, West Virginia.  Most likely the battery retained four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles received just after the battle of Antietam, a year earlier.
  • 2nd Battery: No return.  This battery was assigned to Third Division, Thirteenth Corps.  During the summer months, the battery followed its parent formation to New Orleans and became part of the Department of the Gulf.   Lieutenant Augustus Beach was promoted to captain in October 1863, and commanded the battery.  A corps-level return from September 26, 1863 indicates the battery had two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 3rd Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.   The battery was assigned to Third Division, Seventeenth Corps.  Captain William S. Williams remained in command.  The battery remained at Vicksburg through April 1864.  Williams served as division artillery chief.  So on some order of battles Lieutenant Thomas J. Blackburn appears in command of the battery.
  • 4th Battery:  No return.  The battery was assigned to First Division, Fifteenth Corps.  After the battle of Jackson, Mississippi, the battery followed its parent formation back to the Big Black River and spent most of the summer there.  At the end of September, the battery was among those forces dispatched to reinforce Chattanooga. When Captain Louis Hoffman resigned at the end of June, George Froehlich took his place, and was advanced to captain.  The battery likely retained two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.80-inch James Rifles.  This mix would change in December, as the battery received replacements from what was left behind on Missionary Ridge.
  • 5th Battery:  At Little Rock, Arkansas with two 6-pdr field guns and two 3.80-inch James rifles.  With Captain Andrew Hickenlooper serving as the Seventeenth Corps’ Chief Engineer, Lieutenants John D. Burner and, later, Anthony B. Burton led this battery.  The battery served in Fourth Division, Sixteenth Corps and remained around Vicksburg through the early summer.  The battery was among the forces detached for Steele’s Expedition to Little Rock in August.  And thence became part of the garrison of that place.
  • 6th  Battery:  Reporting from Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Cullen Bradley remained in command of the battery, which was assigned to First Division, Twenty-First Corps.  The battery saw heavy action at Chickamuauga, as evidenced in Bradley’s very detailed report.  On September 19 the guns fired 209 rounds, “of this some 20 rounds were canister” attesting to the range at which the fighting occurred.  All told the battery fired 336 rounds in the battle.
  • 7th Battery: No return.  Captain Silas A. Burnap remained commander.  The battery was assigned to Fourth Division, Sixteenth Corps through August, 1863. However, the battery moved with its parent division as reorganizations occurred later in the summer, temporarily listed in the Thirteenth Corps before finally moving to the Seventeenth Corps.  The battery participated in the campaign to Jackson in July and was later moved to Natchez, where it stayed through November.  In the first quarter, the battery reported four 3.80-inch James Rifles.
  • 8th Battery: Reporting in January 1864 as at Vicksburg, Mississippi (with the annotation of “positions in Fort ????”).  The battery had two 30-pdr Parrotts (not listed, as those were not considered field artillery).  Commanded by Captain James F. Putnam, this battery was assigned to Second Division, Fifteenth Corps.  After Vicksburg, one section was sent with the expedition to Jackson. But the rest of the summer was spent at Vicksburg. In September, the battery transferred to First Division, Seventeenth Corps.
  • 9th Battery: Tullahoma, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery was commanded by Captain Harrison B. York and assigned to the Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  The battery was among the forces arrayed to protect the Army of the Cumberland’s supply lines.  The battery was at Murfreesboro until September 5, and then moved forward to Tullahoma.  At that position, the battery inherited two 24-pdr siege guns (which would not appear on our field artillery listings for this quarter).
  • 10th Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 3.80-inch James Rifles. Under Captain Hamilton B. White, the battery remained with Sixth (later First) Division, Seventeenth Corps. Aside from the Jackson campaign, The battery remained at Vicksburg until April 1864.
  • 11th Battery: No report. Was part of the Seventh Division, Seventeenth Corps. Captain Frank C. Sands was commander (though Lieutenant Fletcher E. Armstrong appears on some returns, with Sands on detail away from the battery). The battery was among the troops assigned to Steele’s Little Rock Expedition in August 1863.  The battery had a mix of two (or three according to some reports) 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and one (or two) rifled 6-pdr guns.
  • 12th Battery: At Camp Barry, District of Columbia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Aaron C. Johnson commanded this battery.  Having lost their posting with the Army of the Potomac, the battery remained at the Artillery Camp of Instruction through the summer.  In late September, the battery received assignment back to the Eleventh Corps, then moving west to reinforce Chattanooga.

Thus of the five batteries not reporting, and the 8th Battery without any tallies, we can at least pencil in what should have been on those lines.  With a few reservations, of course.

Turning next to the ammunition, the smoothbore columns reflect the varied armament of these batteries:

0283_1_Snip_OH_Ind_1

Four batteries reporting:

  • 3rd Battery: 70 shot, 40 case, and 56 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 5th Battery: 5 shot, 633 case, and 154 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 102 shell, and 230 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.  (See comment below.)
  • 6th Battery: 42 shot, 65 shell, 64 case, and 72 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 9th Battery: 104 shot, 153 shell, 307 case, and 223 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

5th Battery had a pair of 12-pdr field howitzers on hand the previous quarter.  It appears they still had ammunition to report, even after turning in the howitzers.

Moving to the rifled projectiles, first we have the Hotchkiss type:

0283_2_Snip_OH_Ind_1

Interesting that we see a good number of rounds for the James calibers:

  • 3rd Battery: 113 percussion shell and 112 fuse shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 5th Battery: 60 percussion shell and 80 fuse shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 9th Battery: 85 canister, 50 percussion shell, 135 fuse shell, and 150 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 20 shot and 104 fuse shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 12th Battery: 120 canister, 502 fuse shell, and 403 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

I’ll break up the next page for clarity, starting with a left-over set of Hotchkiss entries:

0284_1H_Snip_OH_Ind_1

  • 3rd Battery: 69 Hotchkiss canister for 3.80-inch James.
  • 10th Battery: 325 Hotchkiss canister for 3.80-inch James.

Then to the James (actual) columns:

0284_1J_Snip_OH_Ind_1

  • 3rd Battery: 15 shot and 35 shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 5th Battery: 4 shot, 123 shell, and 87 canister for 3.80-inch James.
  • 10th Battery: 120 shell for 3.80-inch James.

Only one battery reported Parrotts on hand:

0284_1P_Snip_OH_Ind_1

  • 6th Battery: 351 shell, 90 case, and 53 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Then completing this assortment of projectiles, we turn to the Schenkl columns:

0284_2_Snip_OH_Ind_1

  • 5th Battery: 11 shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 10th Battery: 204 shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • 12th Battery: 167 shell for 3-inch rifles.

And note, the 5th Battery could look in their chests to find Hotchkiss, James, and Schenkl projectiles.  Not to mention a few left over 12-pdr field howitzer rounds.  Enough to make a good ordnance officer wince!

Last we have the small arms:

0284_3_Snip_OH_Ind_1

By Battery:

  • 3rd Battery: Twenty-three army revolvers and eight cavalry sabers.
  • 5th Battery: Seven navy revolvers and seven cavalry sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Two army revolvers and six cavalry sabers.
  • 12th Battery: Twelve army revolvers, four cavalry sabers, and twenty horse artillery sabers.

We’ll look at the other half of the Ohio independent batteries in the next installment.

Advertisements

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 1st Ohio Artillery Regiment

Ohio’s artillery required half a page in the third quarter, 1863 summary:

0281_1_Snip_OH_All

Topping this section is the 1st Ohio Light Artillery Regiment.  An appropriate administrative space, then listings for the independent batteries – 1st through 26th.  But notice the 13th Battery (which never fully organized, and was broken up in 1862) and the 23rd Battery (which became Simmonds’ Independent Battery and was allocated to Kentucky).  At the bottom of this list are two infantry regiments reporting artillery and stores on hand.  Not on this listing is a section of mountain howitzers assigned to the 2nd Ohio Cavalry at this time of the war, which we will discuss.  Thus we have an itinerary for the next set of postings on this theme.

Starting this Ohio section, we have Colonel James Barnett’s 1st Ohio Light Artillery.  Barnett was, at the time, serving as Chief of Artillery, Army of the Cumberland.  And it is his detailed report from the Chickamauga Campaign that I use to validate many of the particulars for batteries involved with that action.  For the quarter, the Ordnance Department received returns for ten of the twelve batteries:

0281_1_Snip_OH1

The locations and activities of these batteries reflects many of the “moving pieces” in play during the third quarter of 1863:

  • Battery A: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3.80-inch James Rifles, in a return received in August 1864. Captain Wilbur F. Goodspeed remained in command of this battery assigned to Second Division, Twentieth Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  The battery saw action on both September 19 and 20. On the morning of the 20th battery was particularly hard pressed around 10 a.m. and, with support of the 15th Ohio Infantry, drove back a Confederate charge with double canister at range of 50 yards.  While Goodspeed kept his guns through the battle, he lost 15 horses.  Furthermore “… in consequence of not unharsessing for six days…” he expected to lose another 25, as he reported from Chattanooga after the Federal retreat.  Here’s a photo from their position on Kelly Field where they fought during the morning of September 20:

Chickamauga 482

  • Battery B: Also reporting at Chattanooga, with two 6-pdr field guns and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.   The battery remained in Second Division, Twenty-First Corps and Captain William E. Standart served as division chief of artillery.  In his place, Lieutenant Norman A. Baldwin commanded the battery.  On September 19, the battery fired 159 rounds.  On September 20, they occupied a position behind breastworks in the heart of Thomas’s line (what is today Battleline Road).  Fighting in their sector began at 8 a.m. And the battery only relinquished those works when ordered to the rear around 5 p.m., having fired 986 rounds (pretty much all they had coming into action).  Three of the James rifles were disabled in the fighting.  Only one could be recovered back to Chattanooga.  The battery lost thirteen horses; one man killed, eight wounded, and four missing.
  • Battery C: Reporting at Chattanooga with two 12-pdr Napoleons and three 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Captain Daniel K. Southwick commanded the battery at the start of the quarter.  However he resigned (officially dated to October 19).  Lieutenant Marco B. Gary led the battery as they marched with Third Division, Fourteenth Corps toward Chickamauga Creek.  The battery was in action both days of the battle.  As it was often employed by section, Lieutenants Hiram W. Turner, Thomas King, and Jerome B. Stevens are listed on the battery’s War Department tablets.  Caught up in the confusion in the afternoon of September 20, Gary took it upon himself to move the battery to the rear.  Having lost 25 horses already, this was a daunting task even without Confederate pressure.  Gary reported losing one James rifle, one caisson, and parts of two other caissons.  All told the battery expended 498 rounds in the battle.
  • Battery D: At Knoxville, Tennessee with four 3-inch Ordnance rifles. At the end of the previous quarter, the battery was serving by section in support of different cavalry divisions.  In July, the battery was consolidated, in eastern Tennessee, and transferred to the First Division, Twenty-third Corps.  Captain Andrew J. Konkle (or Conkle on some returns) commanded.  By August, the battery was again transferred.  This time to the Third Division of the same corps.  Lieutenant William H. Pease commanded when Konkle took command of the corps reserve artillery.
  • Battery E: No report. This battery was assigned to Second Division, Reserve Corps, part of the Nashville garrison when the quarter began.  Lieutenant Stephen W. Dorsey remained in command of the battery.  Later in July, the battery moved forward to Chattanooga, reaching Bridgeport in October. Captain Warren P. Edgarton, of the battery, was in command of the Nashville garrison artillery.
  • Battery F: No report. Captain Daniel T. Cockerill was still recovering from wounds.  His immediate replacement, Lieutenant Norval Osborn, was later replaced (due to date of rank) by Lieutenant Giles J. Cockerill.  The battery was assigned to Second Division, Twenty-first Corps. The battery had four James rifles and two 12-pdr field howitzers.  Leaving the field on September 20, the battery had only fifteen rounds left in their chests.
  • Battery G: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Alexander Marshall’s battery assigned to Second Division, Fourteenth Corps.  In action at Chickamauga, the battery fired 294 rounds.
  • Battery H: Reporting at Culpeper, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain James F. Huntington resumed command duties during the summer.  The battery Transferred to the 4th Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac in August.
  • Battery I: In Lookout Valley, Tennessee, based on a January 1864 receipt date, with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Hubert Dilger’s battery was assigned to Eleventh Corps.  The battery was sent west, with the rest of Eleventh Corps, to reinforce Chattanooga, with movement starting in late September.
  • Battery K: Bridgeport, Alabama, with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Part of the Eleventh Corps, along with Battery I, this battery moved to reinforce Chattanooga in late September. Captain Lewis Heckman remained in command of the battery.  But in his absence Lieutenants Columbus Rodamour led the battery.  Later, in Tennessee, Lieutenant Nicholas Sahm, of Company I, 1st New York Artillery, led the battery in operations around Chattanooga.
  • Battery L: At Culpeper, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Frank C. Gibbs had command of this battery, supporting Fifth Corps.
  • Battery M: Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 3-inch rifles and four 3.80-inch James rifles. Captain Frederick Schultz commanded this battery, assigned to Second Division, Fourteenth Corps.  At Chickamauga, the battery fired 415 rounds.

Turning now to the ammunition reports, we have a lot of smoothbore rounds to count:

0283_1_Snip_OH1

Seven batteries with smoothbore:

  • Battery A: 50 shot, 56 shell, 71 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr napoleons.
  • Battery B: 20 shot, 59 case, and 42 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery C: 52 shot, 13 shell, 96 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; but also 33 canister for 6-pdr field guns (which may have been used in the battery’s James rifles).
  • Battery G: 176 shot, 64 shell, 160 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery I: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery K: 192 shot, 44 shell, 142 case, and 14 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L: 296 shot, 111 shell, 301 case, and 118 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

With several mixed batteries, there were also several reporting Hotchkiss projectiles for rifled guns:

0283_2_Snip_OH1

Six batteries reporting:

  • Battery A: 86 shot for 3.80-inch James.
  • Battery C: 55 percussion shell for 3.80-inch James.
  • Battery D: 161 canister, 238 percussion shell, and 460 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery G: 77 canister, 175 percussion shell, and 120 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery H: 339 shot, 92 canister, and 27 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M: 127 canister, 75 percussion shell, 98 fuse shell, and 99 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles; and 63 shot for 3.80-inch James rifles.

The report of over fifty 3-inch shot per gun in Battery H is worth noting.  No conclusions to draw.  But that is a significant deviation from normal allocations.

We can narrow down the next page to show only the remaining Hotchkiss columns with the James projectiles:

0284_1A_Snip_OH1

The Hotchkiss columns first:

  • Battery A: 139 canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery C: 7 canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.

Over to the James columns:

  • Battery C: 69 shot and 61 shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.

Continuing with the rifled projectiles, we consider next the Schenkl projectiles:

0284_2_Snip_OH1

Four batteries with those on hand:

  • Battery A: 186 shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery B: 70 shot and 210 shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery C: 2010 shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • Battery H: 729 shell and 40 case for 3-inch rifles.

Lastly we have the small arms:

0284_3_Snip_OH1

By battery:

  • Battery A: Seven horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Eighteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery C: Six horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery D: Twenty-eight navy revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Six army revolvers and ten cavalry sabers.
  • Battery H: Twenty army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery I: Nine army revolvers and thirty-nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery K: Five army revolvers and five horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery L: Nineteen navy revolvers and thirty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery M: Six army revolvers and six cavalry sabers.

The small arms totals might look thin.  And one might think those due to losses at Chickamauga.  Though there were small arms lost in the battle, and reflecting in the totals on the summary, the 1st Ohio batteries did not carry many into the quarter.  And thus didn’t go into action on September 19 with an abundance of edged weapons and pistols.  Given the close quarters at which some of the fighting took place in that battle, the scarcity of small arms is an important interpretive factor, I feel.

next installment will look at the first twelve independent batteries of Ohio.

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Howitzers for New Mexico!

Aside from compiling information for future projects, one of the motivations for working through the summary statements is to present stories that call out from the entry lines.  A great example of that is a small section from the third quarter, 1863 under the heading of “New Mexico.”:

0281_1_Snip_NM

The entry line indicates:

  • Company K, 1st New Mexico Cavalry, Artillery Stores: At Fort Canby, New Mexico (Territory), with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  The return was received in Washington on December 29, 1863.

While just a couple of little howitzers, there is a lot here to unpack.  And I had to call upon my old Army buddy Don Caughey for an assist (bookmark that site… while Don is not a prolific blog writer, he more than makes up in quality).

When we think of the Civil War in New Mexico, mention is made of Sibley’s New Mexico Campaign.  And then of Glorieta Pass – “The Gettysburg of the West” – and that time YOU answered a trivia question correctly (“I’ll take Trans-Mississippi for $500”).  One might dismiss the theater as a backwater after mid-1862, right?  Well not so fast….

While true the Federals and Confederates did very little sparing after that 1862 campaign, encounters with Native Americans kept both sides busy for the remainder of the war, and beyond.  The Federals in New Mexico Territory continued to play out pre-war confrontations with the Apache and Navaho. These operations and engagements might properly be classified as part of the Apache Wars or the Navaho Wars rather than those of the Civil War.  However, I suggest, as these activities occurred during the Civil War, involving leaders, troops, and resources otherwise associated with the Civil War, that we must at least concede these operations are best studied in the context of the larger war.

The troops employed were a mix of US Regulars along with volunteers from California and New Mexico.  Of that latter group, the 1st New Mexico Cavalry featured a rather well known regimental commander:

kit_carson_photograph_restored

Christopher Houston “Kit” Carson had already established his place in American history well before the Civil War started.  The frontiersman had done much to scout out and further open up the American west.  At the outbreak of the war, Carson left his position as an Indian Agent and volunteered in the US Army.  He was soon given command of the 1st New Mexico Volunteer Infantry, leading that regiment in the Battle of Valverde in late February 1862.  With the conclusion of the 1862 campaign, and many enlistments running out, Federal authorities reorganized the New Mexico volunteers.  On May 13, 1862 the 1st New Mexico Cavalry was formed out of the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 5th New Mexico Infantry, under Colonel Carson.  The regiment served at several frontier outposts, operating against the Apache and Navajo, and only rarely the Confederates.

The following year, authorities in the Territory decided the time had come to conduct a hard campaign against the Navajo, citing increasing murders and robberies.  And on June 15, 1863, under General Orders No. 15 from the Department of New Mexico, commanded by Brigadier-General James Henry Carleton, Carson was to lead a column against the Navajo.

Allow me to pass over much of the campaign’s details (and interesting campaign which is, in my opinion, lacking a definitive, focused study, at least not that I’ve found) and look to these howitzers.  In the details of that order, “Colonel Carson will require, and receive, two mountain howitzers on prairie carriages, with an adequate supply of ammunition, &c., to be used in defense of his depot at Pueblo, Colorado.”  As the campaign unfolded, Carson would need those howitzers at his advanced base of Fort Canby.

Fort Canby was established in late July, was 28 miles west of Fort Defiance (which had been abandoned in 1861, but reestablished during Carson’s operations in 1863).  The site is near the present day Ganado, Arizona (recall… Arizona wasn’t a territory until later).  With support from Fort Canby, Carson began a winter-long campaign to round up Navajo.  Most were taken to Fort Defiance and then sent on a march across what is today New Mexico to Fort Sumner.  An 18-day, 300-mile journey under terrible conditions.

Circling back to the howitzers, initially the two weapons were assigned to the regimental ordnance sergeant, Moses Barnwell.  When Barnwell went on to other duties, serving as post Sergeant-Major and other senior positions, he did not retain control of the cannon past September of 1863.  It’s not clear who was placed in charge of the howitzers at that time. I suspect the cannon were detailed to different sergeants as the need arose.

But the record is clear that the 1st New Mexico Cavalry retained those howitzers for quite a while.  Abstract returns from later in 1863 and 1864 indicate two howitzers remained at Fort Canby.  The howitzers were used in the field during operations against the Navajo in January and February 1864.  And in November 1864, when Carson lead a column into the Texas Panhandle, he had two howitzers with him.  The howitzers played an important role in the First Battle of Adobe Walls, helping to repel a force of Kiowa, Comanche, and Plains Apache.  That said, if we ever do find the original return from the 1st New Mexico Cavalry and can trace the exact registry numbers to surviving pieces, I’d submit those are some bronze cannon with a story or two worth relating.

As for ammunition allocated to those mountain howitzers:

0283_1_Snip_NM

  • Company K, 1st New Mexico Cavalry: 72 shell and 88 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

Remarkably, for service on the frontier, there was no canister reported.

The remainder of the ammunition columns are empty, as one would expect.  And the small arms were likely reported on a separate summary for cavalry and/or infantry arms.

While just a pair of howitzers, the line on the Ordinance Department summary statement alludes to events occurring in the far southwest of America in 1863.  And some of those events would rival and surpass the “hard hand of war” being experienced in the eastern half of the country.  All the more reason I wish we could identify one or both of these howitzers among the surviving cannon today – as there are many stories to tell around them.

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – New Hampshire’s battery

In the summaries for the previous quarters, I’ve combined New Hampshire’s entries along with other states for brevity.  After all, there’s just one line to consider, and that is a very uncomplicated line.  We find that same entry line, for New Hampshire’s lone light battery for the third quarter, 1863:

0281_1_Snip_NH

And that line remained uncomplicated for the third quarter:

  • 1st Light Battery: Reporting at Culpeper, Virginia with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Frederick M. Edgell remained in command.  And the battery remained with the Third Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac.

But there were a couple other artillery formations from New Hampshire in existence at the end of September.   Though neither would warrant mention on the summaries:

  • 1st New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Company: Not listed. On April 17, 1863, Charles H. Long received a captain’s commission and authority to recruit a heavy artillery company to man Fort Constitution, defending Portsmouth harbor.  The company formally mustered on July 22 of that year.
  • 2nd New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Company: Not listed.  Authorized in August 1863.  Captain Ira M. Barton appointed commander.  Mustered into service on September 17, 1863. This battery also garrisoned the defenses of Portsmouth, detailed to Fort McClary, on the Maine side of the harbor.

Eventually all three of these companies would be part of the same regiment – the First New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Regiment – in the fall of 1864.

So we return to focus on that one uncomplicated entry line, moving to the ammunition. No smoothbore ammunition to report so we move to the Hotchkiss page:

0283_2_Snip_NH

  • 1st Light Battery:  80 canister, 38 percussion shell, 209 fuse shell, and 182 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

No Dyer, James, or Parrott rounds to consider.  So we turn to the Schenkl:

0284_2_Snip_NH

  • 1st Light Battery: 163 shell and 125 case for 3-inch rifles.

And those were Schenkl rounds that Edgell spoke ill of in his Gettysburg report.

Turning to the small arms:

0284_3_Snip_NH

  • 1st Light Battery: Five army revolvers, eight navy revolvers, and thirteen cavalry sabers.

That wraps up the New Hampshire section.  We’ll move to another single line entry in the next installment – New Mexico!

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – New Jersey Batteries

The clerks at the Ordnance Department during the Civil War often violated strict alphabetical order for the sake of better organization within ledger entries.  Such is the case with New Jersey’s summary statement entries for the third quarter of 1863.  The state’s lines appear AFTER New York’s and BEFORE New Hampshire’s.   While troublesome for those with obsessive-compulsive tendencies, this does save a lot of white space on the entry sheets.

By this time of the war, New Jersey had organized and mustered five light batteries.  On the state’s reports, these were lettered batteries in the 1st New Jersey Artillery Regiment. Yet, in some official Army documents, the batteries were numbered one through five.  Such is the case here with the Ordnance Department:

0281_1_Snip_NJ

This is a flip from the previous quarter, where New Jersey’s batteries were lettered.  So for the sake of eliminating any confusion, I’ll indicate both here:

  • 1st Battery / Battery A: At Culpeper, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain William Hexamer returned to lead the battery at the close of the Gettysburg Campaign.  The battery was with the Fourth Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve through the end of October (with reorganizations would move to the Third Volunteer Brigade in the next quarter).  In regard to the guns, the August 31 monthly report from the Army of the Potomac indicated the battery had only five Parrotts.  And the return for which this summary line is derived was received in Washington in January 1865.  So we must give or take one Parrott from Hexamer’s battery… at least.
  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: Reported at Brandy Station, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons, reflecting a May 1864 receipt date. Captain A.Judson Clark commanded the battery, and it remained with Third Corps.  At some point after Gettysburg the battery replaced the Parrotts used at Gettysburg with Napoleons.   This change likely occurred in September, as the August 31 report indicates the battery still had Parrotts. By the first week of October, with the opening of the Bristoe Campaign, the battery had Napoleons.
  • 3rd Battery / Battery C: No return.  Authorized on June 30, this battery was fully mustered by September 11, 1863.  Captain Christian Woerner commanded. Upon muster, the battery moved to the Artillery Camp of Instruction, Camp Barry, D.C.
  • 4th Battery / Battery D: Reporting “no stores on hand” at Camp Barry, D.C.  Also authorized in June 1863, this battery mustered on September 16, 1863.  Captain George T. Woodbury commanded.  And it was sent to the Artillery Camp of Instruction, as indicated on the return.
  • 5th Battery / Battery E: No return.  The third new battery from New Jersey.  It was also authorized in late June.  It’s muster date was September 8, but did not leave the state until September 26.  Captain Zenas C. Warren commanded.  Like the others, the battery’s first posting was the Artillery Camp of Instruction.

One other battery we should mention here, and that escaped the official summaries, is a battery of light artillery from the New Jersey Militia.  Responding to appeals from Washington to meet the Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania in June 1863, the Governor of New Jersey called for additional volunteers, for a period of thirty days (starting on or about June 22).  Ten companies of infantry and one battery of artillery from the state militia responded. The latter, Chapin’s Battery, led by Captain John R. Chapin, accompanied the infantry to Harrisburg.  It is my understanding these New Jersey militiamen mustered into state service, then offered to support the Governor of Pennsylvania, and then assigned to help defend Harrisburg.  As such, they never actually mustered into Federal service. The force returned to New Jersey at the end of their thirty days.  Just a footnote to the Gettysburg Campaign… even if that.  But a battery mentioned here in the spirit of providing complete coverage.

Moving down to the reported ammunition, we have two batteries that needed rounds.  Starting with the smoothbore rounds for Battery B:

0283_1_Snip_NJ

  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

No Hotchkiss rounds on hand for either battery.  And on the next page we can move directly to the Parrott rounds:

0284_1P_Snip_NJ

  • 1st Battery / Battery A:  400 shell, 360 case, and 163 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

One entry for the same battery on the Schenkl page:

0284_2_Snip_NJ

  • 1st Battery / Battery A: 173 Schenkl shell for 10-pdr Parrott.

That sends us to the small arms:

0284_3_Snip_NJ

Only two reporting:

  • 1st Battery / Battery A: Fifteen army revolvers and twenty-seven horse artillery sabers.
  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: Seven navy revolvers and thirteen horse artillery sabers.

So we close out a short summary entry for New Jersey. Though the third quarter’s section for the state longer than in previous quarters, given the addition of three batteries.  And perhaps that’s the big story here.  Between June and September 1863, New Jersey organized and forwarded three new volunteer batteries and provided a short-term militia battery for an emergency.  That’s not counting infantry (both volunteer and militia) that were added during the same period.  And, for those counting heads, there were two New Jersey infantry regiments mustered out (belatedly, but mustered out) during the Gettysburg Campaign.

An exhibit from New Jersey for the “fought the war with one arm” argument.

 

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – New York Independent Batteries, Part 3

We start this, the third and final installment for the New York Independent Batteries and the summaries of their third quarter returns, looking at less than a dozen lines:

0273_1_Snip_NY_IND3 But, there were, technically speaking, independent batteries numbered 25 to 36 around in the third quarter.  But the clerks at the ordnance department cut that tally short for reasons we will explore.  So let us consider these batteries in detail:

  • 25th Battery: No return.  Recall, while in transit to New Orleans in January, this battery’s transport wrecked.  This “hard luck” battery remained at New Orleans, assigned to the Fourth Division, Nineteenth Corps through October as part of the city defenses.  Captain John A. Grow remained in command.  In the previous quarter, the battery reported four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.
  • 26th Battery: Reprting at Thibodaux, Louisiana, with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Also suffering loss in the January shipwreck, the 26th was, at the reporting time, part of the District of LaFourche. Captain George W. Fox remained in command of the battery, organizationally assigned to the Fourth Division, Nineteenth Corps.
  • 27th Battery: At Camp Niagara (?), Pennsylvania with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  In July the battery moved from Camp Barry, D.C. to the Department of the Susquehanna, and assigned to the garrison at Philadelphia. Captain John B. Eaton commanded this battery.
  • 28th Battery: At Fort Schuyler, New York with “infantry stores.”  The battery served at Fort Schuyler and Sandy Hook.  Captain Josiah C. Hannum retained command.
  • 29th Battery: No return. At the end of June, the battery was run down with troops with remaining enlistments assigned to the 32nd Battery.  However, at least through the first week of July the battery remained on the organizational returns, assigned to the Harpers Ferry garrison. Captain Otto Diedrich remained commander, on paper at least.
  • 30th Battery: On Maryland Heights, Maryland, with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Adolph Voegelee was dismissed in August, having not been in the field for some time.  Lieutenant Alfred Von Kleiser, who’d lead the battery through much of the last year, was promoted to battery captain in his place.   At this time of the war, the battery was part of the Department of West Virginia.
  • 31st Battery: No return.  Captain Gustav Von Blucher was in command.  The battery appears in the Department of West Virginia. But as it was reduced, with many of the men attached to the 30th Battery, the battery was in effect only a paper designation. Von Blucher himself was serving as a staff officer with the Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac.
  • 32nd Battery: At Maryland Heights, Maryland with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain Charles Kusserow remained in command.  And the battery remained with  Maryland Heights Division, staying there as the command was folded into the Department of West Virginia.
  • 33rd Battery:  No return.  Authorized on July 9, 1863, mustered on September 4.  It was initially assigned to the Artillery Camp of Instruction, Camp Barry, in the Department of Washington (Twenty-second Corps).   Captain Algar M. Wheeler commanded.  However, with Wheeler still in New York, Lieutenant J. DeWitt Woods held operational command of the battery at its first posting.
  • 34th Battery: Not listed. This number was reserved for Battery L, 2nd New York Artillery. Captain Jacob Roemer’s battery, then serving in East Tennessee, would officially take it’s “Independent” number in November.
  • 35th Battery: Not listed. Authorized on July 9.  Captain James B. Caryle was given the commission to recruit the battery.  But it never completed organization.  The authority was recalled. The recruited men were assigned to Battery A, 16th New York Heavy Artillery.
  • 36th Battery:  Not listed.  On August 11, 1863, Captain Charles Graham Bacon was authorized to recruit this battery. On October 14, authority was revoked and the men recruited by that time were transferred to the 13th New York Heavy Artillery.

See?  An even dozen in existence, even if only on paper.  Those in actual service being mainly in “garrisons” – New York, Philadelphia, Washington, Harpers Ferry, and New Orleans.  But still having equipment to account for.

And ammunition on hand.  We start with the smoothbores:

0275_1_Snip_NY_IND3

Three batteries reporting:

  • 26th Battery: 148 shot, 12 shell, 48 case, and 12 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 27th Battery: 192 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 30th Battery: 308 shot, 128 shell, 320 case, and 112 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

But just one line for the Hotchkiss rifled projectiles:

0275_2_Snip_NY_IND3

  • 32nd Battery: 120 canister and 104 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

No entries on the next page, so we skip to the Schenkl projectiles:

0276_2_Snip_NY_IND3

  • 32nd Battery: 583 shell and 393 case for 3-inch rifles.

That leads us to the small arms on hand:

0276_3_Snip_NY_IND3

By battery reporting:

  • 26th Battery: Twenty-five (?) army revolvers, twelve cavalry sabers, and twelve horse artillery sabers.
  • 27th Battery: Seventeen army revolvers, thirty cavalry sabers, and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 30th Battery: Six army revolvers and fifteen cavalry sabers.
  • 32nd Battery: Nine army revolvers, thirty-six cavalry sabers, and eleven foot artillery swords.

This wraps up the entire page from the third quarter 1863 summaries allocated to New York units.  In addition to these light batteries, New York provided several heavy artillery organizations.  As those fall outside these summaries, I’ll look at those at the end of the quarter’s entries as part of a broader look at all the “heavies” then in service.

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – New York Independent Batteries, Part 2

In the previous installment, for the third quarter of 1863 we detailed the first dozen New York Independent Batteries.  Of those still on active duty, their service was almost entirely in Virginia (with one battery in the District of Columbia the exception).  But for the next dozen – 13th through 24th Batteries – we find greater geographic distribution:

0273_1_Snip_NY_IND2 Note that nine of the twelve have returns.  Six were timely – arriving in October or November of 1863.  But the other three were tardy, with one arriving in February the next year, another in October 1864, and the last not until May 1865 (perhaps as the battery was attending the last details of paperwork before mustering out?):

  • 13th Independent Battery: Reporting from Bridgeport, Alabama with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  When the Eleventh Corps left Culpeper, Virginia, to reinforce Chattanooga, during the last week of September, the 13th Battery was among their number.  Captain William Wheeler, promoted in August, commanded the battery.
  • 14th Independent Battery: No return. This battery was broken up starting in the spring of 1862.  The first section was initially assigned to Battery C, 4th US Artillery, in March 1862, but later transferred to Battery G, 1st New York Artillery, in January 1863.  The second section was also transferred to Battery G, 1st New York, in May 1862.  At the same time the third section went to Battery B, 1st New York in May 1862.  The battery was formally disbanded in September 1863.  It’s last commander, Captain James Rorty, was killed in action at Gettysburg while in temporary with Battery B, 1st New York.
  • 15th Battery:  In Culpeper, Virginia with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  The battery “made the rounds” in the Artillery Reserve of the Army of the Potomac.  Under Captain Patrick Hart, the battery started the summer in the 1st Volunteer Brigade of that reserve.  In early August, they moved to the 4th Volunteer Brigade.  But by the end of the month, they were assigned to the 3rd Volunteer Brigade.
  • 16th Battery: No return. Captain Frederick L. Hiller’s battery remained with the Seventh Corps and stationed at Newport News, Virginia. Earlier in the year, the battery reported six 10-pdr Parrott Rifles.
  • 17th Battery: In Centreville, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain George T. Anthony’s battery was at that time assigned to King’s Division, the Defenses of Washington (Twenty-second Corps).
  • 18th Battery: At Baton Rouge, Louisiana with four (down from six) 20-pdr Parrotts.  The report was not received in Washington until May 1865!  After the fall of Port Hudson, the battery was sent to the defenses of New Orleans, still in the Nineteenth Corps.  Captain Albert G. Mack retained command.
  • 19th Battery: At Camp Barry, District of Columbia, with six 12-pdr Napoleons. At the end of June, the 19th Battery transferred from the Seventh Corps (serving at Suffolk) to the Washington Defenses, Twenty-second Corps.  Captain William H. Stahl succumbed to typhoid fever on September 15, 1863.  Captain Edward W. Rogers replaced him.
  • 20th Battery: At Fort Schuyler, New York with “infantry stores” only.  Captain  Benjamin Franklin Ryer’s battery served as garrison artillery.  The battery helped suppress the New York riots in July.  And that was, more or less, their “combat” for the war.
  • 21st Battery: At Port Hudson, Louisiana with four 3-inch steel guns (make and model unspecified). The report is from February 1864.  After the fall of Port Hudson, the battery remained at that post, as part of the Reserve Artillery of the Nineteenth Corps.  Captain James Barnes remained in command.
  • 22nd Battery: No return. Earlier in February 1863 the battery became Company M, 9th New York Heavy Artillery.  The designation remained on the clerk’s report as a placeholder.
  • 23rd Battery: Washington, North Carolina with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Originally, Battery A of the New York Rocket Battalion. Captain Alfred Ransom was in charge of this battery, assigned to the District of Pamlico, Eighteenth Corps, Department of North Carolina.
  • 24th Battery: At Plymouth, North Carolina with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Another formerly of the Rocket Battalion, in this case former Battery B.  This battery was also assigned to the District of Albemarle, Eighteenth Corps, Department of North Carolina.  Captain A. Lester Cady remained in command.

 

Those details covered, we move to the ammunition and start with the smoothbore rounds:

0275_1_Snip_NY_IND2

All Napoleons:

  • 15th Battery: 128 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 128 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 17th Battery: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 19th Battery: 288 shot. 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 24th Battery: 359 shot, 214 shell, 448 case, and 368 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Four lines on the Hotchkiss page:

0275_2_Snip_NY_IND2

So four batteries:

  • 13th Battery: 80 canister, 160 fuse shell, and 480 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 18th Battery: 95 shell for 3.67-inch rifles (in this case 20-pdr Parrotts).
  • 21st Battery: 138 canister, 20 fuse shell, and 583 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 23rd Battery: 197 canister, 137 percussion shell, 360 fuse shell, and 565 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

On the next page, we can focus on just the Parrott columns:

0276_1P_Snip_NY_IND2

And that’s just for the 20-pdr Parrotts in New Orleans:

  • 18th Battery: 138 shot, 216 shell, and 89 canister for 20-pdr Parrott.

A single entry on the Schenkl page:

0276_2_Snip_NY_IND2

  • 13th Battery: 80 Schenkl shell for 3-inch rifles.

That leaves us with the small arms:

0276_3_Snip_NY_IND2

By battery reporting:

  • 13th Battery: Seven army revolvers, seven navy revolvers and ten (?) horse artillery sabers.
  • 15th Battery: Fifteen navy revolvers and five cavalry sabers.
  • 17th Battery: Twenty army revolvers and twenty-two horse artillery sabers.
  • 18th Battery: Four .58-caliber Springfield rifled muskets, three army revolvers, thirteen cavalry sabers, and seven horse artillery sabers.
  • 19th Battery: Seventeen navy revolvers, one cavalry saber, and twenty-eight horse artillery sabers.
  • 21st Battery: Seventeen army revolvers and sixteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 23rd Battery: Sixty army revolvers and seventy-five cavalry sabers.
  • 24th Battery: Fifty-three army revolvers.

We’ll complete the New York independent batteries, and the states’ listings for the third quarter as a whole, in the next installment.