Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – 1st New York Artillery

For the second quarter in a row, the clerks shifted entries around to allocate New York it’s own pages within the summaries:

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Our focus for this post is the top set of entry lines, for the 1st New York Light Artillery:

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Colonel Charles S. Wainwright commanded this regiment.  Wainwright, as we well know, commanded the artillery of First Corps. Lieutenant-Colonel Edward R. Warner was second in command within the regiment.  Regimental majors included Robert H. Fitzhugh, John A. Reynolds (Artillery Chief, Twelfth Corps), and Thomas W. Osborne (Artillery Chief, Eleventh Corps).  The remainder of the regimental staff included Edward L. Bailey, Quartermaster and Julius A. Skilton, Surgeon.

This being Wainwright’s regiment, we know a bit more about the “cooking” of the reports than other units.  We do know Wainwright’s staff consolidated these returns in the middle of January.  However, that process was incomplete, as we see three batteries failing to file.  And those three batteries were arguably within “hailing distance” of Wainwright, either being around Culpeper County (where he wintered) or at least up the railroad in Washington, D.C.   So let us look at the particulars:

  • Battery A: At Pottsville, Pennsylvania, on an April 1864 receipt date, with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Under Captain Thomas H. Bates, the battery was part of the Department of the Sesquehanna.
  • Battery B: At Brandy Station, Virginia with four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Albert S. Sheldon commanded this battery but was absent, recovering from his Gettysburg wound. Lieutenant Robert E. Rogers, from Battery C, commanded in his place. The battery transferred to the 1st Volunteer Brigade, Reserve Artillery, Army of the Potomac, in December.
  • Battery C: No return.  As assigned to Fifth Corps, Battery C wintered at Rappahannock Station.  The battery retained four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain Almont Barnes remained in command.
  • Battery D: Reporting from Brandy Station, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Supporting Third Corps, Captain George B. Winslow remained in command. With Winslow taking leave at the end of the year, Lieutenant Thomas H. Crego led the battery.
  • Battery E: No return.  With personnel attached to Battery L, Battery E was reorganized and recruited to strength over the winter.  Under Captain Henry W. Davis, the battery returned to the order of battle in May, 1864.
  • Battery F: No return.  At Camp Barry, Washington, D.C. with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain William R. Wilson remained in command.  The battery, assigned to the Artillery Camp of Instruction, was in the Twenty-second Corps.
  • Battery G: Reporting at Stevensburg, Virginia, with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Nelson Ames’s battery supported Second Corps, Army of the Potomac.
  • Battery H: At Culpeper, Virginia, and re-equipped with four 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Charles E. Mink remained in command of this battery, now under Wainwright’s Brigade in First Corps.  With Mink on leave, Lieutenant David F. Ritchie would lead the battery.
  • Battery I: Now at Bridgeport, Alabama, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Michael Wiedrich commanded this battery, assigned to Eleventh Corps.   The battery saw action in the battles to take Lookout Mountain in November then settled into winter quarters.
  • Battery K: Reporting at Brandy Station, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery remained with the battery assigned to Third Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve.  The 11th New York Independent Battery was attached to Battery K at this time, and manned two of the guns.  With Robert H. Fitzhugh was promoted to Major and Lieutenant Edward L. Bailey serving on regimental staff, command fell to Captain John E. Burton of the 11th Battery.  At the end of the year, the battery transferred out of the Army of the Potomac to Camp Barry and the Artillery Camp of Instruction.
  • Battery L: At Culpeper, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Listed on the order of battle as a combined Batteries E & L, Captain Gilbert H. Reynolds commanded.  The battery supported First Corps and camped adjacent to the Alexander House, where Wainwright maintained his headquarters.
  • Battery M: Reporting from Bridgeport, Alabama, in January 1864, with four 10-pdr Parrott rifles.  Captain John D. Woodbury returned to command of this battery in the fall, as it supported Twelfth Corps.

Looking to the ammunition on hand, we start with the smoothbores:

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  • Battery A: 192 shot, 64 shell, and 320 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery D: 288 shot, 96 shell, and 288 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery G: 262 shot, 93 shell, and 262 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 192 shot, 64 shell, and 192 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.

To the next page:

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  • Battery A: 136 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery D: 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery G: 144 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

To the right are tallies for Hotchkiss rifled projectiles:

  • Battery I: 281 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K:  260 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

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  • Battery I: 114 percussion fuse shell, 564 bullet shell, and 116 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K: 120 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 39 percussion fuse shell and 120 canister for 3-inch rifles.

To the next page were we find Parrott projectiles:

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  • Battery B: 354 shell, 297 case, and 95 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery M: 298 shell, 412 case, and 94 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

To the right are some Schenkl listings:

  • Battery B: 57 shell for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery K: 338 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 438 shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Schenkl on the next page:

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  • Battery K: 343 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 600 case for 3-inch rifles.

Turning to the small arms:

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  • Battery A: Seventeen Colt navy revolvers, sixty-eight Remington army revolvers, and eighty-five horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Sixteen Colt army revolvers and twenty cavalry sabers.
  • Battery D: Eight Colt army revolvers and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery G: Eighteen Colt army revolvers and twenty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery H: Twenty Colt navy revolvers, fifteen cavalry sabers, and five horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery I: Seven horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery K: Nine Colt army revolvers and eighteen cavalry sabers.
  • Battery L: Sixteen Colt navy revolvers and nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery M: Eight Colt army revolvers and two horse artillery sabers.

Turning next to the cartridge bags:

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  • Battery A: 582 cartridge bags for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery B: 460 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery I: 940 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K: 1,187 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M: 22 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Our last page is a busy one… try to keep up:

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  • Battery A: 3,500 navy pistol cartridges and 2,160 friction primers.
  • Battery B: 600 army pistol cartridges; 1,625 paper fuses; 1,300 friction primers, and 50 yards of slow match.
  • Battery D: 300 army pistol cartridges; 650 friction primers; twelve yards of fast match; twelve yards of slow match.
  • Battery G: 50 army pistol cartridges and 1,190 friction primers.
  • Battery H: 800 navy pistol cartridges; 584 friction primers, and 7 yards of slow match.
  • Battery I: 676 paper fuses; 1,000 friction primers; and 25 yards of slow match.
  • Battery K: 1,507 paper fuses; 2,960 friction primers; 5 yards of fast match; 10 yards of slow match; and 36 portfires.
  • Battery L: 50 navy pistol cartridges.
  • Battery M: 390 paper fuses; 720 friction primers; and 250 pistol percussion caps.

The twelve batteries of the 1st New York Light Artillery was among the hardest fighting in the war on either side.  We have a very good record, from the Official Records, letters, and post-war accounts, of the batteries’ wartime service.  And with their regimental commander’s diary preserved, we have some interesting insight into the administrative activities of the batteries.  What stands out here is two of the three “no report” batteries.  Battery E can be excused as being consolidated with Battery L.  But Battery C was just two stops up the railroad from Wainwright.  And Battery F was in Washington, where one would think formal reporting was encouraged, if not mandated.  And we know, from his diary, Wainwright was quick to mention when one of his subordinates were not performing to expectations.  I tend to think what we see here is evidence, though not of some lax administrative habits.  But rather evidence pointing back to the way the summaries were complied and used by the Ordnance Department, for their functions.  A filter, if you will, that we must consider when taking these raw numbers into account.

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Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – New Hampshire

New Hampshire was represented by one line in the fourth quarter summary for 1864. That one line accounted for the lone field battery from the state:

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  • 1st Light Battery: At Brandy Station with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery remained under command of Captain Frederick M. Edgell. In October the battery transferred out of the Third Brigade, Reserve Artillery to the Third Corps, Army of the Potomac. And with that formation, they were in winter quarters during the February when their return was submitted.

Allow me to expand upon this battery’s service through the fall a bit, as we have space to do so and… well… anytime we have a Brandy Station story I like to pontificate. The winter quarters was the 1st New Hampshire’s fourth visit to Brandy Station, if my count is correct. The first being at the opening of the 2nd Manassas Campaign, in the late summer of 1862, as part of Pope’s command.

Going forward to 1863, as part of the Reserve artillery, the battery passed through Brandy Station, and Culpeper at the close of the Gettysburg Campaign. Of course, that stay ended when Confederates initiated the Bristoe Campaign. In November, the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rappahannock into Culpeper County again. And on November 8, Edgell’s battery fought around Brandy Station. I’ll let his words summarize the engagement:

My battery marched with the reserve batteries of the Third Corps, on the morning of the 7th. Crossed the river at Kelly’s Ford at dark the same day and took position with the Second Division, reporting to General Prince. On the morning of the 8th, reported to General Carr, Third Division, and marched with his advanced brigade, arriving at the railroad at 10 a.m. About noon the enemy were found posted with artillery on a ridge east of the railroad and about a mile north of Brandy Station. One section of my battery was ordered up, and opened on the enemy with shell at about 2,000 yards distance. This, with the advance of our skirmishers, caused them to retire after firing a few rounds. My section immediately occupied the position, but finding the enemy out of range, pushed on and took position in the edge of the wood to the left of and near Brandy Station. The enemy now opened, with two 20-pounders and two smaller guns, at about 1,800 yards distance, to which we replied, and they again retired. My remaining section now came up and took position to the right of the railroad, and fired a few shots at bodies of the enemy’s cavalry, but with what effect is not known. This closed the operations for the day.

My battery expended in the whole affair 56 rounds of percussion and time shell, but a strong wind blowing across the line of fire much impaired its accuracy.

I have no casualties to report.

OR, Series I, Volume 29, Part I, Serial 48, page 573

Captain George E. Randolph, commanding the artillery brigade of Third Corps, recorded in more detail the number and type of rounds fired by the New Hampshire gunners – 20 Schenkl case, 10 Schenkl shell, and 30 Hotchkiss fuse (time or percussion not specified) shell. Randoph said 60 rounds, while Edgell said 56. Perhaps the New Hampshire battery fired four additional rounds on the previous day. Randolph went on to relate Edgell complained about the Schenkl percussion fuses, as they failed to burst on occasion. But added “I was surprised at this, for I have seldom known them to fail.” However, he did note the other batteries did not seem to have a problem.

After the fight on November 8, the Army of the Potomac pressed the Army of Northern Virginia out of Culpeper for the last time in the war. That, in turn, setup the Mine Run Campaign with the Federals moving over the Rapidan into the Wilderness. After the anti-climatic close of that campaign, the Army of the Potomac returned to Culpeper for winter quarters. First Sergeant Samuel S. Piper later described, in a service narrative for the state’s Adjutant General, the battery’s quarters as, “at Brandy Station, Va., on the plantation of the Hon. John Minor Botts.” Piper went on to call it the best camp the battery ever had. While I have not seen a photo of the New Hampshire battery in those quarters, we do have a photo of Auburn, Botts’ house on the plantation:

I am not certain exactly where the Third Corps’ artillery park was that winter. Likely between Auburn and the railroad station. Readers will recall Auburn still stands. Hopefully some future owner will recognize the significance of the structure and restore the house to its past prominence.

There are two other formations from New Hampshire that we should mention here. Both were employed as heavy artillery, and thus didn’t have cannon or stores of their own to report:

  • 1st New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Company: Not listed. Garrison of Fort Constitution, Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Captain Charles H. Long remained in command.
  • 2nd New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Company: Not listed.  Garrison of Fort McClary, Portsmouth Harbor, across the entrance in Maine. Captain Ira M. Barton commanded. 

Both companies spent the winter months guarding Portsmouth. In May, both moved to Washington, D.C. to replace the other “heavies” sent forward to the front lines. Later, those two companies formed the nucleus of a full regiment of New Hampshire heavy artillery formed starting in the late summer of 1864.

The stories aside, we turn to the ammunition reported. No smoothbore, so we can move right to the Hotchkiss columns:

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  • 1st Light Battery: 169 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

On to the next page for more Hotchkiss rounds:

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  • 1st Light Battery: 26 percussion fuse shell, 182 bullet shell, and 80 canister for 3-inch rifles.

The next page tallies those Schenkl shells that Edgell complained of:

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  • 1st Light Battery: 180 shell for 3-inch rifles.

And another Schenkl entry on the next page:

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  • 1st Light Battery: 145 case shot for 3-inch rifles.

Turning to the small arms:

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  • 1st Light Battery: Eight Colt army revolvers, seven Colt navy revolvers, and twelve cavalry sabers.

Cartridge bags reported on the next page:

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  • 1st Light Battery: 12 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.

Lastly, pistol cartridges, fuse, primers, and other items:

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  • 1st Light Battery: 200 navy caliber pistol cartridges; 485 paper fuses; 1,300 friction primers; 23 yards of slow match; 500 pistol percussion caps; and 5 portfires.

One might call attention to the lack of metallic fuses reported here. Edgell complained about the Schenkl fuses in November. Then in February had no tallies. Had he discarded the object of his ire? I don’t think so. It seems the returns counted the rounds, with fuses, as a whole unit. And the columns on this page were used to account for fuses issued separate from the projectile. Regardless, we have Edgell reporting both Hotchkiss and Schenkl, a mix not preferred by Brigadier-General Henry Hunt in charge of the Army of the Potomac’s artillery.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Mississippi: Marine Brigade and USCT

The next section in the forth quarter, 1863 summary has a heading of “Mississippi”:

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Even a cursory read of Civil War history tells us Mississippi was decidedly “Confederate.” Indeed, the second state to secede. There were unionists in Mississippi… not a whole lot in number… enough to constitute a battalion of mounted infantry starting in 1863. However, what we see listed under this heading are not white unionists but rather troops serving in a unit named for the river “Mississippi” and former slaves organized into a colored regiment. So basically the clerks put anything with “Mississippi” in the name under the heading, regardless of origin or classification.

We’ve discussed the Mississippi Marine Brigade (MMB) in earlier posts. I still wish a full, proper history of this interesting unit were out there to reference. Those I’ve come across are either dated (the typical post-war unit histories) or what I find as somewhat superficial (focusing too much on the Ellets and less on the subordinates). As I’ve said before, the MMB was not from Mississippi… were not marines… and really not a brigade. Many have tried to spin this organization as a precursor to the Vietnam War era “Brownwater Navy.” But I think that once one gets past the surface, those stories diverge considerably.

At the end of 1863, the MMB operated out of Nachez, Mississippi as an independent command within the Seventeenth Corps. Brigadier General Alfred W. Ellet commanded the brigade. His nephew, Colonel John A. Ellet, commanded the ram fleet Major David S. Tallerday commanded the 1st Infantry Regiment MMB. The 1st Cavalry Battalion fell under Major James M. Hubbard. And Captain Daniel Walling commanded a battery of artillery. During the fall months of 1863, the MMB saw active service keeping the Mississippi River safe for navigation. In two significant actions, one at Goodrich Landing in October and the other outside Natchez in early December, the MMB operated with sections of artillery against Confederate troops. So we turn to the listings to see what artillery they had on hand:

  • 1st Battery MMB: On the US Steamer Baltic with six 3-inch rifles. Also known as Battery C, Segebarth’s Pennsylvania Marine Artillery. Captain Daniel P. Walling commanded.
  • Section of 1st Battery: On board US Steamer Diana with two 12-pdr heavy field guns.
  • 2nd Battery MMB: Indicated at Natchez with no artillery, but with a note I think reads “entered in first January.” There is no record of a second MMB battery. So this line is suspicious to say the least.
  • Company F, 1st Infantry, MMB: On the US Steamer Diana with four 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

These summary lines indicate the MMB had twelve field artillery pieces (so long as one agrees with the designation of the “heavy” 12-pdr as a field piece). However, an abstract from returns for the Army of Tennessee dated January 1864 has the MMB with six heavy artillery pieces and no field artillery. As with many wartime records, I think we see loose application of definitions in play here.

Inside of these lines clearly labeled MMB is one simply indicating “2d Arty.” This is distinct from the MMB, not having that abbreviation, nor dittos carrying from a line above. It does seem to match with an entry seen in the previous quarter that I believe for the 2nd Mississippi Heavy Artillery, African Descent – a USCT regiment. Indeed, that regiment had postings to both Natchez and Vicksburg as indicated on the station column for this line entry. As such, I will transcribe this line for that regiment:

  • Company I, 2nd Mississippi Heavy Artillery, A.D.: At Natchez with two 12-pdr field howitzers.

Allow me to go a bit deeper with the 2nd Mississippi Heavy, as… well… heavy artillery doesn’t get enough attention in my opinion, and colored heavy artillery regiments get practically none!

According to the post return for Natchez in December 1863, the 2nd Mississippi Heavy had ten organized companies with 31 officers and 844 men reporting for duty (296 men were sick, detailed, or in confinement). At that time, Lieutenant-Colonel Hubert A. McCaleb commandedthe regiment. But in January, Colonel Bernard G. Farrar took command, having formerly led the 30th Missouri Infantry. Specific to Company I, which appears on the summary line, Captain Harbert Harberts, formerly of the 46th Illinois Infantry, commanded. Lieutenants James W. Steele and Robert Lang (both also from the 46th Illinois) were other company officers. I plan to follow up with another post specific to the 2nd Mississippi Heavy detailing the officers assigned and other interesting things from the rank and file.

For now, let us turn to the ammunition reported on hand. Starting with the smoothbore:

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  • Section on Steamer Diana: 38 shot, 88 shell, and 157 case for 12-pdr field guns.
  • Company I, 2nd Mississippi HA: 100 shell and 88 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Company F, 1st Infantry MMB: 138 shell and 941 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

On to the next page:

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  • Section on Steamer Diana: 88 canister for 12-pdr field guns.
  • Company I, 2nd Mississippi HA: 100 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Company F, 1st Infantry MMB: 149 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

To the right is an entry for Hotchkiss rounds:

  • 1st Battery, MMB: 62 time fuse shells for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

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  • 1st Battery, MMB: 101 percussion fuse shells and 366 canister for 3-inch rifles.

Skipping forward a couple pages, the next entry line is for Schenkl projectiles:

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  • 1st Battery, MMB: 2,024 case shot for 3-inch rifles. A healthy quantity for six guns.

On to the small arms:

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  • 1st Battery, MMB: 20 Colt navy revolvers and 20 horse artillery sabers.

Lastly, there are a couple entries for fuses and match:

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  • 1st Battery, MMB: Two yards of slow match.
  • Company I, 2nd Mississippi HA: 450 friction primers.

I would say that from the entries under Mississippi we find two interesting units. One is rather well known as a unique and somewhat unorthodox formation… though I would argue misunderstood even if well covered by historians. The second is rather obscure, with really no attention from historians. Both have wartime stories we should explore.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – MSM and cavalry-attached artillery

As with previous quarters, below the 2nd Missouri Artillery were some assorted units reporting in Federal service and with artillery on hand:

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In this quarter, we have three categories to consider – the Missouri State Militia (MSM) batteries on active service, MSM cavalry reporting artillery sections, and volunteer cavalry regiments with artillery sections to report. Let us take the first category first, and look at the first two lines of this section of the summary:

  • 1st MSM Battery: Reporting at Sedalia, Missouri, with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers and four 10-pdr Parrotts. As discussed for earlier quarters, instead of Parrotts the battery actually had a like quantity of 2.9-inch English Rifles (Robert F. Mushet’s steel rifles). Captain Charles H. Thurber remained in command. The battery assigned to District of Central Missouri. It officially became Battery L, 2nd Missouri Artillery in January.
  • 2nd MSM Battery: No report, obsolete entry. As discussed in the previous quarter, when the original 1st MSM was inactivated in March 1863, with most of the men going to the 1st MSM Cavalry, Company L. And at that time, the 2nd MSM Battery was re-designated the 1st MSM Battery (above). So by the end of 1863 there was no 2nd Battery to record. (One must really dig into the state Adjutant-General reports to follow these Missouri units.)

The actual batteries on the listing out of the way, the remainder of our discussion takes on a “horse soldier” tone. Important to keep in mind there are two flavors of cavalry under this heading – volunteers and state militia. As the war was very much active inside the borders of Missouri, its militia was called upon to provide active service against Confederate regulars, irregulars, and lawless types of all flavors. And in some cases, those militiamen were given cannon to perform these duties. While a full accounting for the MSM cavalry is beyond scope, I will try to summarize the service of the units reporting artillery. However, for good order, I will discuss those in numerical sequence instead of that used on the summary:

  • 1st MSM Cavalry (Line 55): Reporting at Lexington, Missouri with no cannon on hand. The 1st Regiment served as part of the District of Central Missouri, and Colonel James McFerren commanded. Though the regiment was spread across several garrisons, Companies G and H were at Lexington at the end of December. However, Companies L and M, along with the headquarters element had just relocated from Lexington to Warrensburg. And it is Company L that might raise our attention regarding artillery. Company L is what became of the original 1st MSM Battery when ordered converted to cavalry in March 1863. Regardless of the status, the 1st MSM reported ammunition on hand if not any cannon.
  • 2nd MSM Cavalry (Line 54): At Bloomfield, Missouri with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers. The 2nd, under Colonel John B. Rodgers, pulled duty in southeast Missouri, under the District of St. Louis. The outpost at Bloomfield consisted of Companies A and M of the regiment, under Lieutenant-Colonel Hiram M. Hiller. Captain William Dawson commanded Company A. Captain Samuel Shibley led Company M.
  • Company G, 5th MSM Cavalry (Line 50): Stationed at Houston (Texas County), Missouri with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers. The 5th MSM Cavalry reformed under under Colonel Albert Siegel in February 1863 (though he was mostly away in St. Louis on detail). Assigned to the District of Rolla, they operated in south-central Missouri escorting wagon trains and scouting. Company G, along with Company B, operated out of Houston, the seat of Texas County. Captain Richard Murphy, of Company B, was in overall command. Captain Thomas Thomas led Company G. Lieutenant Adam Hillerick (or Heilerich) had charge of the howitzers.
  • Howitzer Battery, 5th MSM Cavalry (Line 51): At Waynesville, Missouri with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers. The garrison of of that place consisted of Companies A, E, and H, under overall command of Major Waldemar Fischer of the regiment.
  • Company A, 6th MSM Cavalry (Line 49): From Springfield, Missouri with two 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers. Part of the District of Southwester Missouri, Colonel Edwin C. Catherwood commanded the regiment and the garrison of Springfield. Captain George W. Murphy (of Company E, and later promoted to Major) led the regiment with the colonel attending other duties. Captain James Dundin commanded Company A. The regiment captured a cannon from the Confederates on October 6, though the type was not reported. Nor if that weapon is included with the four reported here.

Beyond those units, there are two lines for the Missouri volunteer cavalry regiments:

  • 3rd (or 2nd?) Missouri Cavalry: At Little Rock, Arkansas with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers. While I am willing to entertain the summary reflects a cross assignment of the howitzer section from the 2nd to the 3rd Missouri Cavalry, this is most likely Lovejoy’s Artillery. Lieutenant George F. Lovejoy commanded a section of mountain howitzers in the 2nd Missouri Cavalry (Merrill Horse). Both the 2nd and the 3rd were serving in Second Brigade, First Cavalry Division in Steele’s Army of Arkansas.
  • 10th Missouri Cavalry: At Memphis, Tennessee with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers and two 3.80-inch James rifles. Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick W. Benteen commanded the much traveled 10th Missouri Cavalry. At the end of December 1863, the battery was assigned duty with the Sixteenth Corps, and stationed at Natchez, Mississippi. They were among the forces assigned to the Meridian Expedition in early 1864. And indeed, as the return date indicates, they were in Memphis in September 1864. Lieutenant Peter Joyce received a deserved promotion to captain in September. It is not clear who led the “Banshees,” as the section was called, after Joyce moved up.

There was one other “tier” to the Missouri troops in service at the close of 1863 – the Enrolled Missouri Militia (EMM), first organized in the summer of 1862. These troops were in state service, but could be called upon by the local military commanders. The distinction between MSM and EMM was more than semantics. The MSM was, or at least could, be called up directly into Federal service (though on paper only within the state) and often worked offensively to engage Confederate forces in Missouri. The EMM, on the other hand, was more so a local garrison or guard force in a defensive role. And while the EMM might operate with other forces, there were a lot of string attached. The intent was for the EMM to include all loyal, able-bodied men. Persons who didn’t take an oath, of course, didn’t have to serve… but that meant authorities knew to arrest those persons for being dis-loyal! Because of this, the EMM contained some non-committal southern sympathizers or at least folks who were not enamored of either cause. Due to concerns about the EMM’s reliability, the state formed Provisional Enrolled Missouri Militia (PEMM) in 1863, as “trusted” regiments by selecting truly “loyal” men from the EMM. At the close of 1863, the State Adjutant-General counted 45,893 men in the EMM within over 80 numbered regiments.

None of the EMM (or PEMM) were designated as artillery. However, dispatches and reports from the EMM sometimes mention mountain howitzers or other artillery. Each mention has to be taken by its own context. Some are clearly cases where volunteer or MSM cannons are supporting the EMM. Though others leave open the alternative that some EMM companies had cannon on hand. With all the pre-war proliferation of arms in the state, there were indeed a few cannon laying about. But those all fall outside the purview of the Summary Statement and thus outside of our main discussion. But for sake of complete coverage, I do want to mention their presence, even if outside the order of battle and speculative.

Those details… or trivia… out of the way, we turn to the reported ammunition on hand for these MSM and cavalry-attached artillery formations. The smoothbore rounds are first:

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  • 1st MSM Battery: 37 shells and 42 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • Company A, 6th MSM Cavalry: 4 shot and 53 case for 6-pdr field guns; 17 shells and 83 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Company G, 5th MSM Cavalry: 102 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • Howitzer Battery, 5th MSM Cavalry: 67 shell and 126 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 2nd/3rd Missouri Cavalry: 47 shell and 42 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 10th Missouri Cavalry: 72 shell and 203 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 2nd MSM Cavalry: 35 (or 20? See below) shells and 24 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 1st MSM Cavalry: 20 case for 6-pdr field guns.

Of note, the 2nd MSM Cavalry’s entry has a double entry. If you look close under the column for shells:

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Focusing on that bottom cell, this appears to be a “20” over a “35.” A small difference at this time of the war. But accuracy insists I call out this point of ambiguity.

Turning to the next page:

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  • 1st MSM Battery: 36 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • Company A, 6th MSM Cavalry: 13 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 9 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Company G, 5th MSM Cavalry: 24 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 10th Missouri Cavalry: 112 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 2nd MSM Cavalry: 16 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 1st MSM Cavalry: 99 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

To the right are entries for Hotchkiss projectiles:

  • 1st MSM Battery: 62 shot and 98 time fuse shell for 2.9-inch rifles.
  • 1st MSM Cavalry: 40 shot and 149 time fuse shell for 2.9-inch rifles.

Continuing Hotchkiss columns on the next page:

0342_1_Snip_MO_MISC
  • 1st MSM Battery: 134 percussion fuse shell and 84 canister for 2.9-inch rifles.

To the right are entries for James projectiles:

  • 10th Missouri Cavalry: 40 shot, 120 shell, and 40 canister for 3.80-inch James.

No other projectiles reported from this Missouri mishmash. So we go to the small arms columns:

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  • 1st MSM Battery: Eighteen Colt army revolvers, ten Remington army revolvers, forty-four cavalry sabers, thirty-two horse artillery sabers, and forty-nine foot artillery swords.
  • Company A, 6th MSM Cavalry: Two Burnsides carbines, fifty-four Enfield muskets, three Colt army revolvers, and sixteen cavalry sabers. (Side note here: this regiment reported a lot of Austrian muskets on reports to the State Adjutant-General. So leave a couple of question marks here.)
  • 10th Missouri Cavalry: Sixty-nine Colt army revolvers and fifty cavalry sabers.

Recording artillery cartridge bags and small arms cartridges on the next page:

0344_2_Snip_MO_MISC
  • 1st MSM Battery: 297 cartridges for 10-pdr Parrott and 25 cartridges for mountain howitzers.
  • Company A, 6th MSM Cavalry: 70 cartridges for 6-pdr field guns/12-pdr field howitzers, 1000 .54 caliber ball, and 1000 .577 caliber ball.
  • Company G, 5th MSM Cavalry: 26 12-pdr mountain howitzer cartridges.
  • Howitzer Battery, 5th MSM Cavalry: 50 cartridges for 3-inch rifles…. which likely is a transcription error, quantity intended for the mountain howitzer column.

Lastly, we look at the reported quantities of pistol cartridges, fuses, powder, and primers:

0345_1_Snip_MO_MISC
  • 1st MSM Battery: 305 navy revolver cartridges (or is that supposed to be on the ARMY column?); 181 paper fuses; 5 pounds of musket powder; 289 friction primers.
  • Company G, 5th MSM Cavalry: 60 friction primers.
  • Howitzer Battery, 5th MSM Cavalry: 386 friction primers.
  • 2nd Cavalry MSM: 60 friction primers.

The tallies of munitions and small arms leaves several questions, as I am all but certain there were transcription errors. But it is the administrative details that I find of interest with these MSM and cavalry-attached artillery formations from Missouri. Each has a story worthy of at least an article… and in some cases perhaps book-length treatment.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – 2nd Missouri Artillery

I hesitate to apply the designation “Light” artillery to the 2nd Missouri Artillery, at least not as it existed at the end of 1863. As chronicled in earlier posts, this regiment had an unconventional organizational history in many regards. Starting in the late summer of 1863, the regiment was reorganized, from the section up, with the aim of forming all into field artillery batteries. However, that process took time. And at the close of 1863, only four batteries were equipped and serving as field artillery. The remainder, if they were indeed reorganized, served as heavy artillery. We’ll look at their story in this “snapshot” view that the summaries provide.

Lieutenant-Colonel Nelson Cole remained in command of the regiment, and would receive promotion to full colonel in February 1864. In December, his second in command was Major Frank Backof. However, Backof was shortly dismissed from service in early 1864 (a story I hope to detail in a follow up post). As the regiment was still reforming, there was little to report in the way of “on hand” cannon and stores. Just the four “reorganized” field batteries mentioned above:

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But there’s more to the regimental’s December status than those four lines, as we fill in the gaps:

  • Battery A: No report. This battery was the consolidation of the old Batteries C and D and remained at Cape Girardeau, manning Fort B as heavy artillery. The battery was part of the District of St. Louis. Captain John E. Strodtman commanded. Men from Battery C (below) were also under his command. Not until June was the battery reorganized as light artillery.
  • Battery B:  No report. This battery moved from St. Louis in early December and was stationed at Fort No. 4 defending New Madrid, Missouri by the end of the month. Captain John J. Sutter remained in command.  The posting, as heavy artillery, was part of the extended District of St. Louis.
  • Battery C:  No report. The new Battery C was formed from the old batteries H and I.  Captain Frederick W. Fuchs, formerly Company I, commanded the new battery.  This new battery was stationed at Cape Girardeau, consolidated with Battery A at the time, as heavy artillery.  The battery waited until May to reorganize as light artillery.
  • Battery D: Reporting from DeValls Bluff, Arkansas with two 12-pdr field howitzers and two 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery reorganized in September at St. Louis with the consolidation of old Batteries A, F, G, K, and M. Most of the first three batteries had mustered out in St. Louis. What remained was a large “section” reformed at that place. The “old” batteries K and M were at Little Rock and consolidated into the “new” Battery D.  The battery was assigned to 1st Cavalry Division, Army of Arkansas. Those sections from the old Batteries K and M served at DeValls Bluff, protecting the railroad line to Little Rock. Captain Charles Schareff commanded.  The St. Louis section, under Lieutenant Frederick W. von Bodengen served detached with the 1st Nebraska Cavalry. Bodengen’s section left St. Louis on December 3, moving through Rolla, West Plains, and finally to Bateville, Arkansas on the 25th.
  • Battery E: Reporting at Little Rock, Arkansas with six 3.67-inch bronze rifles.  Reorganized from parts of old Batteries E, L, and M, under Captain Gustave Stange (old Battery M) during the fall.  The battery served in 1st Cavalry Division, Department of Arkansas. 
  • Battery F: At Woodville, Alabama with four 12-pdr field howitzers.  Captain Clemens Landgraeber’s First Missouri Flying Artillery transferred into the regiment during the reorganization.  The battery supported First Division, Fifteenth Corps. In October, the battery supported their division during operations on the Memphis & Charleston Railroad (part of the relief of Chattanooga). In November, they participated in fighting around Lookout Mountain and the advance on the Federal right onto Missionary Ridge. After the relief of Knoxville, the battery moved with its parent formation into winter quarters.
  • Battery G: At St. Louis with one 3.67-inch bronze rifle.  The battery reformed on November 15 and stationed at Fort No. 3, in St. Louis, Captain William T. Arthur commanded.
  • Battery H: No return. A new Battery H formed out of men (new and old enlistments) at Springfield, Missouri on December 4, 1863, under command of Captain William C. Montgomery (formerly of the Missouri State Cavalry). The battery was initially part of a heavy artillery battalion formed at Springfield.
  • Battery I: No return. The new Battery I began reforming on December 28 at Springfield.  Captain Stephen H. Julian commanded.  Initially, the battery was designated heavy artillery.
  • Battery K: No return. A new Battery K was formed in January at Springfield, Missouri with Captain William P. Davis in command. The battery was also organized initially as heavy artillery.
  • Battery L: No return.  A new Battery L formed at Sedalia, Missouri in January 1864 and was formerly the 1st Battery, Missouri State Militia.  So we will see them accounted for under the “miscellaneous” portion of Missouri’s returns in this quarter. Captain Charles H. Thurber commanded.
  • Battery M: No return. The new Battery M organized at Fort No. 2, St. Louis, on February 15, 1864, and thus escapes our summary for this quarter.  Captain Napoleon Boardman would command this battery.

Of note, the battalion of heavy artillery, consisting of Batteries H, I, and K, came under the command of Major John W. Rabb, formerly of the 2nd Indiana Battery. This arrangement remained until the spring of 1864 when the batteries were reorganized (again) as light batteries.

Turning to back to the summary, we have ammunition to account for, starting with smoothbore rounds:

0341_1_Snip_MO_2
  • Battery D: 113 shell and 77 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery F: 288 shell and 197 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.

The smoothbore columns continue on the next page:

0341_2_Snip_MO_2
  • Battery D: 43 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery F: 84 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.

For the Hotchkiss columns to the right, two entries:

  • Battery D: 61 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E: 240 time fuse shell for 3.67-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

0342_1_Snip_MO_2
  • Battery D: 115 percussion fuse shell, 102 bullet shell, and 80 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E: 120 percussion fuse shell, 720 bullet shell, and 120 canister for 3.67-inch rifles.

No other projectiles reported by the 2nd Missouri batteries in this quarter, so we turn to the small arms:

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  • Battery D: Fourteen Colt army revolvers, eight Colt navy revolvers, twelve Remington army revolvers, and twelve horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery E: Twelve Colt navy revolvers, thirty-five Remington navy revolvers, thirteen cavalry sabers, and twenty-nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F: Eighteen Colt navy revolvers and seventy-two cavalry sabers.
  • Battery G: Two Springfield .58-caliber muskets, thirteen Colt army revolvers, and thirteen horse artillery sabers.

From there, we turn to the columns for pistol ammunition, fuses, powder, and primers:

0345_1_Snip_MO_2
  • Battery D: 1,000 army caliber and 1,000 navy caliber pistol cartridges; and 1,000 friction primers.
  • Battery E: 1,400 navy caliber pistol cartridges.
  • Battery F: 1,200 navy caliber pistol cartridges.
  • Battery G: 1,000 navy caliber pistol cartridges (perhaps a transcription error?).

While the 2nd Missouri was not engaged in many pitched battles or heavy combat, its stories from outside the battlefield continue to fascinate me. They certainly kept the clerks busy.

Next we’ll look at the Missouri State Militia batteries that were in service along with some of the artillery sections serving with the state’s cavalry.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – 1st Missouri Light Artillery

The 1st Missouri Light Artillery Regiment began the war as the 1st Missouri Infantry, a three month unit. As infantry, the regiment organized in April 1861 and served in the early war campaigns in Missouri. After Wilson’s Creek, during the month of September, the regiment was reorganized as artillery, one of many creative administrative activities during the first year of the war by authorities in Missouri. The first commander of the regiment was Colonel Francis P. Blair, Jr. However, Representative Blair was not with the regiment for long, being absent for his duties in Washington. Blair, of course, accepted a volunteer commission as a general and went on to gain fame in many of the war’s important campaigns, ending the war as commander of the Seventeenth Corps. Not many artillery regiments can boast a major-general from their ranks.

When Blair accepted his general’s commission, Lieutenant-Colonel Warren S. Lothrop replaced him as the regimental colonel, with date of rank to October 1, 1862. At the end of 1863, Lothrop was the overall artillery chief for Sixteenth Corps. Looking to the rest of the staff, Lieutenant-Colonel Albert M. Powell was artillery chief for Seventeenth Corps; Major George Henry Stone was artillery chief for Left Wing of the Sixteenth Corps; and Major Thomas Maurice was artillery chief for First Division, Seventeenth Corps. Thus we see the 1st Missouri was well represented in staff positions, and fully employed.

For the line batteries, we have this section of the summary to consider:

0339_1_Snip_MO_1
  • Battery A: At New Iberia, Louisiana with two 6-pdr field guns, one 12-pdr Napoleon and three 12-pdr field howitzers.  Captain George W. Schofield remained in command.  However, Schofield was at the time detached on his brother’s (Major-General John Schofield) staff. Furthermore, George was due to be promoted in the 2nd Missouri Artillery.  In his absence, Lieutenants Charles M. Callahan and Elisha Cole alternated at head of the the battery.  The battery remained with Third Division, Thirteenth Corps.
  • Battery B:  No return. Captain Martin Welfley’s battery remained with Second Division of the Thirteenth corps.  Welfley had reported two 12-pdr field guns and four 12-pdr field howitzers earlier in the previous winter.  Records are not clear if those were still on hand as of September 1863 or those had been exchanged. With the division, the battery was part of the Rio Grande Expedition that began in October. At the end of the year, the battery was in Brownsville, Texas.
  • Battery C: Reporting from Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 12-pdr field howitzers.  Captain Charles Mann was promoted to major at the start of November, and sent on recruiting duties. Lieutenant Wendolin Meyer led the battery until Captain John L. Matthaei was appointed (January 17, 1864, post-dated to October). The battery remained with First Division, Seventeenth Corps (under Major Maurice mentioned above).  The battery was part of an expedition to Canton, Mississippi in October. But otherwise remained at Vicksburg through the end of the year.
  • Battery D:  At Scottsboro, Alabama, with three 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, one 24-pdr field howitzer and two 3-inch rifles.  The battery, under Captain Henry Richardson was assigned to Corinth, transferred to Fourth Division, Fifteenth Corps at the start of October. Richardson was the division artillery chief, with Lieutenant Byron M. Callender leading the battery. The battery participated in the battles around Chattanooga in November and then the relief of Knoxville. But in December, the battery moved to the Huntsville area.
  • Battery E: Reporting at Brownsville, Texas with two 10-pdr Parrotts and two 12-pdr Whitworth 3.5-inch rifles. The latter were were “Fawcett Rifled Iron Gun, Cal. 3.5.” from earlier accounting.  Captain Joseph B. Atwater remained in command of the battery, assigned to Second Division, Thirteenth Corps. The battery was still with the division for the Rio Grande Expedition in October. They were stationed at Brownsville and DeCrow’s Point well into the next year.
  • Battery F: At DeCrow’s Point, Texas (opposite Fort Esparanza at Cavallo Pass, entering Matagorda Bay) with two 3.80-inch James Rifles and four 3.5-inch Whitworth Rifles (as above, these were earlier identified as Fawcett rifles). Captain Joseph Foust remained in command, and the battery assigned to Second Division, Thirteenth Corps.  As with Battery E, this battery participated in the Rio Grande Expedition and other operations on the Texas coast that fall.
  • Battery G: Reporting from Chattanooga, Tennessee with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Henry Hescock, commanding the battery, was in a Confederate prison. In his place, Lieutenant Gustavus Schueler lead the battery. With reorganizations to the Army of the Cumberland, the battery moved to Second Division, Fourth Corps. After the battles around Chattanooga, the battery became part of the garrison of that place.
  • Battery H: At Pulaski, Tennessee with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Frederick Welker’s battery was part of Second Division, Sixteenth Corps, guarding the railroad lines from Nashville to Decatur. In addition to his battery duties, Welker was also the division artillery chief.
  • Battery I:  No report. In the previous quarter, the battery reported a varied assortment: two 6-pdr field guns, one 12-pdr field howitzers, two 10-pdr Parrotts, and one 4.62-inch rifle (likely a 12-pdr “heavy” field gun, rifled using the James system). I suspect this battery “slimmed down” for field duty in the fall of 1863. Captain Benjamin Tannrath commanded the battery, assigned to Second Division, Sixteenth Corps, alongside Battery H. And likewise, Battery I guarded the railroad lines near Decatur, Alabama.
  • Battery K: At Little Rock, Arkansas with four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Stillman O. Fish remained in command of this battery, assigned to Third Division of what soon became the Seventh Corps, Department of Arkansas. Of note, Lieutenant Charles Green of the battery was detached serving with Battery F, 2nd US Artillery.
  • Battery L: At Rolla, Missouri with two 12-pdr field howitzers and two 3.67-inch rifles. Captain Junius G. Wilson McMurray commanded the battery, but he was absent on leave. Lieutenant Charles Stierlin let the battery instead. During this time, the battery was accused of “depredations upon civilians,” for which Stierlin was charged for failing to keep discipline in the battery. Lieutenant John Steffins (appearing on some rolls as Stephens) stepped into this “cloudy” situation with Battery L. At the end of December, the battery moved from Rolla to Springfield.
  • Battery M: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 10-pdr Parrotts.  This battery remained assigned to the First Division, Seventeenth Corps. Captain James Marr was now the battery commander, but due to illness on detached service in St. Louis. Lieutenant John H. Tiemeyer led the battery in his place.

A busy ammunition section to consider as we start with the smoothbore rounds:

0341_1_Snip_MO_1
  • Battery A: 294 shot and 262 case for 6-pdr field guns; 50 shot, 40 shell, and 102 case for 12-pdr Napoleons; 270 shell and 380 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery C: 240 shell and 240 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery D: 83 shot and 107 case for 6-pdr field guns; 48 shell for 24-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery G: 102 shot, 170 shell, and 289 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 288 shot, 96 shell, and 288 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L: 58 shell and 64 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
0341_2_Snip_MO_1
  • Battery A: 71 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 84 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; and 26 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery C: 128 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery D: 157 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 7 case and 24 canister for 24-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery G: 183 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L: 79 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.

To the right are the first of the Hotchkiss projectile columns:

  • Battery D: 48 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery F: 75 shot and 505 time fuse shell for 3.5-inch rifles; 10 shot and 34 time fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 87 shot for 3.67-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

0342_1_Snip_MO_1
  • Battery D: 45 percussion fuse shell, 54 bullet shell, and 40 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E: 44 percussion fuse shell and 80 canister for 3.5-inch rifles.
  • Battery F: 342 percussion fuse shell and 209 canister for 3.5-inch rifles; 181 percussion fuse shell and 48 canister for 3.8-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 110 percussion fuse shell and 71 canister for 3.67-inch rifles.

To the right of those are columns for James projectiles:

  • Battery F: 16 shot, 15 shell, and 54 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

The last column on the right are three entries for 10-pdr Parrott Shot:

  • Battery E: 60 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery K: 20 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery M: 126 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.

The Parrott rounds continue on the next page:

0342_2_Snip_MO_1
  • Battery E: 190 shell, 115 case, and 35 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery K: 66 shell, 238 case, and 112 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery M: 265 shell, 373 case, and 130(?) canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

The next entries are on the small arms columns:

0343_2_Snip_MO_1
  • Battery A: Nine Colt navy revolvers and twenty-five cavalry sabers.
  • Battery C: Two Colt navy revolvers and four horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery D: Eight Colt army revolvers and thirty cavalry sabers.
  • Battery E: Twenty-three Colt army revolvers and four cavalry sabers.
  • Battery F: One Colt army revolver, two Colt navy revolvers, and thirteen cavalry sabers.
  • Battery G: Seven Colt army revolvers and seven cavalry sabers.
  • Battery H: Twenty-three Colt army revolvers, three Colt navy revolvers, and sixty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery K: Three Colt navy revolvers.
  • Battery L: Eighteen Colt army revolvers and thirty-one cavalry sabers.
  • Battery M: Four Colt army revolvers and seven cavalry sabers.

Two entries on the cartridge bag columns:

0344_2_Snip_MO_1
  • Battery F: 114 cartridge bags for 6-pdr James.
  • Battery L: 140 cartridge bags for 6-pdr field guns/12-pdr field howitzers.

Lastly the page for pistol cartridges, fuses, powder, and miscellaneous items:

0345_1_Snip_MO_1
  • Battery A: 950 navy pistol cartridges.
  • Battery C: 60 paper fuses and 400 friction primers.
  • Battery D: 1,660 army pistol cartridges.
  • Battery F: 350 friction primers.
  • Battery G: 1,250 friction primers.
  • Battery H: 10 yards of slow match.
  • Battery K: 200 paper fuses, six yards of slow match, and 520 percussion caps for pistols.
  • Battery L: 200 paper fuses.
  • Battery M: 130 army pistol cartridges, 50 paper fuses, and 90 friction primers.

From Chattanooga to the Rio Grande, the 1st Missouri Light Artillery finished off a busy year of 1863 with most of the batteries in good shape. However, the 2nd Missouri, their sister regiment, was going through a full reorganization. In the next installment we will track that process.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Michigan, more artillery

Turning back to the Michigan section of the fourth quarter summary, consider the last two entry lines:

0339_1ALL_Snip_MI

Isolating those down, we see entries for artillery assigned to an infantry regiment and another for the “6th Regt. Vol. Artillery”:

0339_1_Snip_MImsc

But wait, you say, Michigan didn’t have six regiments of artillery! Well, it did have a 6th Regiment of Artillery. Let us look at the administrative details backing these lines:

  • Battery attached to 14th Mounted Infantry: The battery reports from Columbia, Tennessee with one 6-pdr (2.6-inch) Wiard rifle and one 3.80-inch James Rifle. Colonel Henry R. Mizner commanded the 14th Michigan Infantry, which on paper was assigned to the Fourth Division, Fourteenth Corps. However, the regiment was detached for service protecting the supply lines in Tennessee from guerillas and irregulars. In that capacity, on September 6, 1863, the regiment was mounted. Eight companies moved to Columbia and received Spencer rifles, revolvers, sabers, and mounts. In addition, the regiment outfitted and manned a section of light artillery. A report in January 1864 from Major John Mendenhall, Inspector of Artillery, Army of the Cumberland, indicates Lieutenant Gideon W. Gifford commanded this section. Gifford originally enlisted, as a private, in Battery C, 1st Michigan Artillery in October 1861. He was detailed as a hospital steward, but in May 1863 he accepted a commission to lieutenant in Company K, 14th Michigan Infantry. He made captain just before being mustered out in 1865. Early in the spring of 1864, the 14ths stint on garrison duty was at an end. Rejoining the Fourteenth Corps, the men reluctantly turned in their mounts and resumed duties as traditional infantry.
  • 6th Regiment Volunteer Artillery: At Port Hudson, Louisiana with one 12-pdr Napoleon. On July 10, 1863, Major-General Nathaniel Banks ordered this regiment converted to heavy artillery, assigned to the garrison of Port Hudson. Colonel Thomas S. Clark commanded this regiment. Certainly the regiment manned more than one Napoleon in their duties, but apparently all other cannon were considered part of the garrison itself and not of the regiment. However, there are hints to additional field artillery in the ammunition totals.

Before leaving the administrative section, there are two other artillery formations that deserve mention as they were in existence if not yet mustered. These were two independent batteries:

  • 13th Battery: Organized at Grand Rapids, the battery was under command of Callaghan H. O’Riordon. The battery was still forming at the end of December, but formally entered service on January 20, 1864. The battery left the state in February for its assignment – the Defenses of Washington.
  • 14th Battery: Also organized at Grand Rapids, this battery mustered on January 5, 1864. Captain Charles Heine commanded. Likewise, leaving the state in February, 14th Battery was sent to the Defenses of Washington.

For the two sections that are on the return, we must consider their ammunition and other stores, starting with smoothbore ammunition:

0341_1_Snip_MImsc
  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 366 shot and 362 case for 6-pdr field guns; 36 shot, 14 shells, and 16 case for 12-pdr Napoleons; 93 shells and 200 case for 12-pdr field howitzers; 156 shells for 24-pdr field howitzers; and 3 shot and 11 shells for 24-pdr siege guns.

Much to consider there with the calibers reported. Perhaps just stores on hand. But likewise, perhaps indicating weapons on hand but not considered reportable by the unit.

Moving to the rest of the smoothbore ammunition:

0341_2_Snip_MImsc
  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 106 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 96 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; 48 canister for 12-pdr field guns; and 158 case and 99 canister for 24-pdr field howitzers.

To the right are reported quantities of Hotchkiss rounds:

  • 14th Michigan Infantry: 102 shot and 72 time fuse shell for 2.6-inch Wiard; 48 shot and 18 time fuse shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 3 shot for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

0342_1_Snip_MImsc
  • 14th Michigan Infantry: 40 percussion fuse and 74 canister for 2.6-inch Wiard rifles; 18 percussion fuse, 72 bullet shell, and 168 canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 13 canister for 3-inch rifles.

To the right is a lone entry for James projectiles:

  • 14th Michigan Infantry: 50 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

Further to the left is one column for Parrott rounds:

  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 127 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.

The next page continues the Parrott projectiles:

0342_2_Snip_MImsc
  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 30 shell, 30 case, and 47 canister for 10-pdr Parrott; 10 shell for 24-pdr siege guns; 40 canister for 20-pdr Parrott.

To the right is one Schenkl tally:

  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 24 shell for 10-pdr Parrott.

No additional projectiles reported. So we turn to the small arms:

0343_2_Snip_MImsc
  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: Two Colt army revolvers. Yes, that’s all.

Reporting cartridge bags for the cannon:

0344_2_Snip_MImsc
  • 14th Michigan Infantry: 90 bags for 6-pdr (2.9-inch) Wiard, 28 bags for 6-pdr (3.8-inch) James.
  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 189 10-pdr Parrott bags, 2 field gun (6-pdr field gun or 12-pdr field howitzer) bags; 90 bags for 20-pdr Parrott, and 113 bags for 24-pdr siege guns.

The last page contains tallies for fuses, primers, and miscellaneous items:

0345_1_Snip_MImsc
  • 14th Michigan Infantry: 700 paper fuses and 220 friction primers.
  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 534 paper fuses, 34 pounds of cannon powder, 2,832 friction primers, 3 yards of slow match, and 11 portfires.

There is much to talk about in those two lines. These speak to units in transition from the intended role of infantry to, respectively, cavalry and heavy artillery. And along the way, a lot of equipment and stores moving about.