Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 1st Missouri Light Artillery

The summary of returns for the 1st Missouri Light Artillery covering the third quarter of 1863 are interesting due to the appearance of out-of-the-ordinary artillery pieces.  Likewise, the summary of their service during the quarter is of interest due to many of the lesser known Civil War campaigns that must be mentioned.  Colonel Warren L. Lothrop commanded the regiment.  But as field grade artillerists were in short supply in the west, Lothrop pulled duty as the Chief of Artillery for the Sixteenth Corps, in Memphis, during the summer and fall of 1863.

Looking at the list of Lothrop’s command,  we find nine of the twelve batteries with registered returns:

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And of those nine received, four were not received in Washington until 1864.  But the information we have to work from speaks to the “moving parts” in the western theater during the late summer of 1863:

  • Battery A: Reported from Carrolton, Louisiana with two 6-pdr field guns, one 12-pdr Napoleon and three 12-pdr field howitzers.  Captain George W. Schofield remained in command.  However, Schofield took a well deserved leave in October (and was due for a promotion).   In his absence, Lieutenant Elisha Cole lead the battery.  After the fall of Vicksburg, the battery moved with Thirteenth Corps to New Orleans.  There it was on duty around New Orleans until October.
  • Battery B:  No return.  Also assigned to the Thirteenth Corps, this battery was also in New Orleans at the end of September.  Captain Martin Welfley’s battery remained with Second Division of the corps.  Welfley had reported two 12-pdr field guns and four 12-pdr field howitzers earlier in the previous winter.  Records are not clear if those were still on hand as of September 1863 or those had been exchanged.
  • Battery C: Reporting from Vicksburg, Mississippi with four (up from two) 12-pdr field howitzers (having turned in two 6-pdr field guns).  Captain Charles Mann remained in command, with the battery assigned to Sixth Division (later re-designated First), Seventeenth Corps.  Mann would be promoted to Major at the start of November.  Captain John L. Matthaei was appointed to replace him.
  • Battery D:  At Corinth, Mississippi, with three 6-pdr field guns (up from two the previous quarter), two 12-pdr field howitzers, one 24-pdr field howitzer (an addition this quarter) and two 3-inch rifles.  The battery, under Captain Henry Richardson was assigned to Corinth, part of the Sixteenth Corps. However, at the start of October the battery transferred to Fourth Division, Fifteenth Corps and sent to Chattanooga. At that time, Richardson was the division artillery chief, with Lieutenant Byron M. Callender leading the battery.
  • Battery E: Reporting at Brownsville, Texas with four 10-pdr Parrotts and two “Rebel Trophies English 3.5.”  Yet another designation change for the same weapons.  These were “Fawcett Rifled Iron Gun, Cal. 3.5.” in the second quarter.  After Vicksburg, Captain Nelson Cole’s battery was assigned to Second Division, Thirteenth Corps and sent to New Orleans.  As of August 10, Cole was promoted to Major and assigned staff duties in Missouri (and later to command of the 2nd Missouri Artillery).  Lieutenant Joseph B. Atwater took his place in command of the battery. In September the battery was involved with operations on the Atchafalaya River.  The Brownsville location, however, is relative to the reporting date of January 1864.
  • Battery F: On Mustang Island, Texas with two 3.80-inch James Rifles and four 3.5-inch Fawcett Guns. The location reflects a reporting date of September 1863. Captain Joseph Foust remained in command, and the battery assigned to Second Division, Thirteenth Corps.  As of the end of September, the battery was at Carrolton, Louisiana.  The Texas location is from the December reporting date (and a story for the next quarter).
  • Battery G: No return.  Captain Henry Hescock’s battery was assigned to the Third Division, Twentieth Corps. Hescock was also listed as commander of the artillery brigade supporting the division.  That left Lieutenant Gustavus Schueler to lead the battery. The battery brought four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 10-pdr Parrotts to Chickamauga, seeing action on September 20.  The battery fired 277 rounds in the battle.  And Hescock was captured (and would remain a prisoner until the end of the war).
  • Battery H: At Corinth, Mississippi now rearmed with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Frederick Welker’s battery was part of the garrison at Corinth, under the Sixteenth Corps.
  • Battery I:  Reporting at Pocahontas, Tennessee (a railroad stop northwest of Corinth), with two 6-pdr field guns, one 12-pdr field howitzers, two 10-pdr Parrotts, and one 4.62-inch rifle (likely a 12-pdr “heavy” field gun, rifled using the James system).  Captain Benjamin Tannrath commanded the battery, assigned to the Sixteenth Corps, under the Corinth Garrison.
  • Battery K: At Little Rock, Arkansas with four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Stillman O. Fish was in command.  The battery was part of the District of Eastern Arkansas.
  • Battery L: No return.  Captain Frank Backof’s Battery remained at Rolla, likely with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 3.67-inch rifles. At the end of September, Backof was busy recruiting.  In October he was promoted to Major in the 2nd Missouri Artillery.  Captain Junius G. Wilson McMurray transferred from Battery M to command in the interim.
  • Battery M: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 10-pdr Parrotts.  This battery remained assigned to Seventh (later First) Division, Seventeenth Corps.  In McMurray’s place, Lieutenant John H. Tiemeyer had command of the battery.

The First Missouri Artillery was thus spread across the Mississippi River Valley doing good work.  And they had perhaps the widest array of cannon for any artillery regiment at this time of the war.

We turn then to the ammunition, starting with the smoothbore.

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Note the extended columns here to include those 24-pdr howitzer rounds:

  • Battery A: 390 shot, 343 case, and 85 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 90 shot, 71 shell, 144 case, and 40 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; and 410 shell, 565 case, and 114 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery C: 220 shell, 220 case, and 130 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery D: 191 shot, 140 case, and 159 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 119 shell, 162 case, and 38 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; and 39 shell, 24 case, and 24 canister for 24-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery H: 288 shot, 96 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; plus 53 case for 24-pdr field howitzers (which the battery had on hand the previous quarter).
  • Battery I: 43 shot, 223 case, and 109 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 69 shell, 46 case, and 70 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.

In addition to those batteries reported here, in his report from the battle of Chickamauga Schueler recorded firing 26 shot, 86 shell, 94 case, and 9 canister.   An interesting mix of ammunition fired.  In action the battery was under  fire mostly from infantry. They suffered four casualties to musketry.  Something to think about with this being a “close” action.

Moving over the the rifled projectiles, a couple of lines on the Hotchkiss page:

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  • Battery D: 40 canister, 98 percussion shell, and 146 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery F: 29 shot, 224 percussion shell, and 45 fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

Let’s break the next page down by sections for clarity.  Starting with the additional Hotchkiss columns:

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  • Battery F: 103 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

Now the James patent projectiles:

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  • Battery I: 10 shot, 58 shell, and 50 canister for 4.62-inch or 12-pdr James rifles.

Then lots of Parrott rounds:

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Among five batteries:

  • Battery E: 60 shot, 190 shell, 115 case, and 35 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery H:  10 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts (left over from the previous quarter).
  • Battery I: 54 shot, 118 shell, 74 case, and 64 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery K: 20 shot, 66 shell, 238 case, and 112 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery M: 126 shot, 265 shell, 373 case, and 130 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Of note, Schueler reported Battery G fired 5 case and 57 shell from 10-pdr Parrotts at Chickamuaga.

No Schenkl projectiles reported.  So we move to the small arms:

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By battery:

  • Battery A: Nine Navy revolvers and twenty-five cavalry sabers.
  • Battery C: Two Army revolvers and four cavalry sabers.
  • Battery D: Eight Army revolvers and thirty cavalry sabers.
  • Battery E: Twenty-three Army revolvers and four cavalry sabers.
  • Battery F: One Army revolver and two cavalry sabers.
  • Battery H: Twenty-two Army revolvers, three Navy revolvers, and sixty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery I: Seventeen Army revolvers, 113 cavalry sabers, and one horse artillery saber.
  • Battery K: Three Navy revolvers
  • Battery M: Four Army revolvers and seven cavalry sabers.

Aside from the three batteries not reporting, the important missing piece here is the ammunition for the 3.5-inch English rifles.  There is a paperwork trail showing contracts for production of 3.5-inch rounds.  And we can assume the Missourians didn’t haul those down to Texas without carrying a few chests full of those.  But as far as the returns are concerned, the clerks at the Ordnance Department had no columns for to track those.

Say it together – Bureaucracy!

 

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Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Michigan

Michigan provided a full regiment of light artillery to the Federal cause.  As mentioned in previous installments, the clerks identified Michigan’s batteries with numbered designations, as per early war convention.  But the batteries were later designated with letters within the state’s 1st Light Artillery Regiment.  I will merge the two in an attempt to cover all bases here.  (Two more “independent” and numbered batteries would join the list in 1864, but that is for future posts.)

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Seven returns for the twelve batteries.  We’ll fill in some blanks:

  • 1st Battery (Battery A): No return.  Also known as the Loomis Battery, for its first commander.  Lieutenant George W. Van Pelt led this battery, supporting First division Fourteenth Corps, into action on September 19, at Chickamauga.   They worked their six (though reports earlier in the year indicated five) 10-pdr Parrotts through four changes of position before firing their first shot in the battle, near (not on) Winfrey Field.  The battery got off only 64 rounds before the Confederates were upon them.  “The men remained with the battery until the enemy’s bayonets were at their breasts,” wrote Captain George Kensel, Division Artillery Chief.  Van Pelt and five of his men were killed.  Six were seriously wounded and thirteen more captured.  Along with much of the battery equipment, five guns were captured.  Lieutenant August H. Bachman managed to extract one of the guns.  Three guns were recaptured later in the battle, but in poor shape.  (Of note… one Parrott was recaptured on Missionary Ridge and the last around Atlanta… and allegedly returned to the battery.)  Lieutenant Almerick W. Wilbur assumed command of the battery in Chattanooga.  With the exception of a few demonstrations, the battery would remain at Chattanooga for the rest of the war.
  • 2nd Battery (Battery B): Reporting from Corinth, Tennessee with two 12-pdr howitzers, two 3-inch Ordnance rifles (moved over from the “steel” column), and two 10-pdr Parrotts. Lieutenant Albert F. R. Arndt, still in command, was promoted to Captain in early September.  The battery remained at Corinth until October, when it moved to Pulaski, Tennessee, as part of the Sixteenth Corps.
  • 3rd Battery (Battery C): Still at Memphis, Tennessee, but now with four 10-pdr Parrotts.  Captain George Robinson remained in command of this battery, assigned to the District of Memphis (Fifth Division), Sixteenth Corps.
  • 4th Battery (Battery D): No return.  In the previous quarter,  Captain Josiah W. Church reported two 12-pdr field howitzers, two 10-pdr Parrotts, and two James 3.80-inch rifles.  And that’s what this battery, supporting Third Division, Fourteenth Corps, took into action at Chickamauga.  We might say this battery was “fought out” by two hard days fighting.  They left the field spent and with only one howitzer.  They lost 35 horses in the battle, but only seven men wounded and four missing.  Church provided a very detailed accounting of all material lost on the field.  So many items listed that I dare say a blank summary line would be close to accurate.  And, from the statements of several, that equipment was not given up without a fight! The battery reorganized in Chattanooga and would receive 20-pdr Parrotts.
  • 5th Battery (Battery E): At Nashville, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and four 10-pdr Parrotts. This battery, part of the Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland, spent most of the summer in Murfreesboro.  In mid-September, Captain John J. Ely’s battery returned to Nashville.
  • 6th Battery (Battery F): At Glasgow, Kentucky with two 6-pdr field guns and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  By some reports, the battery had sections at Munfordsville, Bowling Green, and Louisville, through October 1863.  Captain Luther F. Hale commanded overall, and at Munfordsville.  One section of the battery, under Hale, was at Munfordsville.  Another section, under Lieutenant Byron D. Paddock, garrisoned Bowling Green.  In October, both sections merged at Glasgow, Kentucky, part of the District of Central Kentucky, Department of the Ohio.  At that time Hale was promoted to major, and Paddock, with a captain’s commission, took the battery.
  • 7th Battery (Battery G):  At Carrolton, Louisiana with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  The battery was assigned to the Ninth Division, Thirteenth Corps, commanded by Captain Charles H. Lanphere, through August of 1863.  Subsequently assigned to the New Orleans garrison, Department of the Gulf.  Upon Lanphere’s resignation at the first of September, Lieutenant George L. Stillman took over the battery.
  • 8th Battery (Battery H): No return.  In the previous quarter, the battery reported two 12-pdr field howitzers, one 6-pdr (3.67-inch) rifles, and two James (3.80-inch) rifles.  With Captain Samuel De Golyer mortally wounded during the Vicksburg Siege, and Captain Theodore W. Lockwood moving to a cavalry unit. Lieutenant Marcus D. Elliot commanded this battery.  The battery was assigned to Third Division, Seventeenth Corps and spent the summer at Vicksburg (with most of the battery on furlough).
  • 9th Battery (Battery I): Reporting at Culpeper, Virginia with four 3-inch rifles.  Captain Jabez J. Daniels commanded this battery, assigned to the 1st Horse Artillery Brigade, Army of the Potomac.  The battery was reassigned to the Eleventh Corps in October, and move with that formation to Chattanooga.
  • 10th Battery (Battery K): At Chattanooga, Tennessee, with four 3-inch rifles.  However, this reflects the September 1864 posting date.  In September 1863, the battery was at Camp Barry, Washington, D.C..  Captain John C. Schuetz commanded.  The battery was sent west as part of the reinforcements sent to Chattanooga in November, as part of the Eleventh Corps.
  • 11th Battery (Battery L):  No return.  Under Captain Charles J. Thompson.  After seeing their first service in the response to Morgan’s Raid, the battery joined Third Division, Twenty-Third Corps, Department of the Ohio.  The battery saw service in the advance to Knoxville during the fall.
  • 12th Battery (Battery M):  No return. Captain Edward G. Hillier commanded.  The battery did not leave the state until July 9, being dispatched to Indianapolis in reaction to Morgan’s Raid.  From there, the battery moved to Camp Nelson, Kentucky, in mid-September.  From there, the battery joined Wilcox’s Division, Twenty-Third Corps advancing on the Cumberland Gap.

In the previous quarter, we saw three additional lines under Michigan’s batteries.  One of those was likely a section from the 6th Battery/Battery F.  Another was just reporting stores being held by the 18th Michigan Infantry, which were likely turned in by the end of the summer.  However, it is worth speculating that the 12th Michigan Infantry still retained a 12-pdr field howitzer while marching on Little Rock, Arkansas in the fall.

The first page detailed and some blanks filled in, we proceed to the ammunition pages, with smoothbores the first:

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Three batteries reporting:

 

  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: 152 shell, 128(?) case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 5th Battery / Battery E: 198 shot, 115 case, and 134 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 6th Battery / Battery F: 157 shot, 185 case, and 89 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

 

Moving to the Hotchkiss rifled projectiles:

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Four batteries reporting:

  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: 83 canister, 72 percussion shell, 72 fuse shell, and 240 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery / Battery G: 123 canister, 159 fuse shell, and 509 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 9th Battery / Battery I: 360 shot, 60 canister, 60 percussion shell, and 120 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery / Battery K: 402 shot, 96 canister, 165 percussion shell, and 179 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

On the next page, we can focus on the Parrott columns:

0268_1P_Snip_MI

Four batteries with quantities:

  • 2th Battery / Battery B: 51 shot, 183 shell, and 77 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 3rd Battery / Battery C: 57 shot, 40 shell, 601 case, and 95 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 5th Battery / Battery E: 129 shot, 383 shell, 40 case, and 170 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 6th Battery / Battery F: 177 shell, 141 case, and 62 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

And one battery with Schenkls:

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  • 5th Battery / Battery E: 60 shell and 100 case for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Lastly, the small arms:

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By battery:

  • 2nd Battery / Battery B: Twenty Army revolvers and forty-three cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery / Battery C: Eighteen cavalry sabers.
  • 5th Battery / Battery E: Twenty-five cavalry sabers and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 6th Battery / Battery F: Twenty-five Army revolvers and twelve cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery / Battery G: Nine Army revolvers and one cavalry saber.
  • 9th Battery / Battery I: Eleven Army revolvers and seventeen horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery / Battery H: Fifteen Army revolvers and sixty-nine horse artillery sabers.

Worth noting, Captain Church reported, within a lengthy list of accouterments and implements missing after Chickamauga, the 4th Battery lost four revolvers and five sabers.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Three Minnesota Batteries

From “The Land of 10,000 Lakes” came three light batteries (along with a regiment of heavy artillery that would muster in the last year of the war).  Those three regiments saw service west of the Appalachians… that is until November 1864 when the 1st Battery traveled through Georgia and the Carolinas as part of “Uncle Billy’s March.”  Within the service of those three batteries we see the three main threads of “western” service for 1863 – Middle Tennessee, Mississippi River, and Trans-Mississippi.  By November of 1863, two of those three batteries had forwarded return for third quarter:

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Two out of three isn’t bad:

  • 1st Battery: No return.  The previous quarter this battery reported at Vicksburg with two 12-pdr field howitzers and two 3.67-inch (6-pdr) rifles.  Captain William Z. Clayton commanded.  Through the summer and fall, the battery remained at Vicksburg, as part of Sixth (later re-designated First) Division, Seventeenth Corps.  Clayton returned home on recruiting duty in November, with Lieutenant Henry S. Hurter filling in as commander.
  • 2nd Battery:  For the third quarterly return in a row, we see Chattanooga, Tennessee as the location for this battery.  And this time, the location is accurate.  The battery reported two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 10-pdr Parrotts.  The battery arrived at Chickamauga as part of First Division, Twentieth Corps.   Captain William A. Hotchkiss, the battery commander, served as Artillery Chief for the division.  As such, Lieutenant Albert Woodbury remained in direct command.  The battery held an important position on the right of the division line, providing excellent service (though some infantry would complain of “friendly fire” from the battery).  Woodbury received a musket ball in his left arm – a wound that proved mortal.  Lieutenant Richard L. Dawley, with direction from Hotchkiss, got the battery off the field, and remained in direct command as the battery setup in the defenses of Chattanooga.
  • 3rd Battery:  Reporting from Fort Snelling, Minnesota with two 6-pdr field guns and six 12-pdr mountain howitzers (corrected from the previous quarter’s entry).  Captain John Jones commanded this battery assigned to the District of Minnesota, Department of the Northwest.  At the time of filing, the battery had just returned from the Dakota Territory as part of Sibley’s Sioux Expedition.

Those details established, we move to the smoothbore ammunition:

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  • 2nd Battery: 94 shot, 15 shell, 50 case, and 27 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 3rd Battery: 102 shot, 130 case, and 42 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 60 shell, 177 case, and 84 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

No Hotchkiss rounds reported (despite having a battery commander named Hotchkiss):

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But there are Parrotts on hand:

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  • 2nd Battery: 229 shell, 131 case, and 110 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

No Schenkl to report:

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So that leaves us with only the small arms remaining to discuss:

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Well… from those reporting:

  • 2nd Battery: One Navy revolver and nine cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Thirty Army revolvers and 126 cavalry sabers.

We have here a return from the 2nd Minnesota Battery, which had just weeks before been engaged in a major battle (and one in which their forces were defeated).  And we have a return from the 3rd Minnesota Battery, having returned from a long campaign across the western plains.  But nothing from the 1st Minnesota Battery, which was relatively inactive through the quarter.  Overlooked paperwork!

 

 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Maryland’s Federal Batteries

For the previous quarter, Maryland’s section of the summary contained three battery listings – Battery A, Battery B, and the Baltimore Battery.  However, I mentioned at the bottom of the administrative portion of two additional batteries, being mustered but not yet in existence at the end of June 1863.  Those were Battery A (Second) and Battery B (Second).  Often referred to as the “Junior” batteries.  We find those listed in the third quarter:

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The story of these “Junior” batteries deserves at least a short explanation.  With Abraham Lincoln’s Proclamation #102, issued on June 15, 1863, the call went forward Maryland, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio to provide volunteers for enlistments of six months to meet the emergency caused by the Confederate invasion.  We discussed the artillery side of Pennsylvania’s response in an earlier post.  Maryland’s quota in this was 10,000 men and included the two “Junior” batteries. Both batteries mustered into service on July 14.  And they would serve their six month hitches around Baltimore.

I cannot translate what was actually written in the “Regiment” column for lines 59 and 60.  But the company letters are clear.  These batteries were on active service during the quarter.  And as we see from the summary, were issued cannon.  Thus, at the end of September 1863 Maryland had five batteries reporting:

  • Battery A / 1st Battery: Indicated with the Army of the Potomac, with four (down from six)  3-inch Ordnance Rifles   Captain James H. Rigby remained in command. When the Fourth Volunteer Brigade of the Reserve Artillery was broken up on July 17, Rigby’s Battery transferred to the Third Volunteer Brigade.  As of the end of September that year the battery was in Culpeper County.
  • Battery B / 2nd Battery: Reported at Maryland Heights, Maryland, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  In mid-July, the Captain Alonzo Snow’s battery was among the forces reoccupying Harpers Ferry.  The battery was assigned to the Second Brigade, Maryland Heights Division.
  • Baltimore Independent Battery: Showing at Baltimore, Maryland, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  As mentioned in the previous quarter, this battery lost its guns at Winchester in June.  Captain Frederick W. Alexander remained in command with the battery reforming at Baltimore, being reequipped with rifles rather quickly in July.  The battery appears in Brigadier-General Erastus Tyler’s division, Northwestern Defenses of Baltimore.
  • Battery A (Junior): Reporting at Baltimore, Maryland with six 3-inch rifles (likely Ordnance Rifles).  As detailed above, the battery mustered in mid-July.  Captain John M. Bruce commanded.  The battery was also part of Tyler’s division.  The battery is often listed simply as “Junior Battery” on returns.
  • Battery B (Junior): At Camp Wharton (?), Maryland with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  The place name is not familiar to me, but I do know the battery was in the defenses of Baltimore.  Also seen on returns as the Eagle Battery.  Captain Joseph H. Audoun commanded.  As with the other Junior Battery, the Eagle Battery was assigned to the defenses of Baltimore, and part of Tyler’s division.

Turning to the ammunition reported, only one battery with smoothbore rounds on hand:

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  • Battery B (Junior): 296 shot, 104 shell, 304 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

But a lot of 3-inch rifles, meaning a lot of Hotchkiss entries:

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  • Battery A: 80 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery B: 182 canister, 188 percussion shell,  and 547 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Baltimore Battery: 121 canister, 120 percussion shell, 4 fuse shell, 10 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery A (Junior): 120 canister, 120 percussion shell, 240 fuse shell, and 720 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

These batteries had no rounds indicated on the next page:

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But the batteries did report quantities of Schenkl on hand:

0260_2_Snip_MD

  • Battery A: 317 shell and 396 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery B: 253 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Baltimore Battery: 240 shell and 710 case for 3-inch rifles.

Lastly, we turn to the small arms:

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By battery:

  • Battery A: Eight Army revolvers, twenty cavalry sabers, and sixteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery B: Ten Army revolvers and twenty-one cavalry sabers.
  • Baltimore Battery: Twenty-four Army revolvers and thirty-two horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery A (Junior): Twenty Army revolvers and twenty cavalry sabers.
  • Battery B (Junior): Twenty Army revolvers and twenty cavalry sabers.

Consider that in July 1863 of the five Maryland batteries, two were just brought into existence and another had lost nearly all its equipment.  Those three batteries were constituted, or reconstituted as the case may be, within a matter of weeks.  That tells us much about the depth of the Federal war machine…. not to mention how many spare cannon were around just waiting to be issued.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Massachusetts batteries

Entering the fall of 1863, the volunteer light batteries from Massachusetts served either in the Eastern Theater or the Department of the Gulf.  All told, the Bay State provided sixteen light batteries to Federal service during the war (save one or two thirty-day batteries at the start of the war).  At the end of the third quarter, 1863, fourteen of those had mustered.  However, the clerks at the Ordnance Department “shorted” that count:

0257_1_Snip_MA

With the addition of the 15th Battery, this is an improvement over the previous quarter.  While we can excuse the absence of the 14th and 16th Batteries, which would not form until the winter of 1864, the 13th Battery should be on this list.  I’ll list all sixteen here, with placeholders, for sake of complete coverage:

  • 1st Battery: At Culpepper [sic], Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery remained with the Artillery Brigade, Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac. and Captain William H. McCartney remained in command.  More precisely, the battery was with the corps near Stone-House Mountain, on the right end of the Federal deployment in Culpeper County at that time.
  • 2nd Battery: No return. Captain Ormand F. Nims commanded this battery, assigned to Nineteenth Corps, Department of the Gulf.  The battery may have retain six 6-pdr rifled field guns mentioned earlier in the year. Following the surrender of Port Hudson, the battery transferred to the corps artillery reserve (having been assigned to Fourth Division during the siege), and returned to Baton Rouge.  At the end of September, the battery transferred again, this time to the Cavalry Division of the corps.  The battery saw field service in the Teche Campaign later in the fall.
  • 3rd Battery: Reporting at Warrenton Junction, Virginia with six 6-pdr field guns.   This is obviously an error, as the battery held 12-pdr Napoleons (no batteries then assigned to the Army of the Potomac had 6-pdrs this late in the war).  Assigned to the Artillery Brigade, Fifth Corps. With Captain Augustus Martin in command of the brigade, Lieutenant Aaron F. Walcott remained in charge of the battery.  We might quibble over the location and say the battery was in Culpeper at the end of September.
  • 4th Battery: Reporting from “Camin Grove Bayou” in Louisiana (a transcription I am struggling with).  The battery had four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch ordnance rifles.  Under Captain George G. Trull, the battery remained with Third Division, Nineteenth Corps.   The battery moved around much during the summer and early fall with stays at Port Hudson, Donaldsonville, Baton Rouge.  They were at Fort Brashear, outside Morgan City, Louisiana at the end of September.  The battery would participate in the Teche Expedition in October.
  • 5th Battery: Reporting at Centreville, Virginia with six 3-inch rifles.  Captain Charles A. Phillips remained in command, and the battery assigned to the Fifth Corps.  The location should be Culpeper, but reflects a later reporting date.
  • 6th Battery: At Algiers, Louisiana with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 12-pdr field howitzers. The battery was assigned to First Division, Nineteenth Corps, commanded by Captain William W. Carruth.  When Carruth mustered out on October 3rd, Lieutenant Edward K. Russell (2nd Battery, above) transferred to command.  Then in December, Lieutenant John F. Phelps, of the battery, took command.  Phelps would be promoted to Captain with commission back dated to October 3.  During their stay at Algiers, the battery was reequipped and reduced to four guns.
  • 7th Battery: At Camp Barry, D.C., with six 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  This battery had an eventful summer, though not one for winning battle streamers.  Battery assigned to First Division, Seventh Army Corps,  and commanded by Captain Phineas A. Davis at the start of the summer.  At the start of July, the battery was among the forces employed for an expedition from White House to the South Anna River. On July 20, the battery was sent to Camp Marshall, in D.C.  And from there dispatched by steamer to New York City, camping on Madison Square, to suppress the draft riots.  On September 11, the battery returned to Washington, going to Camp Barry.  Davis accepted a promotion, and left the battery to Lieutenant Newman W. Storer (who was soon made captain).
  • 8th Battery: No return.  Mustered out the previous November at the end of a six-month enlistment.
  • 9th Battery: Culpeper, Virginia with four 12-pdr Napoleons. Remaining with the First Volunteer Artillery Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Captain John Bigelow commanded, but was recovering from wounds.  Lieutenant Richard S. Milton filled in his place.
  • 10th Battery:  At Warrenton Junction, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. When French’s Division came to the Army of the Potomac, the battery moved with its parent organization into Third Corps.  Captain J. Henry Sleeper commanded. The location is presumably associated with the November date of return.  At the end of September, the battery was with the corps, just west of Culpeper.
  • 11th Battery: No return.  This battery mustered out of service in May 1863. Though it did see some use suppressing draft riots in the mid-summer months.  Captain Edward J. Jones commanded. The battery would muster back into service, under Jones, in January 1864.
  • 12th Battery:  At Port Hudson, Louisiana, with four 6-pdr field guns (down two 3-inch rifles from the previous quarter). Listed in the artillery reserve of the Nineteenth Corps. After serving by detachments during the Port Hudson campaign, the battery consolidated back in New Orleans in late July.  It was stationed at Tivoli Circle (you know… were once a statue to a Confederate leader stood) at the end of September.  Captain Jacob Miller remained in command.
  • 13th Battery: Not listed. The 13th Battery suffered heavily in their first year of service.  They’d lost sixty horses in the transit to New Orleans (that included a six week stay at Fort Monroe). And what horses they had when arriving at New Orleans were re-assigned to other batteries. Put to work on the Port Hudson siege lines, sickness and disease brought the battery down to fifty men by the end of August.  At that time, Captain Charles H. J. Hamlin returned home to recruit more men.  In his place, Lieutenant Ellis L. Motte was in command of a detachment, assigned to the 2nd Battery (above).
  • 14th Battery: Not listed.  Battery did not begin recruiting until January-February 1864.
  • 15th Battery: At Bayou St. John, Louisiana with no reported artillery.  Captain Timothy Pearson’s battery arrived in Louisiana in April.  But their equipment and horses was re-allocated to other batteries at that time.  The men served at posts around New Orleans as garrison artillery until the end of December.
  • 16th Battery: Not listed.  Battery did not begin recruiting until January-February 1864.

Turning to the ammunition, we look at the smoothbore first:

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Lots of those to go around:

  • 1st Battery: 286 shot, 93 shell, 288 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 3rd Battery: 192 shot, 96 shell, 387 case, and 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleon (at least the clerks got the ammunition in the right columns!)
  • 4th Battery: 269 shell, 147 case, and 55 canister for 12-pdr Napoleon.
  • 6th Battery: 41 shot, 163 shell, 251 case, and 60 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 96 shell, 128 case, and 32 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 9th Battery: 182 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 54 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 12th Battery: 4 shot and 175 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

Moving over to the Hotchkiss rifled projectiles:

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Four reporting:

  • 4th Battery: 39 canister, 265 percussion shell, and 60 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 5th Battery: 138 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 120 canister, 236 percussion shell, and 120 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 500 shot, 115 canister, 110 percussion shell, and 220 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

No reported quantities on the next page:

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But there were Schenkl projectiles to account for:

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Three batteries:

  • 5th Battery: 140 shell and 930 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 720 case for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 15 shell and  240 case for 3-inch rifles.

Lastly, the small arms columns:

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By battery:

  • 1st Battery: Eight Navy revolvers, nine cavalry sabers, and five horse artillery sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: One Army revolver, eight cavalry sabers, and twenty-four horse artillery sabers.
  • 4th Battery: One breechloading carbine, seven Army revolvers, and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • 5th Battery: One Army revolver and twenty-seven horse artillery sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Fourteen Army revolvers, ten Navy revolvers, and thirty (?) cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery: Fifteen Navy revolvers and twenty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Eight Army revolvers and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Sixteen Navy revolvers and nineteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 12th Battery: Eighteen Army revolvers and thirty-six (?) horse artillery sabers.
  • 15th Battery: Fifty rifles (type unspecified), fourteen Navy revolvers, and twenty-two horse artillery sabers.

We will discuss the Heavy Artillery from Massachusetts in a later post.  But for now that’s the summary of the numbered batteries.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Maine’s Batteries

Despite a summer of campaigning and major battles, the third quarter, 1863 summaries for Maine captured information from four of the six batteries:

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Two of those returns were posted in October. The clerks had to wait until the winter for the other two.  The same two batteries, 1st and 3rd, failed to file returns the previous quarter.  The Maine batteries are at times identified by numbered as well as lettered designations.  For simplicity here, I’ll retain the convention used by the Ordnance Department clerks… the numbers:

  • 1st Battery: No return. Captain Albert W. Bradbury resumed command of the battery after July.  Battery remained assigned to First Division, Nineteenth Corps, Department of the Gulf.  After the fall of Port Hudson, the battery moved with its parent formation back to Baton Rouge.  Reports earlier in the year gave the battery had four 6-pdr rifled guns and three 12-pdr howitzers.
  • 2nd Battery: “In the field” with four (down from six) 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  This is Captain James A. Hall’s battery, First Corps, Army of the Potomac.  Hall was up for promotion later in the year.  “In the field” was in Culpeper County, as of the end of September, 1863.  The battery would report to Camp Barry in November.  And around the same time, Hall would receive a much deserved promotion (and soon command the artillery school at Camp Barry).
  • 3rd Battery:  No report.  At this stage of the war, 3rd Battery was re-designated Battery M, 1st Maine Heavy Artillery (it would later revert to light artillery). Captain James G. Swett commanded.  The battery was stationed in the Defenses of Washington, on the north side of the Potomac.  They were, for at least a portion of this time, assigned to Battery Jameson, outside Fort Lincoln.
  • 4th Battery: Reporting at Culpeper, Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  Captain O’Neil W. Robinson, Jr. remained in command.  The battery returned to the Army of the Potomac, as part of French’s Division, under Third Corps.
  • 5th Battery: Reporting, appropriately “in the field” with four (down from six) 12-pdr Napoleons, from a report filed in March 1864.  Captain Greenleaf T. Stevens remained in command of this battery, which remained with First Corps, Army of the Potomac, through the end of the reporting period.  As such, its location was “in the field” in Culpeper County, Virginia.
  • 6th Battery: Another battery reporting from Culpeper, Virginia, in January 1864, this time with four 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery transferred from the 4th Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac to the 1st Volunteer Brigade (commanded by its original commander – Lieutenant Colonel Freeman McGilvery. Lieutenant William H. Rogers resumed command of the battery.

Of note, the 7th Maine Light Battery began formation in the fall of 1863. Though it would not formally muster until December.

And, mentioned above in regard to the 3rd Battery, the 1st Maine Heavy Artillery, under Colonel Daniel Chaplin, was part of the defenses of Washington, D.C., assigned to the north side of the Potomac.  The regiment had detachments in Maine on recruiting duties and at the seacoast fortifications (mostly recruits being trained up for duty).  This regiment was destined to see combat in the year that followed, but as one of the “heavies” given infantry duties in the Overland Campaign.

Let us move across the summary and discuss the ammunition on hand for the four reporting field batteries, starting with the smoothbore:

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Two Napoleon batteries:

  • 5th Battery: 192 shot, 64 shell, 188 case, and 68 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 6th Battery: 192 shot, 64 shell, 192 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

The number of rounds on hand for the Napoleons seems low to me.  A standard Napoleon ammunition chest held 32 rounds.  Each gun in the battery should have at least four such chests (one on the limber, three with the caisson) if not a few more.  Do the math.  5th and 6th Batteries had roughly a chest per gun.  Both returns were filed at the start of 1864, while the batteries were enjoying the winter encampment.  And those batteries would have plenty of ammunition to fill the chests.  I suspect in this case the returns were “as of the reporting date” and not “on hand at this time.”  But without seeing the actual return, that cannot be determined for certainty.

Moving to the rifled projectiles.  The batteries with 3-inch Ordnance Rifles reported Hotchkiss rounds:

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Two batteries reporting:

  • 2nd Battery: 71 shot, 99 canister, and 240 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 4th Battery: 120 canister, 381 fuse shell, and 699 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

As with the Napoleon batteries, 2nd Battery seems short on ammunition, with a couple of chests worth on hand (though we’ll see enough for a couple more chests from the Schenkl columns below).  4th Battery had but six total.

We rarely have seen solid shot reported for field batteries in the 3-inch or 10-pdr Parrott calibers.  Solid shot, or bolt as the Parrotts were designated, were good for counter-battery work.  Though they could not match the performance of solid round shot against infantry.

As for 2nd Battery and their Schenkl rounds:

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  • 2nd Battery:  258 shot for 3-inch rifles.

Taken with the 71 Hotchkiss, that’s a lot of solid shot! Almost two full chests worth.

More Schenkl on the next page.

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  • 2nd Battery: 115 shell for 3-inch rifles.

With the remarks and questions about ammunition taken in consideration, we continue to the small arms:

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By battery:

  • 2nd Battery: Sixteen Army revolvers and nine cavalry sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Eighteen Navy revolvers and eleven cavalry sabers.
  • 5th Battery: Ten Army revolvers and fifteen cavalry sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Seven Army revolvers, a hundred Navy revolvers and twenty-two horse artillery sabers.

All considered, the numbers for the Maine batteries offer some insight into logistics at this time of the war for the Federal ranks.  Two of the batteries gave returns close to the end of the reporting period. And we have conjectural evidence the other two were giving “as of that date” returns.  From those returns, we conclude the battery had one chest on hand for many of its guns.

But before we go off worrying the Army of the Potomac had some shortage of shells, we have to keep in mind what we know outside of those batteries.  The artillery chief (Brigadier-General Henry Hunt) was not filling the telegraph lines with pleas for more ammunition.  Nor was the ordnance or quartermaster sections reporting any Army-wide shortage.  So perhaps the Maine batteries were reporting what they had on hand, at the end of a summer of hard campaigning with little time to resupply.  Meanwhile, the missing set of data here is what was retained on hand at the Army-level in Hunt’s famous artillery trains.  Those chests, resupplied after Gettysburg, represented a ready supply to be quickly applied where need was felt.  Perhaps the numbers indicate Hunt placed priority to resupply of the trains over filling chests in the batteries?

Thus, if we take these numbers at face, on the eve of the Bristoe Station Campaign at least four batteries had simply enough rounds for a brief engagement.  Though resupply was but a short ride away.

Another “number” to consider is the reduction of three batteries to four guns.  This trend would continue through the Overland Campaign and reflected policy changes.  Seasoned, veteran infantry required less gun tubes per frontage for support.  Fewer guns to support meant fewer ammunition chests.  And such cycles back into the discussion of logistics, among other things.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Louisiana Heavy Artillery

Moving down the pages in the summary statements for the third quarter of 1863, we have a placeholder entry for Louisiana:

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Just that one line:

  • 1st Heavy Artillery:  No location given.  Just the notation for infantry stores.

Good to see the clerks at the Ordnance Department were holding to procedures and at least accounting for the artillery units then in service.  It would not be out of the normal practice for a heavy artillery unit to have a blank summary.  Much of the time, the heavy artillery pieces were assigned to the installation (be that a fort or other).  And the regiment was then only left to account for small arms… in this case covered under “infantry stores”.  I don’t have copies of the infantry summary statements, but presumably we’d find an entry for this regiment detailing muskets, other weapons, and accouterments.

But “this regiment” deserves a full explanation here.  If we consult Dyer’s Compendium, we find a listing for the regiment as:

1st REGIMENT HEAVY ARTILLERY (AFRICAN DESCENT).
Organized at New Orleans, La., November 29, 1862. Attached to Defences of New Orleans and duty as Garrison Artillery till November, 1863. Designation of Regiment changed to 1st Corps de Afrique Heavy Artillery November 19, 1863, which see.

As the name implies, this was a colored unit, formed from African-Americans then in New Orleans and other locations under Federal control.

Cross referencing those names against the returns from the Official Records (notably, the order of battle for the Department of the Gulf) we find subordinates of this regiment begin appearing in May 1863.  At that time, Company B was part of the Defenses of New Orleans, under Captain Soren Rygaard (the printed Official Records say “Loren” but his enlistment papers and other documents read “Soren”).  By August, the returns added Company C, with Rygaard now commanding a battalion of the regiment’s soldiers.

Rygaard had immigrated from Jutland, Denmark.  He was working as a merchant in New York when the war broke out.  In early 1863 he signed on as a private in Battery E, 3rd US Artillery.  But I don’t see that he ever joined that battery in the field.  Instead, he shows up next in New Orleans, accepting a discharge for commission in the 1st Louisiana Regiment of Heavy Artillery.  He was promoted to captain in early summer.  At that time there were but two companies of the regiment formed.   In September, the regiment consisted of three companies, numbering over 300 men.  Rygaard even put in a request for appointment to Colonel of the regiment.

So at the cut-off time for quarterly returns, Rygaard commanded what parts of the regiment were on duty, essentially a battalion.  And that battalion served as part of the defenses of New Orleans, with no field artillery or associated equipment worthy of mention in the summary.

However, as indicated in Dyer’s, changes were coming for this regiment… and not only a designation change.  On November 7, 1863, Special Orders No. 278 from Headquarters, Department of the Gulf came out, and read in part:

Company C, First Louisiana Heavy Artillery, under command of Capt. Loren Rygaard, commanding battalion stationed at Camp Parapet, New Orleans, having been reported by the commander of the Defenses of New Orleans in such a state of insubordination as to indicate unmistakably the incapacity or criminal action of the officers of the company, and that the conduct and character of the company is such as to make the men composing it unworthy to bear arms, Capt. Loren Rygaard, commanding battalion, and the following-named officers composing Company C, First Louisiana Heavy Artillery, viz, Capt. N. L. Rich, Senior First Lieut. H. C. Rawson, Junior First Lieut. M. J. Kenyon, Junior Second Lieut. F. Walton, are hereby dismissed the service of the United States, and the company will be immediately disarmed and sent under guard to Port Hudson, where the men will be placed at hard labor on the public works, under the direction of the commanding officer of the post, until further orders.

The quartermaster’s department will furnish the necessary transportation.
Senior Second Lieut. James M. Lawton, Company C, First Louisiana Heavy Artillery, not having served with the company during its insubordination, is honorably discharged the military service of the United States.

So no colonelcy for Rygaard.  He was discharged shortly after these orders were issued.

But the regiment remained.  In April, the 1st Corps de Afrique Heavy Artillery was brought in line with the naming convention for the US Colored Troops, thus becoming the 7th Heavy Artillery (USCT) in early April.  However, that designation was already in use by a USCT regiment then forming from contrabands from Alabama.  So in May, the Louisiana regiment was given another new designation – the 10th Heavy Artillery (USCT).  They would remain at New Orleans right up to the end of the war.  In April 1865 the regiment participated in several expeditions to speed the closure to the war.

While not a storied regiment with many battle honors, the 10th Heavy Artillery (USCT) reflects yet another aspect to the service of colored troops in the Civil War.  I do hope that some day a diligent researcher will come along to better illuminate the history of this regiment.

(Citations from Dyer’s Compendium, Part 3, Page 1213; and OR, Series I, Volume 24, Part I, Serial 41, page 791.)