Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – 1st Missouri Light Artillery

The 1st Missouri Light Artillery Regiment began the war as the 1st Missouri Infantry, a three month unit. As infantry, the regiment organized in April 1861 and served in the early war campaigns in Missouri. After Wilson’s Creek, during the month of September, the regiment was reorganized as artillery, one of many creative administrative activities during the first year of the war by authorities in Missouri. The first commander of the regiment was Colonel Francis P. Blair, Jr. However, Representative Blair was not with the regiment for long, being absent for his duties in Washington. Blair, of course, accepted a volunteer commission as a general and went on to gain fame in many of the war’s important campaigns, ending the war as commander of the Seventeenth Corps. Not many artillery regiments can boast a major-general from their ranks.

When Blair accepted his general’s commission, Lieutenant-Colonel Warren S. Lothrop replaced him as the regimental colonel, with date of rank to October 1, 1862. At the end of 1863, Lothrop was the overall artillery chief for Sixteenth Corps. Looking to the rest of the staff, Lieutenant-Colonel Albert M. Powell was artillery chief for Seventeenth Corps; Major George Henry Stone was artillery chief for Left Wing of the Sixteenth Corps; and Major Thomas Maurice was artillery chief for First Division, Seventeenth Corps. Thus we see the 1st Missouri was well represented in staff positions, and fully employed.

For the line batteries, we have this section of the summary to consider:

  • Battery A: At New Iberia, Louisiana with two 6-pdr field guns, one 12-pdr Napoleon and three 12-pdr field howitzers.  Captain George W. Schofield remained in command.  However, Schofield was at the time detached on his brother’s (Major-General John Schofield) staff. Furthermore, George was due to be promoted in the 2nd Missouri Artillery.  In his absence, Lieutenants Charles M. Callahan and Elisha Cole alternated at head of the the battery.  The battery remained with Third Division, Thirteenth Corps.
  • Battery B:  No return. Captain Martin Welfley’s battery remained with Second Division of the Thirteenth corps.  Welfley had reported two 12-pdr field guns and four 12-pdr field howitzers earlier in the previous winter.  Records are not clear if those were still on hand as of September 1863 or those had been exchanged. With the division, the battery was part of the Rio Grande Expedition that began in October. At the end of the year, the battery was in Brownsville, Texas.
  • Battery C: Reporting from Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 12-pdr field howitzers.  Captain Charles Mann was promoted to major at the start of November, and sent on recruiting duties. Lieutenant Wendolin Meyer led the battery until Captain John L. Matthaei was appointed (January 17, 1864, post-dated to October). The battery remained with First Division, Seventeenth Corps (under Major Maurice mentioned above).  The battery was part of an expedition to Canton, Mississippi in October. But otherwise remained at Vicksburg through the end of the year.
  • Battery D:  At Scottsboro, Alabama, with three 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, one 24-pdr field howitzer and two 3-inch rifles.  The battery, under Captain Henry Richardson was assigned to Corinth, transferred to Fourth Division, Fifteenth Corps at the start of October. Richardson was the division artillery chief, with Lieutenant Byron M. Callender leading the battery. The battery participated in the battles around Chattanooga in November and then the relief of Knoxville. But in December, the battery moved to the Huntsville area.
  • Battery E: Reporting at Brownsville, Texas with two 10-pdr Parrotts and two 12-pdr Whitworth 3.5-inch rifles. The latter were were “Fawcett Rifled Iron Gun, Cal. 3.5.” from earlier accounting.  Captain Joseph B. Atwater remained in command of the battery, assigned to Second Division, Thirteenth Corps. The battery was still with the division for the Rio Grande Expedition in October. They were stationed at Brownsville and DeCrow’s Point well into the next year.
  • Battery F: At DeCrow’s Point, Texas (opposite Fort Esparanza at Cavallo Pass, entering Matagorda Bay) with two 3.80-inch James Rifles and four 3.5-inch Whitworth Rifles (as above, these were earlier identified as Fawcett rifles). Captain Joseph Foust remained in command, and the battery assigned to Second Division, Thirteenth Corps.  As with Battery E, this battery participated in the Rio Grande Expedition and other operations on the Texas coast that fall.
  • Battery G: Reporting from Chattanooga, Tennessee with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Captain Henry Hescock, commanding the battery, was in a Confederate prison. In his place, Lieutenant Gustavus Schueler lead the battery. With reorganizations to the Army of the Cumberland, the battery moved to Second Division, Fourth Corps. After the battles around Chattanooga, the battery became part of the garrison of that place.
  • Battery H: At Pulaski, Tennessee with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Frederick Welker’s battery was part of Second Division, Sixteenth Corps, guarding the railroad lines from Nashville to Decatur. In addition to his battery duties, Welker was also the division artillery chief.
  • Battery I:  No report. In the previous quarter, the battery reported a varied assortment: two 6-pdr field guns, one 12-pdr field howitzers, two 10-pdr Parrotts, and one 4.62-inch rifle (likely a 12-pdr “heavy” field gun, rifled using the James system). I suspect this battery “slimmed down” for field duty in the fall of 1863. Captain Benjamin Tannrath commanded the battery, assigned to Second Division, Sixteenth Corps, alongside Battery H. And likewise, Battery I guarded the railroad lines near Decatur, Alabama.
  • Battery K: At Little Rock, Arkansas with four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Stillman O. Fish remained in command of this battery, assigned to Third Division of what soon became the Seventh Corps, Department of Arkansas. Of note, Lieutenant Charles Green of the battery was detached serving with Battery F, 2nd US Artillery.
  • Battery L: At Rolla, Missouri with two 12-pdr field howitzers and two 3.67-inch rifles. Captain Junius G. Wilson McMurray commanded the battery, but he was absent on leave. Lieutenant Charles Stierlin let the battery instead. During this time, the battery was accused of “depredations upon civilians,” for which Stierlin was charged for failing to keep discipline in the battery. Lieutenant John Steffins (appearing on some rolls as Stephens) stepped into this “cloudy” situation with Battery L. At the end of December, the battery moved from Rolla to Springfield.
  • Battery M: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with four 10-pdr Parrotts.  This battery remained assigned to the First Division, Seventeenth Corps. Captain James Marr was now the battery commander, but due to illness on detached service in St. Louis. Lieutenant John H. Tiemeyer led the battery in his place.

A busy ammunition section to consider as we start with the smoothbore rounds:

  • Battery A: 294 shot and 262 case for 6-pdr field guns; 50 shot, 40 shell, and 102 case for 12-pdr Napoleons; 270 shell and 380 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery C: 240 shell and 240 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery D: 83 shot and 107 case for 6-pdr field guns; 48 shell for 24-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery G: 102 shot, 170 shell, and 289 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 288 shot, 96 shell, and 288 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L: 58 shell and 64 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery A: 71 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 84 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; and 26 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery C: 128 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery D: 157 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 7 case and 24 canister for 24-pdr field howitzers.
  • Battery G: 183 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery H: 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery L: 79 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.

To the right are the first of the Hotchkiss projectile columns:

  • Battery D: 48 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery F: 75 shot and 505 time fuse shell for 3.5-inch rifles; 10 shot and 34 time fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 87 shot for 3.67-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

  • Battery D: 45 percussion fuse shell, 54 bullet shell, and 40 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E: 44 percussion fuse shell and 80 canister for 3.5-inch rifles.
  • Battery F: 342 percussion fuse shell and 209 canister for 3.5-inch rifles; 181 percussion fuse shell and 48 canister for 3.8-inch rifles.
  • Battery L: 110 percussion fuse shell and 71 canister for 3.67-inch rifles.

To the right of those are columns for James projectiles:

  • Battery F: 16 shot, 15 shell, and 54 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

The last column on the right are three entries for 10-pdr Parrott Shot:

  • Battery E: 60 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery K: 20 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery M: 126 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.

The Parrott rounds continue on the next page:

  • Battery E: 190 shell, 115 case, and 35 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery K: 66 shell, 238 case, and 112 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery M: 265 shell, 373 case, and 130(?) canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

The next entries are on the small arms columns:

  • Battery A: Nine Colt navy revolvers and twenty-five cavalry sabers.
  • Battery C: Two Colt navy revolvers and four horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery D: Eight Colt army revolvers and thirty cavalry sabers.
  • Battery E: Twenty-three Colt army revolvers and four cavalry sabers.
  • Battery F: One Colt army revolver, two Colt navy revolvers, and thirteen cavalry sabers.
  • Battery G: Seven Colt army revolvers and seven cavalry sabers.
  • Battery H: Twenty-three Colt army revolvers, three Colt navy revolvers, and sixty-three horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery K: Three Colt navy revolvers.
  • Battery L: Eighteen Colt army revolvers and thirty-one cavalry sabers.
  • Battery M: Four Colt army revolvers and seven cavalry sabers.

Two entries on the cartridge bag columns:

  • Battery F: 114 cartridge bags for 6-pdr James.
  • Battery L: 140 cartridge bags for 6-pdr field guns/12-pdr field howitzers.

Lastly the page for pistol cartridges, fuses, powder, and miscellaneous items:

  • Battery A: 950 navy pistol cartridges.
  • Battery C: 60 paper fuses and 400 friction primers.
  • Battery D: 1,660 army pistol cartridges.
  • Battery F: 350 friction primers.
  • Battery G: 1,250 friction primers.
  • Battery H: 10 yards of slow match.
  • Battery K: 200 paper fuses, six yards of slow match, and 520 percussion caps for pistols.
  • Battery L: 200 paper fuses.
  • Battery M: 130 army pistol cartridges, 50 paper fuses, and 90 friction primers.

From Chattanooga to the Rio Grande, the 1st Missouri Light Artillery finished off a busy year of 1863 with most of the batteries in good shape. However, the 2nd Missouri, their sister regiment, was going through a full reorganization. In the next installment we will track that process.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Michigan, more artillery

Turning back to the Michigan section of the fourth quarter summary, consider the last two entry lines:


Isolating those down, we see entries for artillery assigned to an infantry regiment and another for the “6th Regt. Vol. Artillery”:


But wait, you say, Michigan didn’t have six regiments of artillery! Well, it did have a 6th Regiment of Artillery. Let us look at the administrative details backing these lines:

  • Battery attached to 14th Mounted Infantry: The battery reports from Columbia, Tennessee with one 6-pdr (2.6-inch) Wiard rifle and one 3.80-inch James Rifle. Colonel Henry R. Mizner commanded the 14th Michigan Infantry, which on paper was assigned to the Fourth Division, Fourteenth Corps. However, the regiment was detached for service protecting the supply lines in Tennessee from guerillas and irregulars. In that capacity, on September 6, 1863, the regiment was mounted. Eight companies moved to Columbia and received Spencer rifles, revolvers, sabers, and mounts. In addition, the regiment outfitted and manned a section of light artillery. A report in January 1864 from Major John Mendenhall, Inspector of Artillery, Army of the Cumberland, indicates Lieutenant Gideon W. Gifford commanded this section. Gifford originally enlisted, as a private, in Battery C, 1st Michigan Artillery in October 1861. He was detailed as a hospital steward, but in May 1863 he accepted a commission to lieutenant in Company K, 14th Michigan Infantry. He made captain just before being mustered out in 1865. Early in the spring of 1864, the 14ths stint on garrison duty was at an end. Rejoining the Fourteenth Corps, the men reluctantly turned in their mounts and resumed duties as traditional infantry.
  • 6th Regiment Volunteer Artillery: At Port Hudson, Louisiana with one 12-pdr Napoleon. On July 10, 1863, Major-General Nathaniel Banks ordered this regiment converted to heavy artillery, assigned to the garrison of Port Hudson. Colonel Thomas S. Clark commanded this regiment. Certainly the regiment manned more than one Napoleon in their duties, but apparently all other cannon were considered part of the garrison itself and not of the regiment. However, there are hints to additional field artillery in the ammunition totals.

Before leaving the administrative section, there are two other artillery formations that deserve mention as they were in existence if not yet mustered. These were two independent batteries:

  • 13th Battery: Organized at Grand Rapids, the battery was under command of Callaghan H. O’Riordon. The battery was still forming at the end of December, but formally entered service on January 20, 1864. The battery left the state in February for its assignment – the Defenses of Washington.
  • 14th Battery: Also organized at Grand Rapids, this battery mustered on January 5, 1864. Captain Charles Heine commanded. Likewise, leaving the state in February, 14th Battery was sent to the Defenses of Washington.

For the two sections that are on the return, we must consider their ammunition and other stores, starting with smoothbore ammunition:

  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 366 shot and 362 case for 6-pdr field guns; 36 shot, 14 shells, and 16 case for 12-pdr Napoleons; 93 shells and 200 case for 12-pdr field howitzers; 156 shells for 24-pdr field howitzers; and 3 shot and 11 shells for 24-pdr siege guns.

Much to consider there with the calibers reported. Perhaps just stores on hand. But likewise, perhaps indicating weapons on hand but not considered reportable by the unit.

Moving to the rest of the smoothbore ammunition:

  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 106 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 96 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; 48 canister for 12-pdr field guns; and 158 case and 99 canister for 24-pdr field howitzers.

To the right are reported quantities of Hotchkiss rounds:

  • 14th Michigan Infantry: 102 shot and 72 time fuse shell for 2.6-inch Wiard; 48 shot and 18 time fuse shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 3 shot for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

  • 14th Michigan Infantry: 40 percussion fuse and 74 canister for 2.6-inch Wiard rifles; 18 percussion fuse, 72 bullet shell, and 168 canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 13 canister for 3-inch rifles.

To the right is a lone entry for James projectiles:

  • 14th Michigan Infantry: 50 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.

Further to the left is one column for Parrott rounds:

  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 127 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.

The next page continues the Parrott projectiles:

  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 30 shell, 30 case, and 47 canister for 10-pdr Parrott; 10 shell for 24-pdr siege guns; 40 canister for 20-pdr Parrott.

To the right is one Schenkl tally:

  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 24 shell for 10-pdr Parrott.

No additional projectiles reported. So we turn to the small arms:

  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: Two Colt army revolvers. Yes, that’s all.

Reporting cartridge bags for the cannon:

  • 14th Michigan Infantry: 90 bags for 6-pdr (2.9-inch) Wiard, 28 bags for 6-pdr (3.8-inch) James.
  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 189 10-pdr Parrott bags, 2 field gun (6-pdr field gun or 12-pdr field howitzer) bags; 90 bags for 20-pdr Parrott, and 113 bags for 24-pdr siege guns.

The last page contains tallies for fuses, primers, and miscellaneous items:

  • 14th Michigan Infantry: 700 paper fuses and 220 friction primers.
  • 6th Michigan Heavy Artillery: 534 paper fuses, 34 pounds of cannon powder, 2,832 friction primers, 3 yards of slow match, and 11 portfires.

There is much to talk about in those two lines. These speak to units in transition from the intended role of infantry to, respectively, cavalry and heavy artillery. And along the way, a lot of equipment and stores moving about.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – 1st Michigan Light Artillery

Michigan “regimented” its batteries in the fall of 1862, and from that time the batteries were officially “lettered” within that regimental system. However, old habits died hard. The clerks at the Ordnance Department continued to reference those units by their numbered designations through the end of 1863. And in their defense, the state’s Adjutant General, in his end of year report, gave the numbered designation in parenthesis after the lettered regimental battery designation (A convention I use here to avoid any ambiguity). We see those twelve batteries with a couple of non-regimental lines in the fourth quarter summaries for 1863:


Focusing on the 1st Michigan Light Artillery for this post, Colonel Cyrus O. Loomis, originally the captain of Battery A, commanded. Loomis also served as the chief of artillery for First Division (Rousseau), Fourteenth Corps. When Major-General Lovell Rousseau transferred to command the District of Nashville, Loomis transferred as well. At the start of the fall, Loomis had no field-grade officers. That would change in September with a round of promotions which we will note within the administrative details. So looking at the twelve batteries, we find ten of twelve submitted returns:

  • Battery A / 1st Battery: Reporting from Chattanooga, Tennessee with five 10-pdr Parrott rifles.  Also known as the Loomis Battery, for its first commander.  As related in last quarter’s entry, this battery suffered heavily at Chickamuaga. Among those dead on the field was Lieutenant George W. Van Pelt, the battery commander. Lieutenant Almerick W. Wilbur led the battery to Chattanooga, with what guns and equipment that had been extracted from Chickamauga.  One Parrott was recaptured on Missionary Ridge, presumably rounding out the battery’s set. Francis E. Hale (or Hall, on state records) accepted a promotion to Captain at the end of September to command the battery. The battery remained with First Division, Fourteenth Corps to the end of December. Then it transferred to the garrison of Chattanooga, where it remained for the rest of the war.
  • Battery B / 2nd Battery: Reporting from Pulaski, Tennessee with two 3-inch Ordnance rifles and two 10-pdr Parrotts. Lieutenant Albert F. R. Arndt, still in command, was promoted to Captain in early September.  The battery remained assigned to Second Division, Sixteenth Corps.
  • Battery C / 3rd Battery: At Prospect, Tennessee, four 10-pdr Parrotts.  Captain George Robinson remained in command of this battery. Still with the Sixteenth Corps, the battery was, at the end of December, part of Fuller’s Brigade, Second Division.
  • Battery D / 4th Battery: No return.  From the state Adjutant General’s report, the battery “has always been irregular and remiss in its returns to this office….” Good to see they were consistent in their administrative habits! Captain Josiah W. Church remained in command.  The battery transferred out of the Fourteenth Corps, going to Second Brigade, Second Division, Artillery Reserve for the Army of the Cumberland (Church commanded the brigade in addition to the battery). Having lost almost all its equipment at Chickamauga, the battery reorganized in Chattanooga and received four 20-pdr Parrotts and one 10-pdr Parrott. On November 23, the battery moved to Fort Negley (old Confederate Fort Cheatham) and engaged Confederates at the base of Lookout Mountain, continuing that effort the following day. On the 25th, the battery supported the movement against Missionary Ridge. Church reported firing 135 rounds in those actions. The battery remained at Chattanooga through the winter.
  • Battery E / 5th Battery: At Nashville, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain John J. Ely commanded this battery. With the breakup of the Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland, the battery transferred commands, if not locations, to the Garrison of Nashville.
  • Battery F / 6th Battery: At Knoxville, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  Captain Luther F. Hale commanding this battery, was promoted to Major in September. In his place, Lieutenant Byron D. Paddock was promoted to captain. In October, the battery was stationed at Glasgow, Kentucky, in the District of Central Kentucky, Department of the Ohio.  From there, in January 1864, the battery moved over the Cumberland Mountains to Knoxville. Thus we have an explanation for the reported location.
  • Battery G / 7th Battery:  Reporting from Indianola, Texas with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain Charles H. Lanphere resigned his post on September 1, and was replaced by James H. Burdick (promoted to captain on the same day Lanphere resigned). However, Burdick served as an ordnance officer in Thirteenth Corps. In his place, Lieutenant George L. Stillman led the battery. The battery transferred out of the Thirteenth Corps to the Department of the Gulf in August, and was assigned to the garrison of New Orleans. On November 13, the battery boarded steamers for passage to the Texas coast to reinforce Thirteenth Corps operations. After arrival on Matagorda Island, the battery moved to Indianola during the first days of January 1864.
  • Battery H / 8th Battery: At Vicksburg, Mississippi with two 12-pdr field howitzers and two James (3.80-inch) rifles.  Promoted on August 8, Captain Jacob L. Richmond commanded the battery. However, Richmond did not spend much time in command, and resigned due to disability in February. Lieutenant Marcus D. Elliot led the battery, appearing on returns through the winter.  The battery was assigned to Third Division, Seventeenth Corps.
  • Battery I / 9th Battery: Now reporting at Nashville, Tennessee with four 3-inch rifles.  Captain Jabez J. Daniels commanded this battery, then part of the Eleventh Corps. The battery made the move with that formation to reinforce Chattanooga starting in October. Daniels resigned on December 15, and was replaced by Lieutenant (promoted to Captain in January 1864) Addison N. Kidder.
  • Battery K / 10th Battery : At Chattanooga, Tennessee, with four 3-inch rifles.  Captain John C. Schuetz commanded.  The battery was at Camp Barry, Washington, D.C. through the last week of October. On October 28, it was transferred to Eleventh Corps and moved with that formation to reinforce Chattanooga. At the close of the year, Schuetz was absent from the battery, and Lieutenant Adolph Schill is listed as temporary commander.
  • Battery L / 11th Battery:  No return.  Under Captain Charles J. Thompson.  As part of Third Division, Twenty-Third Corps, Department of the Ohio, the battery served in the advance to Knoxville in August. In September, the battery joined General Orlando Wilcox’s Division, Left Wing of the Department of the Ohio. With that command, the battery participated in movements around east Tennessee, eventually moving to the Cumberland Gap. For want of supplies, the battery would lose its horses and become, essentially, static artillery for many months into 1864. With Thompson taking ill in December, Lieutenant Thomas Gallagher led the battery.
  • Battery M / 12th Battery:  At Tazewell, Tennessee with six 3-inch rifles.. Captain Edward G. Hillier commanded. The battery joined Wilcox’s Division, advancing on the Cumberland Gap, in September. The battery was part of a brigade-sized force pushed out to Tazewell in January.

We move forward with those administrative details to the ammunition on hand, starting with smoothbore rounds:

  • Battery E (5th Battery): 198 shot and 115 case for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery F (6th Battery): 157 shot and 185 case for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery H (8th Battery): 89 shell for 12-pdr field howitzers.

More on the next page:

  • Battery E (5th Battery): 137 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery F (6th Battery): 89 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery H (8th Battery): 40 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.

Hotchkiss rounds to the right of the page:

  • Battery B (2nd Battery): 72 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E (5th Battery): 102 time fuse shell for 10-pdr Parrott rifles.
  • Battery G (7th Battery): 242 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery I (9th Battery): 120 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K (10th Battery): 179 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M (12th Battery): 868 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles!

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

  • Battery B (2nd Battery): 72 percussion fuse shell, 240 bullet shell, and 83 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E (5th Battery): 47 percussion fuse shell, 140 bullet shell, and 170 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery G (7th Battery): 80 percussion fuse shell, 989 bullet shell, and 203 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery I (9th Battery): 60 percussion fuse shell, 360 bullet shell, and 60 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery K (10th Battery): 165 percussion fuse shell, 402 bullet shell, and 96 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery M (12th Battery): 154 percussion fuse shell and 265 canister for 3-inch rifles.

To the right are columns for James projectiles:

  • Battery H (8th Battery): 1 shot, 127 shell, and 13 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

But look closely, as the column header banner is interrupted across the pages, there are two entry lines for Parrott lines on the far right:

  • Battery B (2nd Battery): 57 shot for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery C (3rd Battery): 57 shot for 10-pdr Parrotts.

More Parrott rounds on the next page:

  • Battery A (1st Battery): 462 shell, 55 case, and 275 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery B (2nd Battery): 183 shell and 77 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery C (3rd Battery): 40 shell, 601 case, and 95 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • Battery F (6th Battery): 177 shell, 141 case, and 62 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

But one entry line for Schenkl projectiles on the right:

  • Battery E (5th Battery): 60 shell for 10-pdr Parrott.

This brings us to the small arms:

  • Battery A (1st Battery): Twelve cavalry sabers.
  • Battery B (2nd Battery): Twenty Colt army revolvers and forty-three cavalry sabers.
  • Battery C (3rd Battery): Seventeen cavalry sabers.
  • Battery E (5th Battery): Twenty-five cavalry sabers and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F (6th Battery): Twenty-five Colt army revolvers and twelve cavalry sabers.
  • Battery G (7th Battery): Nine Colt army revolvers and one cavalry saber.
  • Battery I (9th Battery): Ten Remington army revolvers and thirteen horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery K (10th Battery): Fifteen Colt army revolvers and sixty-nine horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery M (12th Battery): Fourteen Colt army revolvers and thirteen foot artillery swords.

Turning next to the cartridge bags reported on hand:

  • Battery F (6th Battery): Fifty 10-pdr Parrott cartridge bags.
  • Battery K (10th Battery): Fifty 3-inch rifle cartridge bags.

Much busier is the next page with pistol cartridges, fuses, powder, and other miscellaneous items:

  • Battery A (1st Battery): 1,500 friction primers and 12 portfires.
  • Battery B (2nd Battery): 1,278 army caliber pistol cartridges; 464 paper fuses; 773 friction primers; 20 yards of slow match; and 278 pistol percussion caps.
  • Battery C (3rd Battery): 850 friction primers.
  • Battery E (5th Battery): 1,661 friction primers; 16 yards of slow match; and 38 portfires.
  • Battery F (6th Battery): 262 friction primers.
  • Battery G (7th Battery): 1,321 paper fuses; 78 pounds of cannon powder; 537 friction primers; and 40 yards of slow match.
  • Battery H (8th Battery): 100 portfires.
  • Battery I (9th Battery): 385 paper fuses; 850 friction primers; 24 yards of slow match; and 36 portfires.
  • Battery K (10th Battery): 400 army caliber pistol cartridges; 300 paper fuses; 700 friction primers; and 50 yards of slow match.
  • Battery M (12th Battery): 1,000 friction primers and 3 yards of slow match.

I would say the only real gap with the 1st Michigan Light Artillery’s summary is with Battery L (11th Battery). We have a fair written report from Captain Church to indicate what weapons Battery D (4th Battery) had at the battles around Chattanooga. But for Battery L, stuck up on the Cumberland Gap, I do not know what cannon types they had on hand.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Minnesota

In the previous quarter, we saw Minnesota represented by three light artillery batteries. For the fourth quarter, we see the same three batteries… but four lines:


Yes, the 3rd Minnesota Battery reported by section. So let’s break those lines down:

  • 1st Battery: Reporting at Gaylesville, Alabama, as of November 1864, with with two 12-pdr field howitzers and two 3.67-inch (6-pdr) rifles. The report location is “as of” the reporting date, after the Atlanta Campaign when the battery was involved with the pursuit of Hood’s forces in northern Alabama. Captain William Z. Clayton commanded. But while he was on recruiting duty, Lieutenant Henry Hunter led the battery.  The battery remained with the First Division, Seventeenth Corps at Vicksburg through the spring. At some point that winter, the battery received three new 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery:  At Chattanooga, Tennessee with six 10-pdr Parrott rifles.  In October, with reorganizations of the Army of the Cumberland, the battery shifted from First Division, Twentieth Corps to Second Division, Fourteenth Corps. Captain William A. Hotchkiss, the battery commander, served as Artillery Chief for the division.  And Lieutenant Richard L. Dawley led the battery. The battery supported the division in the battles around Chattanooga in November. They wintered at Rossville, Georgia, just outside of that city.
  • 3rd Battery:  Reporting from Fort Snelling, Minnesota with two 6-pdr field guns and six 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  Captain John Jones commanded this battery assigned to the District of Minnesota, Department of the Northwest.  Actually, this battery four sections were spread out across the department. The 1st Section was at Fort Snelling in December. 2nd Section was at Pembina, Dakota Territories (see below). The 3rd Section at Fort Ridgely, Minnesota. And the 4th Section served at Fort Ripley, Minnesota. I am not sure which officer drew particular sections, but Lieutenants John C. Whipple, Horace H. Western, Don A. Daniels, and Gad Merrill Dwelle were with the battery.
  • Section of 3rd Battery: Reporting from Pembina, Dakota Territories (so this must be the 2nd Section) but not listing their assigned cannon. I believe this section’s gun were rolled up with the battery’s, but for some reason their other stores were accounted separately. For what reason, we are left to guess.

And about those stores, we see some with the smoothbore ammunition tallies:

  • 1st Battery: 117 shells and 128 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 102 shot and 130 case for 6-pdr field guns; 48 shell and 134 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 2nd Section, 3rd Battery: 24 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

Continuing with smoothbore:

  • 1st Battery: 90 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 42 canister for 6-pdr field guns and 84 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

To the right is a lone tally for Hotchkiss shot:

  • 1st Battery: 122 shot for 3.67-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

  • 1st Battery: 40 percussion fuse shell, 26 case shot/bullet shell, and 110 canister for 3.67-inch rifles.

On the far right of this, is a tally for the one column of Parrott projectiles on this page:

  • 2nd Battery: 22 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.

That brings us to the rest of the Parrott columns:

  • 2nd Battery: 780 shell, 383 case, and 188 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

We then skip forward to the small arms:

  • 1st Battery: Eleven Colt navy revolvers.
  • 2nd Battery: One Colt navy revolver and nine cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Thirty Colt army revolvers and 126 cavalry sabers.

The next page has totals for cartridge bags, only two batteries reporting such:

  • 1st Battery: 254 cartridge bags for 6-pdr field guns or 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 2nd Battery: 834 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.

The last page covers small arms cartridges and other articles:

  • 1st Battery: 800 navy-caliber pistol cartridges and 450 friction primers.
  • 3rd Battery: 550 army-caliber pistol cartridges, 21 fireballs, and 259 friction primers.
  • 2nd Section, 3rd Battery: 12 fireballs.

Fireballs? Well, specifically it is a column for fireballs loaded for 8-inch or 10-inch mortars. Which, of course, the 3rd Battery didn’t have. Recall we discussed fireballs some time back in reference to use with the heavy mortars. These were a canvas bag loaded with a shell and explosive composition and covered with pitch. The idea was to throw such a projectile over the enemy position, timed to ignite in the air with the objective of illuminating the ground. A similar projectile, called the “light ball” was without the shell and intended to ignite closer to friendly lines, also providing illumination.

I doubt that the 3rd Battery, out there on the frontier, actually had regulation fireballs on hand. However, what would make for sound speculation is the battery reported locally fabricated fireballs (or light balls) for use from their howitzers. At a remote outpost they would find need of artificial light for many reasons.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Maryland

Looking at the summary lines for the fourth quarter, 1863, we find three lines for batteries from Maryland:


Sixteen Ordnance Rifles and that is the story, right? Not quite. There are a couple more footnotes to add here. But let us review those three lines first:

  • 1st Battery (Battery A): At Culpeper, Virginia with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain James H. Rigby remained in command. In October, the battery transferred from the Artillery Reserve to the Artillery Brigade, First Corps. The battery participated with First Corps in the Bristoe and Mine Run Campaigns. Then went into winter quarters near Colonel Charles Wainwright’s headquarters outside Culpeper.
  • 2nd Battery (Battery B): Reported at Harpers Ferry, Maryland, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  With Captain Alonzo Snow in command, the battery remained part of the defenses of the Harpers Ferry sector. The Maryland Heights Division became First Division, Department of West Virginia.
  • Baltimore Independent Battery: Showing at Baltimore, Maryland, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  As mentioned in earlier summaries, this battery lost its guns at Winchester in June.  Captain Frederic W. Alexander remained in command with the battery as it recovered, reequipped, and trained at Baltimore.  At the end of the year, the battery was part of the Artillery Reserve, Eighth Corps. Captain Alexander commanded the reserve.

But recall there were two emergency batteries mustered from Maryland in July 1863, which we saw in the previous quarter. The “Junior Batteries.” Well these were still on the rolls, for a few more weeks, at the end of December. So let us consider them as “missing batteries” for this quarter’s summary:

  • Battery A (Junior): At Baltimore, Maryland with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Captain John M. Bruce commanded.  By the end of December, the battery was assigned to the Artillery Reserve, Eighth Corps. It would muster out on January 19, 1864.
  • Battery B (Junior): Also at Baltimore, Maryland, but with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Also seen on returns as the Eagle Battery.  Captain Joseph H. Audoun commanded.  As with the other Junior Battery, the Eagle Battery was assigned to the Artillery Reserve, Eighth Corps at the end of December. This battery mustered out on January 16, 1864.

Those “missing” pieces put in place, we turn to the ammunition reported. No smoothbores in the reporting batteries, so we skip to the Hochkiss columns:

  • Baltimore Battery: 4 time fuse shells for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

  • 1st Battery: 50 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 158 percussion fuse shell, 607 bullet shell, and 182 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Baltimore Battery: 120 percussion fuse shell, 5 bullet shell, and 121 canister for 3-inch rifles.

We move next to the Schenkl columns for more tallies:

  • 1st Battery: 317 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 353(?) shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Baltimore Battery: 240 shell for 3-inch rifles.

One more column of Schenkl on the next page:

  • 1st Battery: 396 case shot for 3-inch rifles.
  • Baltimore Battery: 710 case shot for 3-inch rifles.

Turning next to the small arms reported:

  • 1st Battery: Eight Colt army revolvers, twenty cavalry sabers, and sixteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: Ten Colt army revolvers and twenty-one cavalry sabers.
  • Baltimore Battery: Twenty-four Colt army revolvers and thirty-two horse artillery sabers.

Two of the batteries reported cartridge bags on hand:

  • 1st Battery: 632 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 1,158 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.

The tallies for pistol cartridges and friction primers seems lopsided:

  • 1st Battery: 1,218 friction primers; four yards of slow match; and 24 portfires.
  • 2nd Battery: 1,000 pistol cartridges for army-caliber revolvers; 1,305 paper fuses; one pound of musket powder; and 1,399 friction primers.
  • Baltimore Battery: 500 pistol cartridges for army-caliber revolvers and 300 pistol cartridges for navy-caliber revolvers (and we are left to wonder why)… but no friction primers, slow match, or portfires.

While the tally of cannon for the Maryland batteries is to say the least predictable, that of the ammunition is not. Such underscores what I said earlier about trying to assign patterns were the data is known to be incomplete.

On Small Arms… and Artillery

When studying the equipment used by artillery batteries, perhaps the one point most apt to spark a disagreement… saving, of course, those select discussions about mountain howitzers… is that of small arms. There always seems to be a debate about what the battery had or did not have. Furthermore, if one is part of the living history or reenactment hobbies, grist to be ground about what is suitable for an “impression” for public display. And as I post articles about the summary statements I try to be aware of that when listing the small arms reported therein. The problem with reading, strictly, the summaries is… well that word … context. Such is why I spend most of the time for the posts detailing the administrative state of the battery – who was in charge, where was it assigned, and what duties did the battery have.

Recently I commented on a post in a social media forum about this subject. More precisely, someone had posted one of those “here’s a situation” with the remark in a “that’s how they did it, and so should we” vein. And yes, twenty lashes for me… one should never discuss the nuances of history on a social media platform. There’s just no way to correctly address a historical subject in one of those forums. But I did. And the discussion, as those are apt to, suddenly became a discussion about everything from pistols to the price of tea in China. And somewhat disturbing, the other correspondent did well to pull examples from my blog, here, in an attempt to illustrate points. Kudos and thanks for the hits… but unfortunately I feel he was fishing for a context (there’s that word) that was not applicable.

Given the use of some of those summary statements in that discussion, I want to make a clear cautionary statement to readers who might look upon the small arms sections. A few points to keep in mind….

First: Before using them, one must understand just what the summary statements were there for. Back this up to the late 1830s when Joel R. Poinsett was Secretary of War. Readers will recall discussing his tenure in relation to the twisted (tortured?) evolution of the 6-pdr field gun. I have often compared Poinsett to the 20th century’s Robert McNamara. Not too closely, but in certain regards. Chief of those is that Poinsett looked to reform the system in which the military operated. Specific to ordnance, Poinsett cited the incompatibility between the various weapons then in service – the most glaring of which was between the regular Army and the militia units. At that time, there were an odd assortment of weapons, some dating back to colonial times, others the result of private purchase, and a good number not conforming to the patterns established by the Army as standard field pieces (ehem… and even “established” is taken with a grain of salt here). Had the nation called out the militia for war, whoever commanded that force would have a logistical nightmare. So Poinsett pressed for a degree of comparability, if not complete standardization. To enforce that down, Poinsett did the only real thing he could do, legally, for the militia system – asked for reports of what was “on hand.” And thus was born a report, separate from property accountability, to track down just what was “on hand” within a unit. But don’t confuse “form” with “report” as these were most often statements made by the State Adjutant General or other official.

Second: As time went on, standardization improved to the point that militia batteries could acquire directly from the vendor an approved pattern cannon. Great. But there’s one hitch to that. Some of those patterns were faulty. Not so much the bronze guns. More so the iron. So the Ordnance Department began using that reporting mechanism to track things like the number of shots fired by the cannon, bore and vent erosion, and other peculiarities. So then we start seeing the report took on more of the form of a questionnaire. And interesting to us artillery wonks, they listed the cannon on hand by registry number. Still, this was not a property accountability mechanism. Rather an operational report – what is on hand and how good is it? Nobody, as far as I can tell, ever was charged the cost of a cannon because serial numbers didn’t match (that, of course, would be a moral sin in today’s Army).

Third: In the 1850s, at least, the Chief of Ordnance began submitting more detailed yearly reports to Congress on these matters. Perhaps this was there before, but I have not seen it in the Congressional Records (and if it one thing our US Congress does well, it’s keeping records!). But certainly this changed a bit in 1855. Congress amended the laws and regulations pertaining to the militia, giving the US Army more oversight… or I should say involvement… in the equipping of the formations. Passed on March 3, 1855, I’ve seen this cited as “The State Militia Act of 1855” or simply as Revised Statute Section 1667. Well outside my lane (this is “To the Sound of the Guns” and not “To the Call of the Militia” by the way), but in context of the times there was much public discussion about the wants and failures of the militia during the Mexican War. Terms like “active militia” were being thrown around. And as result, this new statute apportioned funds from the Ordnance Department to be spent towards weapons for the militia (and we see this act cited on every Ordnance Report to Congress up through the 1890s). Of course many readers will start to see this click with their Civil War studies… yes this is also the mechanism being used by Secretary of War Floyd in the months leading up to the war.

Now that third point would be “high level political stuff” but for the fact that the Ordnance Department had to account for these things every year in a report to Congress. Congress wanted to know what was going out and if the problems with the militia were being solved. So the measure by which the Ordnance Department could track these things were those reports. And thus we see a demand for information listing ALL weapons. Not just what the Federal government bought. Everything. And this reporting, collected by the Ordnance Department fed into an annual report to Congress, as part of the War Department’s statements. And that’s where we get back out of the political layer – clerks gathering information, compiling said information, and offering that to the chief.

Fourth: As is apt to happen, this highly bureaucratic system rolled into the war situation much like a train running off the rails. Not only were militia units mustered, but whole new volunteer units formed. Many equipped by private means. Many more not equipped at all. And the Ordnance Department now had to support those units in the field. This lead to more reliance on the reports, which I’ve taken to calling “Ordnance Returns” based on the common usage by officers of the period. And it is important to keep that those were separate and distinct from the returns accounting for “ordnance stores.” The former was for tracking operational details. The latter was for tracking government property. And here’s where I think most folks get confused – the Army was not using the reports detailing cannon and small arms statuses as property accountability documents. Rather it was data, going into the summaries, to support the report to Congress. On the other side of the office, of course, there was some clerk looking at property accountability. But I’ve yet to see a report from the Chief of Ordnance to Congress discussing how many cannon, much less things like muskets and swords, were lost during a period of the war. That sort of thing was usually reserved for questions in front of the Joint Committee, coming from a quartermaster officer. So again – a summary of “all things on hand” that we are using in the war, instead of an accounting of government property. And by “all things on hand” inevitably, as we can point out with some specific batteries, privately purchased, state purchased, and government purchased equipment ended up tallied within the process. So vast was the war effort, compared to what had been handled pre-war, the Ordnance Department was forced to create a full form to aid the compiling of the numbers… and we then had by name the summary statemetns, which seems to have started around the second half of 1862.

Fifth: Even as the war situation “normalized” somewhat, the bureaucratic system did not. As I like to point out within the summaries, there is an important column to consider – the date received at the Ordnance Department. So, that opens Pandora’s box of possibilities. Was that a “post-dated” report for the quarter? Was it “as of this quarter, but submitted to cover the last one”? Not to mention, if the report was arriving late did the person filing it really put a lot effort into making it accurate? (Something I learned in my personal experience, the fellow in the foxhole is usually unimpressed with the line about “failure to report accurately could result in a courts martial.” Usually there’s something along the lines of “oh, yeah? Come get me!”)

Sixth: And this is perhaps the biggest bucket of cold water on those pursuing concrete conclusions – the records we have, surviving, of the summary statements only run from the forth quarter of 1862 to first quarter of 1864. There are some returns consolidated for the second quarter of 1864, but representing only about a third of the batteries. And if you are down at NARA looking at the files, you’ll see the ledger skips ahead to the forth quarter, 1870… and there are only blanks for those entries. What happened? This guy happened:

Alexander Brydie Dyer. Became Chief of Ordnance on September 12, 1864. You know, there was a war on and all, right? And the clerks at the Ordnance Department were waiting patiently for the second quarter returns. But right around that time, the format of the report to Congress changed. Perhaps by Brigadier-General Dyer’s initiative. Or as part of changes driven by the War Department. Or perhaps in response to different inquiries by Congress. Either way, the first report given by Dyer, through the Secretary of War, to Congress differed substantively from the previous decade of reports. So the reason the summaries “died” after June 1864 was because Dyer didn’t need the information complied in the manner we see in the summaries. A crying shame for us 155 years after the fact. Would have been a nice bookend to know who had what in 1865. But as it stands, a nice bit of administrative closure – the summaries outlasted their value to the men reporting on the numbers.

So what does that mean?

In a nutshell, the summaries are at best a mixed bag. I’m certain that some batteries only reported what they felt was necessary in regard to small arms. So if we went back in time to see their camps, we might well see things not detailed in their returns and thus not on the summary lines. However, the converse is also probably true in some cases – that a very efficient officer provided the required documentation to the Ordnance Department, indicating everything, right down to a couple of Sharps carbines (we’ve seen that in the summaries a time or two) that happened to be laying about camp.

Because of the mixed nature of the summaries, we can’t draw hard conclusions. I “might” say that “generally” it “seems” … and more quibble words as can be worked in where possible… that batteries assigned to the Army of the Potomac would “typically” report between six and a half dozen pistols and edged weapons. The eastern theater exception is the Horse Artillery, which almost consistently reports enough pistols and edged weapons to arm most of the mounted men – officers, NCOs, and crews. That those in the western theater varied a bit more, without the “horse artillery” exception. Batteries assigned to outposts, where non-artillery missions were likely the order of the day, often reported more small arms, particularly long arms. And Trans-Mississippi batteries, contrary to what some might think, tended to have less than those in the east. But… those are observations only, with all the quibble words attached. Again we go back to the value of the context… and more importantly that context being only relative to a specific battery at a specific time and place.

Bottom line – conclusions are meant to be based on facts. Without facts, conclusions are but speculations… maybe we soften that to suggestions. But at the top of the discussion we have to agree that the absence of information is only confirming the absence of information! More is then needed. Of course, that’s when some turn to pictures and accounts indicating so-and-so had this pistol and that sword. Great. Here’s what you have:

That might be a person in a hairy gorilla suit. It might be an unidentified creature. Or it might be my battery commander with a horse artillery saber in one hand and a Colt Army in the other! It still doesn’t confirm or disprove the numbers on the summary.

All kidding aside. My point is it’s folly to try to square and reconcile a bureaucratic report that is full of known errors and inconsistencies as we look back for concrete conclusions. We need to accept the summary statements within the context of what they were intended for, not what we want them to be. We can, however, take the summary statements as a starting point for discussion. Context – that happening around the battery being represented by the numbers – is vital. What do those numbers mean and how do they reflect a certain point in time situation…. if at all?

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Massachusetts

As was the case with summaries from the previous quarters, the clerks at the Ordnance Department “shorted” Massachusetts in the battery listings. There were, eventually, sixteen batteries from the Bay State. And for the fourth quarter, we see a couple of omissions:

  • 1st Battery: At Brandy Station, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery remained with the Artillery Brigade, Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac, and Captain William H. McCartney remained in command.  The battery saw action near the Saunders’ House during the battle of Mine Run, firing fifteen rounds.
  • 2nd Battery: No return. Captain Ormand F. Nims remained in command of this battery. Part of the Nineteenth Corps, Department of the Gulf, the battery transferred from the corps artillery reserve to the Cavalry Division. Around this time the battery exchanged six 6-pdr rifled field guns for a like number of 12-pdr Napoleons. The battery saw field service in the Teche Campaign in October and November. Moving from Brashear City, the cavalry column to which the battery was attached reached Opelousas on October 21, having skirmished frequently with Confederates along the way. A section under Lieutenant William Marland saw action at Carrion Crow Bayou and Grand Couteau (November 2 and 3, respectively). In the latter action, Marland found his battery surrounded and without support. He ordered the section limbered up and charged through to save the guns. The battery arrived at New Iberia on November 17 and remained there until January.
  • 3rd Battery: Reporting at Bealton, Virginia with six 12-pdr Napoleons.  Assigned to the Artillery Brigade, Fifth Corps, with Lieutenant Aaron F. Walcott in charge of the battery.  Captain Augustus P. Martin, of the battery, comanded the corps artillery brigade. Participating with the corps through the Bristoe Campaign and Mine Run, the battery went into winter quarters outside Brandy Station, off the north end of Fleetwood Hill.
  • 4th Battery: Reporting New Iberia, Louisiana with two 12-pdr Napoleons and two 3-inch ordnance rifles.  Captain George G. Trull commanded. However, in Trull’s absence Lieutenant George W. Taylor led the battery in December 1863. The battery participated in the Teche Expedition in October. They were in action at Vermillion Bayou on November 11, without loss. The battery transferred from Third Division to First Division, Nineteenth Corps later in November.  
  • 5th Battery: Reporting at Rappahannock [Station], Virginia with six 3-inch rifles.  Captain Charles A. Phillips remained in command, and the battery assigned to the Fifth Corps.  The battery participated in the Bristoe and Mine Run Campaigns. Following those, the battery, alongside the 3rd Battery, went into winter quarters at Brandy Station.
  • 6th Battery: At New Iberia, Louisiana with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 12-pdr field howitzers. The battery was assigned to First Division, Nineteenth Corps.  When Captain William W. Carruth mustered out on October 3rd, Lieutenant Edward K. Russell (2nd Battery, above) transferred to command.  Then on December 9, Lieutenant John F. Phelps, of the battery, took command.  Phelps would be promoted to Captain with commission back dated to October 3. The battery participated in the Teche Campaign of that fall, arriving at New Iberia on November 16 and going into winter quarters.
  • 7th Battery: At Camp Barry, D.C., with six 3-inch Ordnance rifles.  Captain Phineas A. Davis resigned at the start of October to receive a promotion.  In his place Lieutenant Newman W. Storer received the captaincy. This much traveled battery was not resting long at Camp Barry. In January, they embarked on a steamer for New Orleans and a transfer to the Nineteenth Corps.
  • 8th Battery: No return.  Mustered out in November 1862 at the end of a six-month enlistment.
  • 9th Battery: At Brandy Station, Virginia with four 12-pdr Napoleons. Remaining with the First Volunteer Artillery Brigade, Artillery Reserve. Captain John Bigelow commanded, but was recovering from wounds.  Lieutenant Richard S. Milton filled in his place.
  • 10th Battery:  Also at Brandy Station, Virginia but with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain J. Henry Sleeper commanded this battery, assigned to Third Corps, Army of the Potomac. The battery was active in the field for both the Bristoe Station and Mine Run Campaigns.
  • 11th Battery: No return.  This battery mustered out of service in May 1863. However, it remained as a militia battery (and was called out to suppress riots in Boston in July).  On December 1, Captain Edward J. Jones, commanding the battery, received authorization to recruit up to full strength and prepare the battery for muster back into service. That re-muster occurred on January 2, 1864. Along the way, the battery received six new 3-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery:  At Port Hudson, Louisiana, with five 6-pdr field guns and one 12-pdr field howitzer. Captain Jacob Miller remained in command. On October 15 the battery transferred from the New Orleans garrison to that of Port Hudson.
  • 13th Battery: Not listed. The 13th Battery was down to around fifty effective men by the fall of 1863.  Having transferred their guns and horses to fill out other batteries earlier in the year, the battery served as a detachment under the 2nd Battery (see above). At this time of the war, Captain Charles H. J. Hamlin was on recruiting duty.  In his place, Lieutenant Ellis L. Motte led the detachment.
  • 14th Battery: Not listed.  Philip H. Tyler, formerly a lieutenant in the 3rd Battery, received authorization to recruit this battery in December 1863. But his efforts failed and the authority was receded. In January, Joseph W.B. Wright, formerly of 1st Battery (original three month muster) and the 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, received authorization to begin recruiting. Wright’s efforts bore fruit with a February 1864 muster.
  • 15th Battery: At Lakeport, Louisiana with two 6-pdr field guns.  Captain Timothy Pearson saw most of his battery equipment and horses transferred to other units in the spring of 1863.  The men served at the forts protecting the road and railroad to Lake Ponchatrain. During that duty, they received two guns, horses, and necessary equipment. On December 29, the battery moved to Lakeport. Then on January 2nd, the battery embarked on the steamer Kate Dale for six weeks’ duty on Lake Ponchatrain. Of note, official accounts of that expedition indicate the 15th Battery mounted FOUR guns on the steamer (Lieutenant Albert Rouse in command of the detachment). Furthermore, later in the year the battery reported two 6-pdrs and four 12-pdr Napoleons on hand. Such leads to speculations.
  • 16th Battery: Not listed.  Battery did not begin recruiting until January-February 1864.

Thus we see three main themes with the Massachusetts batteries – chasing Lee in Virginia, serving in steamy Louisiana, and recruiting up for muster. Three of those activities required ammunition. And ammunition was reported. We start with the smoothbore:

  • 1st Battery: 288 shot, 96 shell, and 288 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 3rd Battery: 192 shot, 96 shell, and 387 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 4th Battery: 24 shot, 150 shell, and 47 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 6th Battery: 57 shot, 179 shell, and 251 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 9th Battery: 180 shot, 64 shell, and 192 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 12th Battery: 107 shot and 147 case for 6-pdr field guns; 59 shell and 42 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 1st Battery: 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 3rd Battery: 96 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 4th Battery: 35 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 6th Battery: 63 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 9th Battery: 54 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 12th Battery: 285 canister for 6-pdr field guns and 19 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.

To the right we start the rifled projectiles, with the Hotchkiss leading off:

  • 4th Battery: 84 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 120 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 189 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

Continuing with more Hotchkiss:

  • 4th Battery: 281 percussion fuse shell and 39 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 5th Battery: 97 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 236 percussion fuse shell and 120 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 98 percussion fuse shell, 341 case shot, and 115 canister for 3-inch rifles.

On the next page is an interesting entry for Parrott projectiles:

  • 5th Battery: 41 Parrott canister for 3-inch bore rifles.

This deserves some consideration. Note the header has different columns for 10-pdr/2.9-inch and 10-pdr/3-inch Parrott. Clearly this is the latter. Could one fire a 3-inch Parrott projectile from a 3-inch Ordnance Rifle? Technically, I see no reason why not. If it fits down the bore, it will fire back out, right? But the poor 5th Battery had two types of canister on hand and no explosive projectiles! We see that was resolved in the Schenkl columns to the right:

  • 5th Battery: 140 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 41 shell for 3-inch rifles.

And more Schenkl on the page that followed:

  • 5th Battery: 904 case shot for 3-inch rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 720 case shot for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 256 case shot for 3-inch rifles.

Moving to the small arms reported:

  • 1st Battery: Eight Colt army revolvers, nine cavalry sabers, and five horse artillery sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: One Colt army revolver, eight cavalry sabers, and twenty horse artillery sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Seven Colt army revolvers and twenty-eight horse artillery sabers.
  • 5th Battery: One Colt army revolver and twenty-seven horse artillery sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Seventeen Colt army revolvers and twenty-six cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery: Twenty Colt army revolvers and forty-eight horse artillery sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Eight Colt army revolvers and ten horse artillery sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Sixteen Colt navy revolvers and nineteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 12th Battery: Eighteen Colt army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • 15th Battery: Fifty Springfield .58 caliber muskets, fourteen Colt navy revolvers, eight cavalry sabers, and fifty-nine horse artillery sabers.

Let’s talk cartridge bags:

  • 5th Battery: 1,185 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 1,234 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • 12th Battery: 162 cartridge bags for smoothbore field pieces.

And far to the right we see the 15th Battery records ammunition for it’s muskets:

  • 15th Battery: 100 cartridges for .58 caliber muskets. Two rounds per rifle? What’s up with that?

On the last page we review, there are many tallies to record. So keep up:

  • 1st Battery: 104 cartridges for army revolvers and 2,844 friction primers;
  • 3rd Battery: 2,100 friction primers.
  • 4th Battery: 235 paper fuses; 2,500 friction primers; 50 yards of slow match; and 65 portfires.
  • 5th Battery: 1,847 friction primers and 50 yards of slow match.
  • 6th Battery: 2,440 friction primers.
  • 7th Battery: 600 cartridges for navy revolvers; 1,400 paper fuses; and 850 friction primers.
  • 9th Battery: 500 cartridges for army revolvers; 186 friction primers; and 50 yards of slow match.
  • 10th Battery: 753 paper fuses and 1,796 friction primers.
  • 12th Battery: 1,400 cartridges for army revolvers.
  • 15th Battery: 788 cartridges for navy revolvers; 1,524 friction primers; 2 yards of slow match; 1,400 percussion caps for pistols; and 20 portfires.

I’m often wondering how to reconcile the reported number of guns to projectiles, and thence out to the primers and fuses on hand. More so with regard to cartridges and percussion caps for small arms. To some extent, we have to consider this was the quantity deemed “reportable, on hand” as opposed to what actually might have been laying about. Nuanced, there is a difference. Particularly with the small arms. And I’d also say that applied to things like fuses and friction primers. Then again, there is a reason batteries were issued things like portfires and slow match.