Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Louisiana

In the third quarter of 1863, we discussed a single line entry under the Louisiana heading, showing no ordnance reported with the 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery (African Descent). From that I introduced the administrative history of that regiment. As noted in that post, in November 1863 the regiment changed names to the 1st Corps de Afrique Heavy Artillery. Later, in the spring of 1864, the regiment went through a series of designation changes, finally set as the 10th Heavy Artillery (USCT).

We also discussed, when summarizing all the batteries not covered within the official summaries, three Louisiana batteries formed in the second half of 1863. All of which were later given USCT designations.

But for the fourth quarter, all we have is a heading:

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So let us try to fill in some of the blank spaces here and discuss those formations which should have appeared in this section:

  • 1st Corps de Afrique Heavy Artillery: In August, the department returns indicated two companies under Captain Soren Rygaard. The command later possibly included a third company and was rated as a battalion. As discussed in the previous quarter, Rygaard was relieved of duty on November 7, for insubordination. And much of Company C was either dismissed or sentenced to hard labor due. The department returns for the end of December have the “battalion” down to a single company, under Lieutenant Thomas McCormick, in the garrison of New Orleans. That officer was the senior lieutenant of Company B. Another company was organized under Lieutenant Charles A. Bailey starting in January, initially resuming the designation of Company C. The status of Company A remains a gap to be resolved.
  • 1st Battery Louisiana Light Artillery (AD):  Organized at Hebron’s Plantation, Louisiana, and mustered in November 1863. Captain Isaac B. Goodloe commanded. The battery’s first posting was Goodrich’s Landing, Louisiana. However, Goodloe, promoted from Battery E, 2nd Illinois Artillery, where he’d been a sergeant, was not long in command. In January he was brought up on charges of conduct unbecoming, and resigned instead of facing a court martial. Captain Robert Ranney replaced him in March. In April 1864, the battery became Battery C, 2nd US Colored Light Artillery. Based on the following quarter’s return, the battery had a mix of weapons – two 6-pdr field gun, one 12-pdr field howitzer, two 3.80-inch James rifles, and four 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 2nd Battery Louisiana Light Artillery (AD): Organized at Black River Bridge, outside Vicksburg, Mississippi, and mustered in December 1863. Captain William M. Pratt, who commanded, had been a lieutenant in Battery A, 1st Illinois Artillery. The battery was assigned to the garrison of Vicksburg. In the spring, it became Battery D, 2nd US Colored Light Artillery. In the following quarter (first of 1864), the battery reported four 6-pdr field guns.
  • 3rd Battery Louisiana Light Artillery (AD):  Also mustered in December. Captain Jonas Fred Lembke had been a corporal in Battery B, 1st Illinois Artillery.  The battery formed at Helena, Arkansas, and was posted there upon muster. They were designated Battery E, 2nd US Colored Light Artillery in April. Lembke was also not long in command. He was killed in action on July 26, 1864. Looking forward to the first quarter, 1864 returns, the battery had one 12-pdr field howitzer and one 3.80-inch James rifle.

Given the problems with leadership, recent musters, and general war situation in December 1863, we can understand why formal returns were not posted in Washington for these Louisiana batteries.

Historians have not spent much time examining the service of these USCT artillerists. The infantry formations tend to get most of the attention… where the USCT are discussed in any detail. And that is a shortfall for all of us to consider reconciling. Given that the service of the white artillerymen differed from that of the white infantrymen, we would assume the same for the USCT. What would make for an interesting study is what parallels, intersections, and divergences existed in the experiences from artillerists, regardless of race, during the war.

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Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Kansas Batteries

Quarterly reviews of the Kansas batteries are always interesting, and demanding of attention. There were three formal batteries mustered and counted against the state’s quota of volunteers. And those did not have “conventional” lineages as we see with most state batteries. Furthermore, there were several sections formed within infantry and cavalry formations, which, while temporary, seemed always present on the summaries. Then there were militia batteries called out during the war by state or Federal authorities. From our 21st century perspective, it appears Kansas was awash with mountain howitzers and field pieces. All of which makes an exact, precise accounting of every tube difficult… if not impossible.

For the fourth quarter of 1863, we find six lines – four were from the formal batteries (the 2nd Kansas Battery reporting by section) and two were sections reported in cavalry regiments. And neither of those cavalry-reported sections match to those reported in the third quarter!

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  • 1st Battery:  Waverly, Tennessee with six 10-pdr Parrott rifles.  Captain Marcus D. Tenney remained in command.  In November the battery transferred from the Sixteenth Corps to the Department of the Cumberland, and assigned to the District of Nashville. They would guard the Nashville & Northwestern Railroad at Waverly until November 1864.
  • 2nd Battery:  At Fort Smith, Arkansas, with with four 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Edward A. Smith remained in command, with the battery part of the District of the Frontier.  After campaigning in the Cherokee Nation through mid-November, the battery arrived at Fort Smith on November 15. They remained there through much of the war. However, one section was detached, as noted in the next line.
  • Section of 2nd Battery: At Fort Scott, Kansas, with two 3.67-inch (6-pdr) rifles. Lieutenant Daniel C. Knowles commanded this section, part of the District of the Border.
  • 3rd Battery: Reported at Van Buren, Arkansas with three 6-pdr field guns and one 12-pdr field howitzer. Still appearing on department returns as “Hopkins’ Battery,” Lieutenant John F. Aduddell commanded in the field. The battery was assigned to Third Brigade, District of the Frontier.
  • Battery Attached to 5th Kansas Cavalry: At Pine Bluff, Arkansas with six 12-pdr mountain howitzers. The 5th Kansas participated in the expedition to Little Rock in September. Then moved to Pine Bluff later that month, where they stayed through the winter of 1864. Department returns have ten companies under Lieutenant Colonel Wilton A. Jenkins assigned to Colonel Powell Clayton’s Independent Cavalry Brigade at the close of December 1863. Captain William F. Creitz had charge of this improvised battery, which sometimes appears in dispatches as Creitz’s battery. Based on the timing this entry appears in the records, it appears the howitzers were transferred from other units (notably Missouri batteries) then being reorganized or mustered out.
  • Battery Attached to 7th Kansas Cavalry: At Corinth, Mississippi with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers. Colonel Thomas P. Herrick commanded the regiment, then assigned to the First Brigade, Cavalry Division, Sixteenth Corps. These were also reported in the second quarter of 1863, though not in the third quarter.

I submit there are a few missing entries here. In the previous quarter, both the 2nd and 6th Kansas Cavalry had posted returns. The 2nd had just a traveling forge and stores. And those were probably turned over for proper disposition. The 6th reported a couple mountain howitzers on hand, which were probably passed along to one of the Indian Brigade regiments or other units then operating in the Indian Territories.

We should also mention Armstrong’s Battery, affiliated with the 1st Kansas Colored Infantry (later 79th USCT). No return to reference in the summary, but the unit appears in dispatches from around this time of the war.

Also worth mentioning is the Leavenworth Post Battery, at times referred to as the 4th Kansas Battery (without any official sanction by the state I would add). Captain Charles S. Bowman commanded. Later became Company M, 16th Kansas Cavalry.

Lastly, there were several Kansas militia batteries which were activated at the state level, if not officially by the federal authorities. As such, no returns were filed. But again, the units were “out there” and doing some service.

With those shortfalls noted, let us move back to what was reported… as in the ammunition:

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  • Fort Scott Section, 2nd Kansas Battery: 83 shot and 90 case for 6-pdr field guns. We often see 6-pdr ammunition issued for 3.67-inch rifles.
  • 3rd Kansas Battery: 100 shot and 300 case for 6-pdr field guns; 150 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 7th Kansas Cavalry: 396 shell and 300 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

More smoothbore on the next page:

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  • Fort Scott Section, 2nd Kansas Battery: 94 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 3rd Kansas Battery: 100 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 100 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers. .
  • 7th Kansas Cavalry: 98 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

We then skip a couple pages to the Parrott columns:

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  • 1st Kansas Battery: 317 shell, 205 case, and 141 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 2nd Kansas Battery: 592 shell, 240 case, and 75 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

To the left is a single entry for Schenkl:

  • 2nd Kansas Battery: 224 shot for 3.67-inch rifles. This is an odd entry which could be entered on the wrong column (two to the left is the 10-pdr Parrott column for shot). Or could be entered on the wrong line, as the 3rd Kansas reported cannon of this caliber.

We now turn to the small arms:

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  • 1st Kansas Battery: Eighty-one Colt navy revolvers and fourteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 2nd Kansas Battery: Eighty-eight Colt navy revolvers, nineteen Remington army revolvers, one Remington navy revolver, and seven cavalry sabers.
  • Fort Scott Section, 2nd Kansas: Twenty-nine Colt navy revolvers, fourteen Remington Navy revolvers, and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • 3rd Kansas Battery: Eleven Colt army revolvers, one Colt navy revolver, seventy-three Remington army revolvers, and three Remington navy revolvers.

Clearly the Kansans preferred pistols over edged weapons.

One item entry on the next page:

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  • 1st Kansas Battery: 88 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.

But healthy report of small arms ammunition, powder, fuses, and primers:

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  • 1st Kansas Battery: 1,000 cartridges for navy revolvers; 1,300 paper fuses; 10 pounds of musket powder; 2,100 friction primers; and 20 portfires.
  • 2nd Kansas Battery: 500 cartridges for army revolvers; 200 pounds of musket powder; and 122 friction primers.
  • For Scott Section, 2nd Kansas: 1,000 cartridges for navy revolvers.
  • 3rd Kansas Battery: 900 friction primers.

That concludes our look at the Kansas artillerymen for this quarter. They guarded railroads and outposts from Tennessee westward to the Indian Territories and their home state of Kansas.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Kentucky

Kentucky before Kansas… in the non-alphabetic order used by the Ordnance Department:

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Within this section, the clerks tallied four batteries. There were actually five on the rolls as of December 1863. So let us fill in that blank as we proceed through the list:

  • 1st Battery (or Battery A):  At Murfreesboro with two 6-pdr field guns, one 3-inch Ordnance Rifles, and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Captain Theodore S. Thomasson remained in command.  And the battery remained unattached artillery in the Army of the Cumberland. Their main activity was guarding the railroad line, either in garrison or supporting patrols along the lines.
  • 2nd Battery (or Battery B): At Lebanon, Kentucky with four 6-pdr field guns and two 3-inch rifles.  Captain John M. Hewett’s battery was also serving as unattached artillery in the Army of the Cumberland, assigned to defend the railroad lines. However, returns have it at Elk River Bridge, Tennessee. The placename given on this line does not match with the known service history of the battery. See next entry.
  • 3rd Battery (or Battery C): Not listed. This battery formed (but didn’t muster) in May 1863 at Lebanon, Kentucky. Captain John W. Neville commanded. However, as related in earlier quarters, the battery was captured, while still being organized, by General John H. Morgan’s forces on July 3 (along with the rest of the town’s garrison). They were released shortly after. Not until September did the battery formally muster. At that time, Neville had the battery at Lousiville. Later in the fall, the battery returned to Lebanon as part of the District of Southern Central Kentucky, Twenty-Third Corps. Likely the clerks conflated details between the 2nd and 3rd Batteries, leading to one confused entry. Though it is not clear what cannon Neville’s battery had on hand.
  • Battery D: Well there was no Battery D from Kentucky. I’ll leave this placeholder as an explanatory note.
  • Battery E: At Point Isabel (now Burnside), Kentucky, with two 6-pdr field guns and two 3.67-inch rifled 6-pdrs.  Captain John J. Hawes’ battery formally mustered on October 6, 1863. They were assigned to First Division, Twenty-Third Corps.
  • Simmonds’ Independent Battery, also 1st Kentucky Independent Battery: At Charleston, West Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts. This was Captain Seth J. Simmonds’ battery then stationed at Camp Toland, outside Charleston.  The battery remained part of Scammon’s Division, Department of West Virginia.

Those particulars established, and the omission of Neville’s Battery noted, we move on to the ammunition reported, starting with smoothbore:

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  • 1st Battery: 220 shot and 180 case for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 2nd Battery: 392 shot and 252 case for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery E: 203 shot and 152 case for 6-pdr field guns.

Canister on the following page:

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  • 1st Battery: 111 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 2nd Battery: 108 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery E: 40 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

To the right are columns reporting Hotchkiss rounds:

  • 1st Battery: 70 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 50 shot and 150 time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E: 98 time fuse shell for 3.67-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss reported on the following page:

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  • 1st Battery: 68 percussion fuse shell, 140 bullet shell, and 65 canister for 3-inch rifles; 40 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 100 bullet shell and 100 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E: 48 percussion fuse shell, 96 bullet shell, and 56 canister for 3.67-inch rifles.

To the right on this page are James projectiles:

  • 1st Battery: 12 shot, 66 shell, and 110 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.

The next page we find Parrott rounds for those guns in West Virginia:

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  • Simmonds’ Battery: 1,027 shell, 502 case, and 265 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts. Well stocked indeed.

On the right of this page are entries for Schenkl projectiles:

  • 1st Battery: 250 shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Simmonds’ Battery: 69 shell for 10-pdr Parrott.

No additional projectiles tallied. So we move to the small arms:

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  • 1st Battery: Fourteen Colt navy revolvers, ten cavalry sabers, and twenty-five horses artillery sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: Eight Springfield muskets (.58 caliber), thirty Colt navy revolvers, and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery E: Thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • Simmonds’ Battery: Twenty-three Colt army revolvers, ten horse artillery sabers, and twenty foot artillery swords.

Cartridge bags reported on the page that followed:

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  • 1st Battery: 249 bags for 3-inch rifles and 319 for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 100 bags for 3-inch rifles and 32 for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Battery E: 200 bags for 6-pdr field guns.
  • Simmonds’ Battery: 1,691 cartridge bags for 10-pdr Parrotts.

Lastly, columns for small arms cartridges, fuses, and other articles:

0335_1_Snip_KY
  • 2nd Battery: 120 friction primers and 50 yards of slow match.
  • Battery E: 75 paper fuses.
  • Simmonds’ Battery: 500 navy caliber pistol cartridges; 2,543 paper fuses; 3,645 friction primers; 56 yards of slow match; and 500 percussion caps.

We turn next to Kansas… which is next down on the summary pages.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – The Indian Home Guard

Below the listing of Iowa’s summaries is this short section with the heading “Indian Brigade”:

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In earlier quarters, we’ve discussed the origins of the Indian Brigade, or more specifically the units in the Indian Home Guard. For the second and third quarters, only a section from 3rd Indian Home Guard Regiment appeared in the summaries. Here, we find two entries. The lower of the two is consistent with earlier quarters. But the upper line is a fresh field to consider:

  • Company E, 2nd Indian Home Guards: Actually reading “2nd Infy’ | Arty Stores|” or something along those lines. The unit is reporting from Fort Gibson… indicated as “Arkansas” but this should read “Cherokee Nation” or “Indian Territories.” During the war, the post was sometimes cited as Fort Blunt. The line reports two 12-pdr field howitzers. No leads as to who was in charge of this pair of howitzers. But in the time period we are reviewing, Major Moses B.C. Wright commanded the 2nd Indian Home Guards.
  • Company L, 3rd Indian Home Guards: And again to be precise this line reads “3rd Infy’ Indian Home Guard, Stores.” No location given, but the 3rd was also operating out of Fort Gibson/Blunt. The report indicates three 12-pdr mountain howitzers. We have connected Captain Solomon Kaufman with these cannon in previous quarters.

At the end of December, 1863, the Indian Home Guards were part of the First Brigade, District of the Frontier, Department of Missouri. Colonel William A. Phillips, who’d led the organization of these guards, led the brigade, with his headquarters at Fort Gibson/Blunt. In addition to the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Indian Home Guards, the brigade included the 14th Kansas Cavalry. Their mission was to maintain the lines between Fort Gibson, Fort Smith, and other Federal strongholds in the district. With that charge, these regiments did a lot of patrolling, with much interaction with Confederate forces operating in the same area.

The details about the artillery use of these units remains an unclear and imprecise area of my studies. Certainly these cannon were employed to defend the post. And at times they are used to support patrols. As mentioned in the second quarter discussion, the mountain howitzers were used at Cabin Creek in July 1863. Beyond that, I can only speculate.

Turning to the ammunition reported, howitzers need shells and case shot:

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  • 2nd Home Guards: 130 shell and 124 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Home Guards: 50 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

And canister on the next page:

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  • 2nd Home Guards: 19 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Home Guards: 60 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

No rifled projectiles were reported on hand, of course. So we move to the small arms:

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  • 2nd Home Guards: Three .69-caliber musketoons, 31 Sharps’ .52-caliber rifles, and one Colt navy revolver.
  • 3rd Home Guards: One Sharps’ .52-caliber cabine and 33 Sharps’ .52-caliber rifles.

And those Sharps’ needed cartridges:

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  • 2nd Home Guards: 1,000 Sharps cartridges.

As for powder, not much reported:

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  • 3rd Home Guards: Two pounds of musket powder.

The presence of even a small number of howitzers at the advance post of Fort Gibson was an important resource in the hands of Federal commanders in this theater of war. On the Confederate side, several officers noted the lack of artillery supporting their allies from the tribes. And the Federals were keen to maintain their edge in regard to the artillery. In correspondence dated February 11, 1864, sent to Colonel Phillips in Fort Gibson, Major-General Samuel Curtis noted that more artillery was needed at that post. Underscoring that desire, three days later Curtis communicated to Major-General Henry Halleck, in Washington, his designs to strengthen the hold in the Indian Territories, pointing out, “Fort Gibson has been fortified by the volunteers, making it a pretty safe position; but some finishing and repairing are necessary, and two or three good siege guns would be a great additional strength.”

Yes, a couple of heavy guns in the blockhouses would ensure control of the Arkansas River. And with that a sizable portion of the territory beyond. However, there is no indication Halleck considered Curtis’ request.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Iowa’s Batteries

Iowa became a state just a decade and a half prior to the outbreak of the Civil War. In those antebellum years, Iowa transitioned from a frontier state into one with a growing industrialization, all the while retaining its strong agrarian base (which is still there to this day). While not a populous state, Iowa sent over 10% of its population into uniform for the war (76,242 men in arms out of a total population of 674,913 in 1860). And of that total, we have focused on the story of four batteries and one attached artillery section within the scope of these summaries. For the fourth quarter, 1863, summary, the clerks at the Ordnance Department tallied three batteries and the attached section. They omitted the 4th Iowa Battery, which had just mustered in November.

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  • 1st Iowa Battery: Reporting from Woodville, Alabama with one 12-pdr field howitzer and three 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Henry H. Griffiths commanded, however he also served as division artillery chief and also departed in December on recruiting duty.  In his place Lieutenants William H. Gay led the battery. The battery remained with First Division, Fifteenth Corps, participating in the relief of Chattanooga in November. Afterwards, the battery followed its parent formation into winter quarters in northern Alabama.  The armament listed is noteworthy. The battery reported its long-serving smoothbores were worn out. And starting in December they received new Parrott rifles.
  • 2nd Iowa Battery: Reporting at LaGrange, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers. As Captain Nelson T. Spoor served as division artillery chief, Lieutenant Joseph R. Reed led this battery. The battery remained with Third Division, Fifteenth Corps, and moved to Memphis with that formation in early November.  As part of the movement toward Chattanooga, the battery was assigned to the garrison guarding the railroad lines in vicinity of LaGrange. And with that assignment, the battery transferred to the First Division, Sixteenth Corps.
  • 3rd Iowa Battery: At Little Rock, Arkansas with two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, one 3-inch Ordnance Rifle, and one 10-pdr Parrott. Captain Mortimer M. Hayden remained in command, but served in staff positions. Lieutenant Melville C. Wright led the battery in his absence.  The battery served in the Third Division, Department of Arkansas (which would become the Seventh Corps later in 1864). After accompanying an expedition to Arkadelphia, the battery returned to Little Rock and remained there through the winter.
  • 4th Iowa Battery:  Not listed.  Captain Philip H. Goode’s battery mustered on September 24, 1863. They had two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. The battery’s first assignment was to the Department of the Northwest. But that was a short posting. By February the battery was moving to St. Louis, with New Orleans as their ultimate destination.
  • Section attached to 2nd Cavalry –  At Collierville, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons, two 12-pdr mountain howitzers, and two 10-pdr Parrotts. However, I think, based on the ammunition reported, the section had two 12-pdr field howitzers instead of the Napoleons. And section? Well, more like a battery.   Recall from our discussion in the previous quarter, Lieutenant Perry L. Reed is mentioned in charge of two howitzers in a dispatch from November.  So he is likely the officer in charge of these cannon. Still, that’s a lot of cannon for a bunch of cavalrymen to handle. The 2nd Iowa Cavalry was part of the First Cavalry Division, Sixteenth Corps and operated in the Memphis area at this time of the war.

We have a majority of smoothbore cannon in the aggregate, so we have a lot of smoothbore rounds to talk about:

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  • 2nd Battery: 57 shot and 42 case for 6-pdr field guns; 74 shell and 20 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 175 shot and 165 case for 6-pdr field guns; 109 shell and 156 case for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 2nd Cavalry: 94 shell and 163 case for 12-pdr field howitzers; 192 shell and 192 case for 12-pdr mountain howitzer. (The ammunition tallies are why I suggested the 2nd Cavalry had howitzers vice Napoleons).

Continuing smoothbore ammunition totals on the next page:

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  • 2nd Battery: 80 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 60 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 60 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 32 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 2nd Cavalry: 52 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers; 276 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

To the right is one entry of Hotchkiss rifled projectiles:

  • 3rd Battery: 40 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the next page:

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  • 3rd Battery: 40 Percussion fuse shell and 60 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

Next we have Parrott projectiles:

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  • 1st Battery: 218 shell, 6 case, and 3 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 3rd Battery: 130 shell, 99 case, and 45 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

No quantities on the next page, so we move to the small arms:

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  • 1st Battery: Eleven cavalry sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: Four cavalry sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Three Colt navy revolvers, two cavalry sabers, and nine horse artillery sabers.

Not much in the way of cartridges:

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  • 3rd Battery: 50 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
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  • 3rd Battery: 50 paper fuses; 1,000 friction primers; and 1,000 percussion caps.
  • 2nd Cavalry: 360 friction primers.

That rounds out our look at the status of the Iowa batteries, as they were in December 1863… at least according to the Ordnance Department. Next up… the not-well-known Indian Home Guard Brigade.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – 89th Indiana Infantry

Below the listing for Indiana’s independent batteries is one lone line for an artillery section assigned to the 89th Indiana Infantry:

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  • Company I, 89th Indiana Infantry: Reporting at Memphis, Tennessee with one 6-pdr field gun.

Recall back to the 3rd quarter summaries, when discussing Tennessee batteries, that I mentioned “Hurlbut’s Battery.” That unit was not named in the summaries, but is referenced in several other sources as being formed in the summer of 1863. In short, the battery formed as an expedient to support expeditions out of Memphis by the “River Guard” operating against Confederate irregulars and some lawless bands harassing river traffic. With two James rifles and two 6-pdr field guns drawn from the garrison’s stocks, men from the 89th Indiana, Battery I of the 1st Illinois Artillery, and other units stationed in Memphis formed this ersatz battery. So it makes sense this entry appears under the Indiana listings, at least in part.

Recall also back in the 3rd quarter we had a listing for the 87th Indiana with… you guessed it… a lonely 6-pdr field gun, but at Vicksburg, Mississippi sometime in June 1864. Specifically, “Lieutenant Colonel, 87th Indiana.” As I said at that time, the entry didn’t make sense when cross referenced against the service history of the 87th. That regiment was part of the Army of the Cumberland and never, as far as I can tell, operated in Mississippi. Much less had any stay in Vicksburg. In June 1864, that regiment was involved with the Atlanta Campaign.

But relooking that entry, and considering this 4th quarter entry, I suggest the clerks at the Ordnance Department made a transcription error in the 3rd quarter. That actually should have referenced the 89th. Such matches up with the 89th’s service history.

The 89th Indiana mustered in August 1862. Shortly after, the regiment proceeded to Louisville, Kentucky in response to the Confederate advance into that state. The 89th was part of the Munfordsville garrison when that place was invested by Confederates. They surrendered on September 17, and paroled. After the formalities of exchange, the regiment proceeded to Memphis becoming part of that city’s garrison. The regiment remained there until January 1864, having participated in several expeditions in west Tennessee and along the Mississippi River. In late January 1864, the regiment moved down the river as part of the force dispatched for the Red River Campaign. In May 1864, the regiment moved to Vicksburg and operated out of that place until July (strengthening the case that the 3rd quarter entry should have read “89th”). In July, the regiment participated in an expedition to Tupelo, Mississippi, as part of General A.J. Smith’s Right Wing of the Sixteenth Corps (sort of a “fire brigade” of the western theater at this time of the war). Later, in September, the regiment moved with its parent units to Missouri, where Confederate General Sterling Price was making a grand raid. Following the conclusion of that campaign, the 89th and the rest of Smith’s command rushed to Nashville in response to another Confederate offensive. In 1865, the regiment was among those forces sent to the Gulf Coast to operate against Mobile’s defenses. They were mustered out in July 1865. Suffice to say, the 89th was a well traveled regiment, which saw its share of action.

But what about those cannons? And who was in charge of those?

As mentioned in the 3rd quarter discussion, correspondence from Memphis indicate “Hurlbut’s Battery” included a pair of James rifles and a pair of 6-pdrs. We only have one 6-pdr accounted for on this summary statement. Perhaps, as the need diminished in the fall, the temporary battery decreased to one 6-pdr. Around this time the USCT regiments of heavy artillery then assigned to Memphis were nearing full organization. Those units started taking over some of the “River Guard” duties, and presumably some of the cannon.

Colonel Charles D. Murray commanded the 89th through the war. His staff included Lieutenant Colonel Hervey Craven, Major George Cubberly, Major Samuel Henry, and Major Joseph P. Winters. Recall it was Cubberly who commanded the “River Guard” out of Memphis when formed in 1863. Cubberly resigned in June of that year, and it is not clear who took over command. Major Henry was Cubberly’s replacement, presumably taking over the “River Guard” at least until the regiment moved south in January 1864. And Henry SHOULD be familiar to readers. He was killed by Confederate irregulars in November 1864, at Greenton, Missouri. Winters was the last major of the regiment.

But there should be someone in charge of that one reported cannon. As mentioned earlier, Lieutenant Albert Cudney of Battery I, 1st Illinois Artillery led “Hurlbut’s Battery” during the summer of 1863. With the guns presumably reassigned, Cudney likely returned to his normal duties. But at least one of those 6-pdrs remained with the 89th Indiana. Specifically, Company I, 89th Indiana. And in that company was Lieutenant John J. Chubb, who was acting ordnance officer for the regiment through the late summer of 1863 and into 1864. So he’s the “front-runner” for being the fellow who filled out the ordnance return which fed into this summary statement entry.

A wide-ranging story and a lot of speculation about that one entry line. But I’m rather certain we are tying up the lose ends by attributing this line to the “River Guard”… at least what remained of it in December 1863.

Turning to the summary itself, they did report ammunition on hand:

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  • Company I, 89th Infantry: 76 shot and 112 case for 6-pdr field guns.
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  • Company I, 89th Infantry: 52 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

Aside from implements and other equipage, the other items reported are cartridges:

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  • Company I, 89th Infantry: 42 cartridge bags for 6-pdr field guns and 1,000 cartridges for Burnside’s carbines.

Lastly, some pistol ammunition on hand:

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  • Company I, 89th Infantry: 1,000 army and 1,000 navy pistol cartridges.

I have to assume the regiment’s small arms were reported on the appropriate “infantry” forms for the same period. I do not have access to those. But the presence of the carbine and pistol cartridges suggests the 89th Infantry used those weapons in their “River Guard” duties.

Thus we can close the summary entries for Indiana with this look at the 89th Indiana Infantry. Sort of full circle from our start with the 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery, which mustered as infantry and were reorganized as artillery. The well-traveled 89th also did their time serving cannons during the war.

Summary Statement, 4th Quarter, 1863 – Indiana Independent Batteries, Part 2

We continue with the Indiana independent batteries in this installment, working from the 14th Battery through to the bottom of the list, beyond the 24th Battery to Wilder’s Battery (which would become the 26th Battery):

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  • 14th Battery: At Corinth, Mississippi with three 6-pdr field guns and one 3-inch Ordnance Rifle.  Lieutenant Francis W. Morse remained in command (Captain Meredith H. Kidd was not with the battery at this time of the war).  The battery supported 2nd Division, Sixteenth Corps, part of the Post of Corinth. The battery moved from LaGrange to Pocahontas, Tennessee in the first half of October. Then moved to Corinth in late November.
  • 15th Battery: Reporting at Knoxville, Tennessee with four 3-inch rifles.  Captain John C. H. von Sehlen remained in command. Battery moved around with organizational changes in the Department of the Ohio.   Transferred from the Twenty-third Corps in November to the Department’s Cavalry Division. Then moved to the 2nd Division, Ninth Corps by the end of December. The battery participated in the siege of Knoxville.
  • 16th Battery: A return of Fort Washington, Maryland without any guns listed.  Lieutenant Charles R. Deming’s battery were part of the Washington Defenses. This former light battery now served as heavy artillery, for all practical purposes garrison infantry.
  • 17th Battery: At Harpers Ferry, Maryland, with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Milton L. Miner’s battery remained with the Maryland Heights Division, Department of West Virginia. 
  • 18th Battery:  No Return. Captain Eli Lilly’s battery transferred, as part of wider reorganizations to 2nd Cavalry Division, Army of the Cumberland.  The battery spent most of the fall supporting cavalry responding to Confederate raids. In action at Mossy Creek, Tennessee on December 29, Lilly mentioned only five 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.
  • 19th Battery: Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee with six 12-pdr Napoleons. Captain Samuel J. Harris’s battery supported Fourteenth Corps. In October, when the 4th Division was collapsed, the battery moved to the 3rd Division of that corps.
  • 20th Battery:  At Bridgeport, Alabama with two 6-pdr field guns and four 3.80-inch James rifles.  In October, Captain Milton A. Osborne’s battery moved out of Nashville, as part of the effort to secure supply lines to Chattanooga. On paper, still part of the Garrison of Nashville, the battery wintered at Bridgeport.
  • 21st Battery:  No location offered, but with four 20-pdr Parrotts (having given up their Napoleons).  Captain William W. Andrew’s battery transferred out of the Fourteenth Corps to the Army of the Cumberland’s Artillery Reserve, under October reorganizations.  The battery was stationed at Chattanooga during the winter.
  • 22nd Battery: At Camp Nelson, Kentucky with four 12-pdr Napoleons and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  Under Captain Benjamin F. Denning, this battery was assigned to the Second Division, Twenty-Third Corps, Army of the Ohio.  In December, the battery moved to Point Burnside, Kentucky. Well into 1864, the battery served in the Department of Southwestern Kentucky.
  • 23rd Battery:  Reporting at Knoxville, Tennessee with six 3.80-inch James Rifles.  Captain James H. Myers’ battery remained under Twenty-Third Corps.  Moving by way of the Cumberland Gap, the battery was among the forces operating around Morristown at the start of October. In December, the battery covered Bull’s Gap. The battery wintered along the Clinch River.
  • 24th Battery: Also reporting at Knoxville and also with six 3.80-inch James rifles. Captain Joseph A. Sims resigned on December 7. Lieutenant Alexander Hardy replaced him. As part of the Twenty-Third Corps, the battery saw action during the Confederate attempt to retake Knoxville. On November 16, the battery played an important role driving back those Confederates.
  • 25th Battery:  No return. The 25th would not organize until the late summer of 1864.  So this is simply a placeholder line.
  • 26th Battery or Wilder Battery: Also at Knoxville, but with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Recall this battery was first organized by (then) Captain John T. Wilder, later colonel of the famous “Lightning Brigade.” Though given the 26th as a designation in early 1864, through most of the war the battery was cited as Wilder’s.  Captain Hubbard T. Thomas commanded the battery, assigned to the Twenty-Third Corps.  The battery participated in the Siege of Knoxville.

We turn then to the ammunition, starting with the smoothbore rounds reported:

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  • 14th Battery: 608 shot and 500 case for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 19th Battery: 73 shot, 80 shell, and 178 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 20th Battery: 189 shot and 170 case for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 22nd Battery: 258 shot, 263 shell, and 271 case for 12-pdr Napoleons.

More smoothbore on the left side of the next page:

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  • 14th Battery: 94 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 19th Battery: 238 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 20th Battery: 35 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 22nd Battery: 261 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.

Hotchkiss rifled projectiles on the right side of this page:

  • 15th Battery: 180 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 17th Battery: 240 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 20th Battery: 392 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 23rd Battery: 219 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 24th Battery: 218 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Wilder Battery: 320 Hotchkiss time fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

More Hotchkiss on the left side of the next page:

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  • 14th Battery: 274 percussion fuse shell and 39 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 15th Battery: 525 bullet shell and 180 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 17th Battery: 720 bullet shell and 528 canister for 3-inch rifles.
  • 20th Battery: 161 percussion fuse shell, 20 bullet shell, and 162 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 23rd Battery: 317 percussion fuse shell, 95 bullet shell, and 210 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • 24th Battery: 320 percussion fuse shell, 71 bullet shell, and 36 canister for 3.80-inch rifles.
  • Wilder Battery: 72 percussion fuse shell, 250 bullet shell, and 332 canister for 3-inch rifles.

To the right, one entry for Parrott projectiles:

  • 22nd Battery: 250 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.

More Parrott rounds on the next page:

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  • 14th Battery: 83 shell for 10-pdr Parrott (issued to a battery with 3-inch Ordnance rifles… presumably, under the rule of “if it fits, we shoot it!).
  • 21st Battery: 210 shell for 20-pdr Parrott.
  • 22nd Battery: 345 shell and 200 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.

No projectiles under the “miscellaneous” headings. So we move to the small arms:

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  • 14th Battery: 15 cavalry sabers.
  • 15th Battery: 28 Colt army revolvers and 20 horse artillery sabers.
  • 16th Battery: 126 Enfield .577 muskets, two Colt navy revolvers, eight foot officers’ swords, and two musicians’ swords.
  • 17th Battery: 16 Colt army revolvers and eleven horse artillery sabers.
  • 19th Battery: Six horse artillery sabers.
  • 20th Battery: 14 Colt navy revolvers.
  • 21st Battery: 15 Colt army revolvers and 24 horse artillery sabers.
  • 22nd Battery: 30 Colt navy revolvers and 32 horse artillery sabers.
  • 23rd Battery: 30 Remington army revolvers and 20 horse artillery sabers.
  • 24th Battery: 26 Remington navy revolvers and two horse artillery sabers.
  • Wilder Battery: 12 horse artillery sabers.

That brings us to the artillery cartridge bags and small arms cartridges:

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  • 14th Battery: 146 cartridge bags for 3-inch rifles.
  • 17th Battery: 100 cartridges for Sharps’ carbine. (no indication of why these would be on hand).
  • 21st Battery: 339 cartridge bags for 20-pdr Parrott, and 2,000 Sharps’ cartridges (which again, seems out of place).
  • 22nd Battery: 300 cartridge bags for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 23rd Battery: 100 cartridge bags for James rifles.
  • 24th Battery: 640 cartridge bags for James rifles.

Moving on, we last consult columns for pistol cartridges, artillery fuses, loose powder, and primers:

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  • 14th Battery: 290 friction primers.
  • 15th Battery: 360 paper fuses.
  • 17th Battery: 1,159 friction primers and 200 percussion caps.
  • 19th Battery: 250 army pistol cartridges and 365 friction primers.
  • 20th Battery: 1,800 navy pistol cartridges, 470 paper fuses, and 1,500 friction primers.
  • 21st Battery: 71 paper fuses and 295 friction primers.
  • 22nd Battery: 2,400 friction primers.
  • 23rd Battery: 605 army pistol cartridges, 1,505 friction primers, 10 yards of slow match, and 20 portfires.
  • 24th Battery: 500 paper fuses, 960 friction primers, 25 yards of slow match, and 40 portfires.
  • Wilder Battery: 1,190 paper fuses and 141 friction primers.

That rounds out the Indiana independent batteries. We have one additional line from the state’s summary to consider. That is for an artillery section reported by the 89th Indiana Infantry.