Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Heavy Artillery

For the last post of this blogging year, we have the last post in the series covering the summary statements of the third quarter of 1863. This is simply an administrative summary of the heavy artillery units in Federal service at the end of that quarter. Some of these did appear in the summary statements, usually offering little more than a location. In this installment, we’ll expand upon that a bit with the aim (which will fall short, no doubt) to have at least mention of all Federal units designated as artillery which were serving at that time of the war.

The reality of the heavy artillery service is those units were by intent garrison troops. So in effect part artillery, but also part infantry. Both being on the “heavy” side of things. Not a lot of marching. Not a lot of combat. But a lot of drill and other propriety. And if artillery was crewed by the unit, those were typically considered property of the installation (be that a fort or other post) and not owned by the unit – for accounting purposes that is. Over my years of research, I’ve only seen a handful of these installation ordnance returns. The form was different, usually completed by an actual ordnance officer. I would presume from there the summaries were kept on a separate ledger. And I’ve never seen that ledger… if such exists.

All that means is we are left simply accounting for units, assignments, and duty locations. And even then we must acknowledge the list will be incomplete. Some infantry units served, for all practical purposes, as heavy artillery. And, particularly in the New England states, un-mustered militia units often pulled duty in the seacoast fortifications. So there are a lot of hairs to split in order to claim a full, complete accounting. For now, let us just focus on units mustered as, and thus designated as, heavy artillery. And we’ll look at those by state.

Alabama

  • 1st Alabama Siege/Heavy Artillery (African Descent): This unit had a date with destiny at a place called Fort Pillow… though under a different name. Initially organized in June 1863, from contrabands in Tennessee and Mississippi, by the end of September four companies were part of the Corinth, Mississippi garrison. No regimental commander was appointed until the spring 1864. The regiment would then be redesignated to the 6th US Colored Heavy Artillery (and after Fort Pillow, to the 7th US Colored Heavy Artillery; and in 1865 to the 11th USCT Infantry). The four companies, and commanders, at Corinth for the end of the third quarter were:
    • Company A: Captain Lionel F. Booth
    • Company B: Captain John H. Baker
    • Company C: Captain William T. Smith
    • Company D: Captain Delos Carson

Connecticut

  • 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery: As mentioned earlier, Batteries B and M served with the Army of the Potomac, in 2nd Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve.  The remainder of Colonel Henry L. Abbot’s regiment transferred to Second Brigade of the Defenses South of the Potomac (DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-Second Corps), defending Washington, D.C.  Regimental headquarters were at Fort Richardson. Abbot pulled double duty as the brigade commander.
  • 2nd Connecticut Heavy Artillery: Also serving in Second Brigade of the Defenses South of the Potomac. This regiment was under Lieutenant-Colonel Elisha S. Kellogg.

Delaware

Illinois

Indiana

Louisiana

  • 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery (African Descent): A placeholder entry in the summaries. See post for details.

Maine

  • 1st Maine Heavy Artillery: Under Colonel Daniel Chaplin, was part of the defenses of Washington, D.C., assigned to the north side of the Potomac.  The regiment had detachments in Maine on recruiting duties and at the seacoast fortifications (mostly recruits being trained up for duty). 

Maryland

  • Company A, 1st Maryland Heavy Artillery: Details of this unit are scarce. Not exactly sure when it began to organize. By mid-1864, the entire regiment numbered only fifty men. As it failed to fully organize, those present were assigned to duties around Baltimore.

Massachusetts

  • 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery Regiment: Assigned to First Brigade of the Defenses South of the Potomac – DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-Second Corps.  Colonel Thomas R. Tannatt commanded the regiment, and also commanded, temporarily, the brigade.
  • 2nd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery Regiment: Freshly formed under Colonel Jones Frankle, this regiment left Massachusetts during the first weeks of September. Headquarters were going to New Berne, North Carolina. But the companies would serve at different stations throughout North Carolina and tidewater Virginia.
  • 1st Battalion, Massachusetts Heavy Artillery: This battalion was formed with four previously independent batteries and served primarily at Fort Warren, Boston harbor.  The four companies were originally the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 5th unassigned heavy companies (becoming Companies A, B, C, and D respectively).  Major Stephen Cabot commanded this consolidated battalion. 
  • 3rd Company, Massachusetts Heavy Artillery: At Fort Independence, Boston, under Captain Lyman B. Whiton. Mustered into Federal service in January 1864 (as part of 3rd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery).
  • 6th Company, Massachusetts Heavy Artillery: Under Captain John A.P. Allen at Fort at Clark’s Point, New Bedford, Massachusetts. Would not actually muster into Federal service until May 1864 (as part of 3rd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery) .
  • 7th Company, Massachusetts Heavy Artillery: Unattached, but serving alongside the 1st Battalion at Fort Warren. Captain George S. Worchester commanded. Mustered into Federal service in August 1864 (as part of 3rd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery).
  • 8th Company, Massachusetts Heavy Artillery: Captain Loring S. Richardson commanded. Boston garrison. Mustered into Federal service in August 1864 (as part of 3rd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery).
  • 9th Company, Massachusetts Heavy Artillery: Captain Leonard Gordon commanded. Boston garrison. Mustered into Federal service in August 1864 (as part of 3rd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery).
  • 10th Company, Massachusetts Heavy Artillery: Commanded by Captain Cephas C. Bumpas. Boston garrison. Mustered into Federal service in September 1864 (as part of 3rd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery).
  • 11th and 12th Companies, Massachusetts Heavy Artillery: These companies were still organizing at the close of September 1863. They were, like the others, earmarked for garrison duty around Boston. Not mustered into Federal service until October-November 1864 (as part of 3rd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery).

Missouri

  • 2nd Missouri Artillery: As detailed in the summary post, this regiment was reorganizing and transforming from garrison artillery to light artillery.

Mississippi

  • 1st Mississippi Heavy Artillery (African Descent): Formed at Vicksburg in September. Colonel Herman Lieb commanded. Later became the 5th US Colored Heavy Artillery.
  • 2nd Mississippi Heavy Artillery (African Descent): Formed at Natchez in September, we looked at this regiment as a possible explanation for an entry line with the Mississippi Marine Brigade. Colonel Bernard G. Farrar commanded. Later became the 6th US Colored Heavy Artillery (a duplicate of the 1st Alabama Siege Artillery, above).

New Hampshire

  • 1st Company New Hampshire Heavy Artillery: Under Captain Charles H. Long, this battery formed in the spring of 1863 and was mustered into service at the end of July. The company garrisoned Fort Constitution. In 1864, this company, along with the 2nd, below, became the nucleus for the new 1st New Hampshire Heavy Artillery Regiment.
  • 2nd Company New Hampshire Heavy Artillery: Organized in August and mustered in September, this company garrisoned Fort McClary, Kittery Point, New Hampshire. Captain Ira M. Barton commanded.

New York

  • 2nd New York Heavy Artillery:  We discussed Colonel Joseph N. G. Whistler’s regiment while covering a lone entry for Battery L (which later became the 34th New York Independent Battery).  The 2nd New York Heavy was assigned to First Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, South of the Potomac. While Whistler commanded the brigade, Major William A. McKay led the regiment.
  • 4th New York Heavy Artillery:  Assigned to the Fourth Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, Defenses South of the Potomac.  Detachments manned Fort Marcy and Fort Ethan Allen. When Colonel Henry H. Hall was promoted to Brigadier-General, Captain John C. Tidball, of the regular army, was commissioned at the regimental commander in August.
  • 5th New York Heavy Artillery:  This regiment served by battalions at different postings. Colonel Samuel Graham, of the regiment, commanded the Second Brigade of Baltimore’s defenses. Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Murray was in charge of two battalions of the regiment in that brigade.  Third Battalion, under Major Gustavus F. Merriam, was in the defenses of Washington in First Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, South of the Potomac.
  • 6th New York Heavy Artillery:  Colonel J. Howard Kitching commanded.  The regiment was part of the Harpers Ferry garrison before the Gettysburg Campaign, and soon brought into the Army of the Potomac. At the time of the Bristoe Campaign, the regiment was serving as ammunition guards and handlers for the Army of the Potomac.
  • 7th New York Heavy Artillery: Second Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps under Colonel Lewis O. Morris (who also commanded the brigade).
  • 8th New York Heavy Artillery: Under Colonel Peter A. Porter, this regiment had garrison duty at Forts Federal Hill, Marshall, and McHenry around Baltimore, as part of Eighth Corps, Middle Department.  On July 10, the regiment moved forward to Harpers Ferry. On August 3, the regiment returned to Baltimore.
  • 9th New York Heavy Artillery: Second Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps under Colonel Joseph Welling.
  • 10th New York Heavy Artillery: This regiment formed the Third Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-Second Corps.  Commanded by Colonel Alexander Piper. 
  • 11th New York Heavy Artillery:  We discussed their saga in an earlier post.  Colonel William B. Barnes’ regiment was still forming and incomplete when thrust into the Gettysburg Campaign. The total number of men mustered was about a battalion strength. Returning to New York in mid-July, the regiment helped suppress the draft riots. Afterward, the companies of the regiment served the forts around the harbor. However, with the end of July and regiment not forming out to full strength, the men were transferred at replacements to the 4th New York Heavy and the regiment disbanded.
  • 12th New York Heavy Artillery: Colonel Robert P. Gibson began recruiting this regiment in March, 1863. Never fully recruited, the state revoked the authorization and the men were transferred to the 15th New York Heavy.
  • 13th New York Heavy Artillery: Recruited by Colonel William A. Howard starting in May 1863, this regiment mustered by company and served by company and battalion detachments. First Battalion, with Companies A, B, C, and D, under Major Oliver Wetmore, Jr., departed for Norfolk in October.
  • 14th New York Heavy Artillery: Colonel Elisha G. Marshall recruited and organized this regiment starting in May 1863. Mustering by company, only six were in service by mid-October. Those mustered were initially assigned to the defenses of New York City.
  • 15th New York Heavy Artillery: Also authorized in May 1863, Colonel Louis Schirmer commanded this regiment. The nucleus of this regiment was the 3rd Battalion New York (German) Heavy Artillery, which had served from the fall of 1861, mostly in the Washington defenses. On September 30, that battalion (five companies) was consolidated with new recruits originally from the 12th Heavy to form the 15th Heavy. They were assigned to Fourth Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, South of the Potomac (with Schirmer commanding the brigade).
  • 16th New York Heavy Artillery:  Colonel Joseph J. Morrison began organizing this regiment in June 1863. Receiving men from the 35th Independent Battery and other organizations, the 16th Heavy began mustering in September. Companies A, B, and C left the state for Fort Monroe in October.
  • 9th Independent Battery: Assigned to Fort Reno, in the defenses of Washington.
  • 20th Independent Battery: Part of the garrison of Fort Schuyler, New York.
  • 28th Independent Battery: Also assigned to Fort Schuyler.

Ohio

  • 1st Ohio Heavy Artillery: Originally the 117th Ohio Infantry, this regiment changed to heavy artillery in May 18663. Colonel Chauncey G. Hawley, who was promoted in August, commanded this regiment. They garrisoned Covington, Paris, and other posts in Kentucky as part of Twenty-third Corps, Department of Ohio. In October, the regiment moved to cover posts in Tennessee.
  • 2nd Ohio Heavy Artillery: Under Colonel Horatio G. Gibson, this regiment began mustering, by company, in July 1863. By the end of September, all twelve were in service. The companies initially served at Covington Barracks, but were soon detailed to other posts in Kentucky.

Pennsylvania

  • 2nd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery:  (the 112th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers.) Under Colonel Augustus A. Gibson and assigned to First Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac.  Regimental headquarters at Fort Lincoln.
  • 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery: Since Battery H appeared in the summaries as a light battery, we discussed this regiment’s service in detail in an earlier post. Colonel Joseph Roberts commanded.
  • Ermentrout’s Battery: This militia battery, mustered during the Gettysburg Campaign, was mustered out at the end of August.

Rhode Island

  • 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery: Battery C of this regiment appeared in the summaries, equipped as a light battery.  The remainder of the regiment served as heavy artillery in support of the Department of the South (which has been chronicled at length on this blog….) Colonel Edwin Metcalf commanded the regiment.
  • 5th Rhode Island Heavy Artillery:  Colonel George W. Tew commanded this regiment, the serving the defenses of New Berne, District of North Carolina.
  • 14th Rhode Island Heavy Artillery (African Descent): Organized on August 28, 1863, Colonel Nelson Viall commanded (some correspondence indicates a rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, as the regiment was only battalion strength at this time of the war). While forming, the regiment remained at Providence, Rhode Island. By the end of the year, one battalion would sail for Louisiana.

Tennessee

  • 1st Tennessee Heavy Artillery (African Descent): Colonel Ignatz G. Kappner commanded this regiment, at the time more of battalion strength, garrisoning Fort Pickering in Memphis. The regiment later became the 3rd US Colored Troops Heavy Artillery.
  • 2nd Tennessee Heavy Artillery (African Descent): This regiment, under Colonel Charles H. Adams, served at Columbus, Kentucky.  The regiment would later be designated the 4th US Colored Troops Heavy Artillery.

Vermont

  • 1st Vermont Heavy Artillery:  Colonel James M. Warner commanded this regiment, assigned to First Brigade, Defenses North of the Potomac, Twenty-second Corps.  Batteries garrisoned Forts Totten, Massachusetts, Stevens, Slocum, and others.

Wisconsin

  • Company A, 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery:  Captain Andrew J. Langworthy’s battery was assigned to the defenses of Alexandria, within DeRussy’s Division, Twenty-second Corps.
  • Company B, 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery: Captain Walter S. Babcock’s company did not leave Wisconsin until September 1863. It was assigned duty at Murfreesboro, Tennessee.
  • Company C, 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery: Still organizing in Wisconsin under Captain John R. Davies. This company moved to Chattanooga in October.
  • Company D, 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery: Would muster in November and then move to New Orleans.

US Colored Troops Heavy Artillery

  • 1st US Colored Heavy Artillery: Would organize in February 1864 at Knoxville.
  • 2nd US Colored Artillery: Light batteries organized starting in 1864.
  • 3rd US Colored Heavy Artillery: See 1st Tennessee Heavy Artillery (African Descent).
  • 4th US Colored Heavy Artillery: See 2nd Tennessee Heavy Artillery (African Descent).
  • 5th US Colored Heavy Artillery: See 1st Mississippi Heavy Artillery (African Descent).
  • 6th US Colored Heavy Artillery: Two units held this designation. The 2nd Mississippi Heavy Artillery (African Descent) and the 1st Alabama Siege/Heavy Artillery (African Descent). The former would retain the designation.
  • 7th US Colored Heavy Artillery: The 1st Alabama Siege/Heavy Artillery (African Descent), assigned this designation after de-conflicting the duplication mentioned above. And to further confuse things, initially the 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery (African Descent) was given this designation before using the 10th US Colored Heavy Artillery.
  • 8th/11th US Colored Heavy Artillery: See 14th Rhode Island Heavy Artillery (African Descent), but would change to the 11th US Colored Heavy Artillery, as a new regiment with this designation was raised in Paducah, Kentucky, in April 1864.
  • 10th US Colored Heavy Artillery: See 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery (African Descent), formerly the 1st Corps de Afrique Heavy Artillery.
  • Others: The 9th, 12th, and 13th US Colored Heavy Artillery were all new regiments formed in 1864. The 14th US Colored Heavy Artillery, also formed in 1864, began as the 1st North Carolina Heavy Artillery (African Descent). All to be detailed in later quarter summaries.

In closing, please pardon the lengthy resource post. Much of this was derived from raw notes in my files. And as you can see, particularly with the USCT regiments, lead into interesting discussions about designation changes.

On to the summaries for the fourth quarter of 1863! See you in 2019!

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Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Missing Batteries

With the final entry for Wisconsin, I’ve presented all the sections from the Ordnance Summary Statements for the third quarter of 1863.  Those covered equipment reported from “light” batteries, or any other unit reporting field artillery on hand.  With any such accounting, and in particular during wartime, there will be gaps and missing information.  When I started these summary statement postings, I figured to just present the entries “as is” since that would leave the information in context.  But as I completed the first set (fourth quarter, 1862) realization set in that the context required identification of what was not mentioned.  Since then, I’ve preferred to identify these “in line” with the entries.  So where the clerks skipped, omitted, or simply didn’t know about a formation that WE, looking back from our perspective, knew existed, I’ll try to include those in the discussion under the appropriate heading.  And that’s what we’ve done for the third quarter of 1863.  Just a summary where those exist:

  • California: Two militia batteries organized in the summer of 1863, the The Washington Artillery (of Napa County) and  National Light Artillery (of Santa Clara County).  Neither were equipped until much later.  As these were militia batteries, one understands the omission. 
  • Connecticut: Batteries B and M, 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery served the 2nd Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac.  As these batteries used 4.5-inch siege rifles, they were not, strictly speaking, light batteries.  And, of course, there are no columns for the big siege rifles on the summary form!  (… but we will see such a column later.)
  • Delaware: Crossley’s Half-Company of Artillery mustered as part of the efforts to meet the emergency situation in June 1863.  They mustered out in September.
  • Iowa: The 4th Iowa Battery, just getting organized, escaped the clerk’s mention.
  • Kansas: Several militia batteries existed at the time.  Because of the nature of the war in Kansas, these units, arguably, saw glimpses of “the elephant” without being formally mustered.  Additionally, Armstrong’s Battery, part of the 1st Kansas Colored Infantry, escaped mention.
  • Maine: 7th Maine Light Battery began formation in the fall of 1863. Though it would not formally muster until December.
  • Massachusetts: The 13th Massachusetts Battery served in Louisiana at this time of the war, though heavily reduced due to sickness, death, and accidents.  The men serving with the battery were serving with the 2nd Massachusetts Battery.  That situation may justify the battery’s omission.
  • New Jersey: Chapin’s Battery was among the troops mustered for the emergency of June 1863.
  • New York: The 35th and 36th New York Independent Batteries were being organized during the third quarter. But neither would complete, and their men would eventually be transferred to heavy artillery regiments.
  • Ohio: Law’s Howitzer Battery, associated with the 2nd Ohio Cavalry, probably escaped mention due to the lack of reporting.
  • Pennsylvania: While the independent batteries can be accounted for, the clerks, understandably, did not list the militia and other emergency batteries that saw service from June through the fall of 1863.
  • Tennessee: Only a heading entry in the summary.  But there were five batteries, either in service or being organized, as part of the state’s light artillery regiment.  Furthermore the Memphis Light Artillery, a USCT formation, and Hurlbut’s Battery, a temporary unit detailed from the Memphis garrison, might be mentioned.

But that last reference, to Tennessee, brings up a couple of other sets that escaped mention.  The first of these, like Hurlbut’s Battery, were temporary or composite units formed in response to operational needs. 

  • Boyle’s Battery:  Appears to be named for Brigadier-General Jeremiah T. Boyle.  Comprised of volunteers from the 107th Illinois, 80th Indiana, and 13th & 33rd Kentucky. Served in Western Kentucky.
  • Post Artillery, Fort Leavenworth: Also known as the 4th Kansas Independent Battery. Captain Charles S. Bowman commanded. Later became Company M, 16th Kansas Cavalry.
  • Hurlbut’s Battery: Which I grouped under Tennessee (probably incorrectly) and mentioned above.  Again, this was a battery built around a pair of James rifles and a pair of 6-pdr field guns.  The men were volunteers from regiments then assigned to the Memphis garrison.
  • 1st Florida Battery: This battery formed under the 1st Florida (US) Cavalry in the Pensacola area.  I call it a battery here out of convenience, and because occasionally it was cited as such.  In reality, this was properly a detachment under the regiment.

Another category here which should be mentioned are the US Colored Troops.  I’ve speculated that two entry lines, one annotated under Missouri and another under Mississippi, were likely reports from artillery sections of US Colored Troops.  And the 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery, later known as the 1st Corps de Afrique Heavy Artillery, and eventually re-designated the 10th US Colored Heavy Artillery, had a line in the summaries.  But there are a few other batteries which should be mentioned:

  • Memphis Light Battery (AD):  “AD” for African Descent, as I’m working from the somewhat “official” designation that appears in post-war War Department notations. Already mentioned. Captain Carl Adolf Lamberg commanded.  The battery was sometimes carried as the 1st Tennessee Colored Light Battery or similar derivations. 
  • 1st Battery Louisiana Light Artillery (AD):  Organizing at Hebron’s Plantation, Louisiana, but would not muster until November 1863. Captain Isaac B. Goodloe commanded.
  • 2nd Battery Louisiana Light Artillery (AD): Being organized at Black River Bridge, outside Vicksburg, Mississippi.  Would not muster until December 1863. Captain William M. Pratt would command.
  • 3rd Battery Louisiana Light Artillery (AD):  Also being organized, but in this case at Helena, Arkansas.  The battery did not muster until December. Captain Jonas Fred Lembke would be the commander. 

Another “gap” that I wish we could close up are the guns assigned to the various heavy artillery units (either serving as heavy in name, or otherwise employed as such).  It appears, unfortunately, the Ordnance Department preferred to carry those on separate forms, if not outright ignored these.  I can speculate at length as to why this would be the case.  But that would be speculation lacking documentation.  In an effort to at least identify the context of that “gap” I will follow this post with a listing of heavy artillery units in service in the third quarter of 1863.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Wisconsin artillery sections

Below the numbered batteries from Wisconsin, in the third quarter of 1863 summaries, are four lines based on returns submitted from sections directly assigned to cavalry or infantry regiments:

0297_1_Snip_WI_Misc

One of these is a carry over from the previous quarter.  Another matches to an entry from way back in the fourth quarter of 1862:

  • Battery attached to 3rd Cavalry: Reporting at Van Buren, Arkansas with no cannon.  But inferred, based on the ammunition reported (below), is the presence of 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  At this time of the war, the regiment was part of the District of the Frontier.  Colonel William A. Barstow commanded.  Minus some detachments, the regiment was at Fort Blunt (Fort Gibson), Cherokee Nation, in July 1863. After a busy summer and early fall, the regiment moved to Van Buren (accross the Arkansas River from Fort Smith) in early November. As far back as mid-1862 the regiment operated with a pair of mountain howitzers.  The regiment brought that section to Prairie Grove in December 1862.  But the lack of annotation here leaves questions.  What we can confirm from this entry is at a minimum the regiment retained stores through the fall of 1863, if not the howitzers themselves, at Van Buren… which brings us to the next entry….
  • Company C, 3rd Cavalry: No location given, but reporting one 12-pdr mountain howitzer.  This is one of those entries where other sources not only provide validation but point to a prominent role of the artillery piece.  Captain Edward R. Stevens commanded Company C, which was detached from the regiment and operating out of Fort Scott, Kansas.  A detachment (of men from Companies C and D, plus some Kansas USCT) under Lieutenant James B. Pond occupied Fort Blair (also called Fort Baxter), at Baxter Springs, Kansas.  Pond’s command included on mountain howitzer.  On October 6,  William Quantrill’s raiders attacked the fort.  Pond organized a hasty, but effective defense, centered around that howitzer.  While part of Quantrill’s force attacked the fort, the other wing encountered Major-General James Blunt and escort, who happened to be moving his headquarters from Fort Scott to Fort Smith at that time.  Blunt’s column was routed with over 100 killed. Though the general escaped, the incident was deemed a “massacre” in Federal accounts.  Despite demands and threats, Pond held out at Fort Blair.  In 1898, Pond received the Medal of Honor in recognition for his stand that day.
  • Section, Artillery, attached to 2nd Cavalry: Reporting at Fort Smith, Arkansas with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers. In September 1863, Colonel Thomas Stephens, of the regiment, was in command of a small brigade of cavalry assigned to Seventeenth Corps, then operating at Vicksburg.  Only eight companies were with Stephens. The other four companies formed a battalion under Major William H. Miller, which operated in Missouri.  This brings up a question about the reported location. The battalion remained part of the Rolla, Missouri garrison well into the fall of 1864, serving in the District of Rolla, Department of Missouri. There is no mention of movement to Fort Smith.  So this may be a transcription error.  One has to wonder if the clerks confused the 2nd and 3rd Wisconsin Cavalry. 
  • Detachment, 30th Infantry: I interpret their location as as “Indian expedition, Dakota Territory.”   The regiment reported four 6-pdr field guns (down from six) on hand.  The 30th Wisconsin served in Major-General John Pope’s Department of the Northwest, providing troops for garrisons in the Districts of Wisconsin and Iowa.  Colonel Daniel J. Dill commanded the regiment.  A detachment under Lieutenant-Colonel Edward M. Bartlett, comprised of Companies D and F, were on duty at Fort Sully, Dakota Territory, through the fall.  If I had to guess, this would be the likely location of those guns.

So four stories from the Trans-Mississippi ranging from an infamous massacre to mundane garrison duties.  And between these four lines, barely a battery between them.  Let’s look to what ammunition was on hand:

0299_1_Snip_WI_Misc
  • 3rd Cavalry: 85 shell and 26 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • Company C, 3rd Cavalry: 30 shell, 36 case, and 36 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 2nd Cavalry: 76 case and 9 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 30th Infantry: 364 shot, 182 case, and 159 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

No rifled projectiles reported, of course.  But those sheets are posted for review (here, here, and here).   But there are small arms reported:

0300_3_Snip_WI_Misc
  • 2nd Cavalry: 75 breechloading carbines and 96 army revolvers.

That line from the 2nd Wisconsin Cavalry has me wondering if the regiment simply submitted one return, covering both artillery and cavalry stories, as opposed to separate returns (as per regulation). 

These were the final lines in the third quarter 1863 summaries.  Before we move on to the last quarter’s summaries, let us account for the omissions.  We’ve discussed many of those “in line” with the state entries.  But there were a few others that fell between two chairs, so to speak.  Furthermore, I will also review the state of the heavy artillery at this stage of the war.  If for nothing else to say we’ve not cast our nets with prejudice.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Wisconsin Batteries

The last heading for the state volunteers in the third quarter of 1863 summaries is Wisconsin.  Under this heading are a dozen independent (numbered) batteries along with four reports for sections from cavalry and infantry regiments.  We look at those artillery batteries first:

0297_1_Snip_WI

I said “a dozen,” right?  But you count thirteen.  Yes, because one of those batteries didn’t exist.  Notice we have dated returns for all but the 11th Battery (the one that didn’t exist).  Some were late.  But returns to work from at least for the twelve:

  • 1st Battery:  Reporting at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, as of March 1865.  But with no cannon on hand.  Captain Jacob T. Foster remained in command of the battery.  After Vicksburg, and the transfer of the Thirteenth Corps to the Department of the Gulf, the battery relocated to New Orleans.  They remained there until the first week of September, when they moved to Brashear City.  At the end of September Foster’s battery was at Berwick City (across the Atchafalaya from modern day Morgan City).  But they returned to Brashear City in early October. A report dated September 2 indicated the battery had four 30-pdr Parrotts.  That would be an upgrade from the 20-pdr Parrotts worn out during the Vicksburg Campaign.   Staff duties often kept Foster away from the battery. In his place, Lieutenant Daniel Webster led the battery.
  • 2nd Battery:  No location given, from a return posted November 1864, but with two 12-pdr field howitzers and four 10-pdr Parrotts. With the end of Dix’s Peninsula Campaign, the battery moved to Yorktown.  The battery remained there through the rest of the summer and into fall, as part of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.  Captain Charles Beger commanded this battery.  However, returns indicate he was absent at the end of the reporting period, with Lieutenant Charles Schultz standing in.
  • 3rd Battery: Reporting at Chattanooga, Tennessee with one 12-pdr field howitzer. Captain Lucius H. Drury, of the battery, was division artillery chief.  Under direct command of Lieutenant Cortland Livingston, as part of Third Division, Twenty-first Corps, Army of the Cumberland, the battery went into action at Chickamauga with four 10-pdr Parrotts and two 12-pdr field howitzers. On September 19, the battery fought near the Viniard cornfield, playing an important role checking the Confederates in that sector.  But on the afternoon of the 20, the battery was with others grouped by Mendenhall on the northwest of Dyer Field.  Loosing 30 horses in that desperate stand, the Livingston was only able to bring one howitzer off the field.
  • 4th Battery: At Gloucester Point, Virginia with six 3-inch rifles (likely Ordnance rifles).  Captain John F. Vallee commanded this battery at the start of the quarter.  When Vallee resigned on July 6, George B. Easterly was promoted to command. As part of Second Division, Fourth Corps the battery participated in the operations on the Peninsula through June and July.  Afterwards, the battery was part of the Yorktown Garrison, specifically assigned to Gloucester Point, across the York River.
  • 5th Battery: In Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  In the previous quarters, this battery reported two mountain howitzers instead of field howitzers.  Other equipment, and ammunition on hand (see below), reported was for field howitzers.  Still, I would leave a question mark for caution on that column. The battery was assigned to First Division, Twentieth Corps, and commanded by Captain George Q. Gardner. The battery was detached with the division’s First Brigade at the start of September.  During the battle of Chickamauga, they were at Valley Head, Alabama.  They did see action on September 22 skirmishing with Confederates as the siege of Chattanooga set in.
  • 6th Battery: “In the field”  with two 6-pdr field guns, two 24-pdr field howitzers, and two 3.80-inch James Rifles.  However, I believe, based on the ammunition reported and previous quarter reporting, the 24-pdrs should instead be 12-pdr field howitzers. Assigned to Seventh (later Second) Division, Seventeenth Corps.  Captain Henry Dillon was in command.  However, with Dillon serving as division artillery chief, Lieutenant Samuel F. Clark stood in as commander.  The battery spent most of the summer at Vicksburg.  They were part of the force dispatched to Chattanooga, via Memphis and overland to Bridgeport, Alabama, starting the last week of September.
  • 7th Battery: At Memphis, Tennessee with two 6-pdr field guns and three 3.67-inch rifles, and one 3.80-inch James rifles (as opposed to four 3.80-inch James reported the previous quarter).  Captain Harry S. Lee returned to resume command of the battery for part of the summer.  But returns from October indicate Lieutenant William E. Hearsey was acting commander.   The battery was assigned to the District of Memphis, Sixteenth Corps. 
  • 8th Battery: At Chattanooga, Tennessee with two 12-pdr Napoleons and four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Assigned to First Division, Twentieth Corps. In Captain Henry E. Stiles’ absence,  Lieutenant John D. McLean lead the battery at Chickamauga.  The battery reported no loss in the battle.
  • 9th Battery: Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory with four 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers. Captain Cyrus H. Johnson remained in command, but he would be dismissed on October 21.  So a story for the next quarter.  The battery served by sections.  The right section, under Lieutenant James H. Dodge, first moved to Fort Union, New Mexico, before returning to Fort Lyon.  The left section, under Lieutenant Watson D. Crocker, continued on to Fort Larned, Kansas.  And the center section, which remained with Captain Johnson, set up operations at Fort Lyon.
  • 10th Battery: Reporting at Bridgeport, Alabama with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain Yates V. Beebe’s battery was assigned to the Second Division, Reserve Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  From the beginning of the year up to September, the battery performed escort duties based out of Nashville and Murfreesboro.  In late September the battery moved forward to Bridgeport and guarded key points in that area.
  • 11th Battery: No return. As mentioned above, before this battery could complete organization, it was assigned to Illinois for accounting, becoming Battery L, 1st Illinois Light Artillery.
  • 12th Battery: A February 1864 return has this battery at Chattanooga with four 10-pdr Parrotts.  Captain William Zickerick and his battery’s four 10-pdr Parrotts were assigned to Seventh Division (later Second), Seventeenth Corps. Alongside the 6th Battery, they spent most of the summer at Vicksburg.  In late September, they were among the forces dispatched to Chattanooga.
  • 13th Battery: From a March 1864 return, this battery was at Fort Williams, Louisiana with the annotation “no stores.”  The battery started forming in the summer of 1863.  In November, seventy-one men were mustered into service, with duty location of Camp Washburn, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.  Captain Richard R. Griffith would command the battery, with data of rank from December 23 of that year.

Moving down to the ammunition on hand, starting with the smoothbore:

0299_1_Snip_WI
  • 2nd Battery: 120 shell, 160 case, and 32 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 3rd Battery: 70 shell, 160 case, and 27 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 5th Battery: 96 shot, 32 shell, 91 case, and 40 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons; 62 shell, 156 case, and 47 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
  • 6th Battery: 73 shot, 173 case, and 105 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 21 shell, and 113 case for 12-pdr field howitzers;  65 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons. That last entry may be a transcription error by the clerks.
  • 7th Battery: 186 shot, 243 case, and 87 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 8th Battery: 32 shot, 94 shell, 64 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • 9th Battery: 400 shot, 320 case, and 80 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 150 shell, 190 case, and 62 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.

Turning to the Hotchkiss rifled projectiles reported:

0299_2_Snip_WI
  • 4th Battery: 117 canister, 603 (!!!) percussion shell, 266 fuse shell, and 116 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 6th Battery: 26 shot and 146 bullet shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 7th Battery: 81 shot, 80 percussion shell, 161 fuse shell, and 430 bullet shell for 3.80-inch James rifles.
  • 8th Battery: 94 shot, 151 canister, and 479 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 10th Battery: 120 canister, 245 percussion shell, and 235 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

We will break the next page down into sections for clarity.  Starting with the James projectiles reported:

0300_1J_Snip_WI
  • 6th Battery: 96 shell and 34 canister for 3.80-inch James rifles.

And then to the Parrott columns:

0300_1P_Snip_WI
  • 2nd Battery: 314 shot, 387 shell, and 96 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • 3rd Battery: 195 shell, 188 case, and 75 canister for 10-pdr Parrott…. which, as of the time of the report, the battery didn’t have on hand.  So while losing the guns, the battery rescued their caissons.  Good work!
  • 5th Battery: 9 shot, 142 shell, 127 case, and 78 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.
  • 12th Battery: 116 shot, 321 shell, 247 case, and 136 canister for 10-pdr Parrotts.

A handful of Schenkl and Tatham’s reported:

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First the Schenkl:

  • 4th Battery: 33 shell and 23 case for 3 inch rifles.

And one entry for Tatham’s canister:

  • 6th Battery: 30 canister for 3.80-inch James.

Lastly we examine the small arms reported:

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  • 2nd Battery: Twenty army revolvers and 133 horse artillery sabers.
  • 3rd Battery: Fourteen army revolvers and eight horse artillery sabers.
  • 4th Battery: Sixteen army revolvers and twelve horse artillery sabers.
  • 6th Battery: Six cavalry sabers.
  • 7th Battery: Thirty army revolvers and twenty-five cavalry sabers.
  • 8th Battery: Sixteen navy revolvers and four cavalry sabers.
  • 9th Battery: Ninety-five navy revolvers and nineteen cavalry sabers.
  • 10th Battery: Fifteen horse artillery sabers.
  • 12th Battery: Eight navy revolvers.

We can say there was an evolving theme across the Wisconsin batteries.  While that theme did not include all, at the close of the third quarter of 1863 many of these batteries were either at Chattanooga or moving to the city.  In the weeks that followed, the men of those batteries would support the efforts to lift the siege and eventually defeat the Confederates encircling the city.

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – Vermont’s Batteries

Not a populous state, yet Vermont arguably fought above their weight class during the Civil War with nearly 10% of the state’s population responding to the call.  We hear much of the two infantry brigades which served with the Army of the Potomac.  And the storied 1st Vermont Cavalry gets it due from those who chronicle the horse soldiers.  But with respect to the artillerymen, the most often mentioned is the 1st Vermont Heavy Artillery, which served through much of the war, in effect, as infantry.  What of the light batteries?  Well… let’s look to their summaries:

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At the close of the third quarter, 1863, Vermont had only two light batteries in service (the third would not muster until 1864).  And those two batteries were dealing with the heat, humidity, and mosquitoes of Louisiana.  Thus, in our “main theaters of operation” centered studies of the war, these two batteries garner little attention.  Let’s give them some attention here:

  • 1st Battery: Reporting from Brashear City (modern Morgan City), Louisiana with four 3-inch rifles. Under Captain George T. Hebard, the battery moved to Third Division, Nineteenth Corps in the reorganizations after the fall of Port Hudson.  Initially assigned to Baton Rouge, the battery returned to Port Hudson in late July.  During the first week of September, the battery participated in the unsuccessful Sabine Pass expedition.  After that, they returned to Brashear City on garrison duties.
  • 2nd Battery: At Port Hudson, Louisiana, with four 6-pdr (3.37-inch) rifles. Although using a column for bronze pieces, these were most certainly Sawyer rifles of cast steel.  After the fall of Port Hudson, the battery remained at that place as part of the Fourth Division, Nineteenth Corps (again, a transfer as part of the corps’ reorganization).  Captain Pythagoras E. Holcomb commanded the battery at the start of the summer.  But on August 19, he was mustered out of the battery to accept a promotion to major in the 1st Texas (US) Cavalry.  An interesting “unionist” story to follow.  But as this is “To the Sound of the Guns” and not “The Tinking of Sabers,” I’ll leave that story to those who write about the cavalry.  Lieutenant John W. Chase was promoted in October to replace Holcomb. 
  • 3rd Battery: Not listed.  This battery began forming in November.  So we will discuss them in the next quarter in more detail.  Captain Romeo H. Start received commission in the battery on November 23.  And was busy recruiting from that point forward.

So just two batteries to account for in the ammunition tables.  With no smoothbores reported, we can skip that page.  So we move to the Hochkiss columns:

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  • 1st Battery: 86 canister, 329 percussion shell, and 261 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.

No Dyer, James, or Parrott rounds reported.  So we turn to the Schenkl columns:

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  • 1st Battery: 130 shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • 2nd Battery: 498 shell and 222 case for 3.67-inch rifles.

Note also, at the far end of the table, some of those rare Tatham’s canister were reported also:

  • 2nd Battery: 222 canister for 3.67-inch rifles.

This leads us to the small arms reported:

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  • 1st Battery: Fourteen army revolvers and thirty-four horse artillery sabers.
  • 2nd Battery: Seven army revolvers and fifty-one cavalry sabers.

These two batteries continued their service in Louisiana into the next year.  The 1st would muster out the following summer.  But the 3rd, which we mentioned only as a prelude here, would move up to the front around the same time to participate in some of the most violent fighting of the war. 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – West Virginia, Sections with Infantry

Below the listings for the 1st West Virginia Light Artillery in the third quarter, 1863 are two lines for artillery sections reporting from infantry regiments:

0289_1_Snip_WV_Misc

One of these is a repeat from the previous quarter.  Both are reports from infantry regiments then operating in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia. And both fell under First Brigade (Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes), First Division (Brigadier-General Parker Scammon), of the Department of West Virginia:

  • Section attached to 5th Infantry: Reporting from Gauley Bridge, West Virginia with one 6-pdr smoothbore field gun and one 6-pdr (3.67-inch) rifle.  Colonel Abia A. Tomlinson commanded the regiment.  Ten different companies of the regiment reported postings at Gauley Bridge during the fall (not all at the same time, however).  So the two guns could have been a static assignment rotated among the companies.  Or could have been manned by a semi-permanent detail. 
  • Section attached to 13th Infantry:  No location offered.  But reporting one 12-pdr mountain howitzer.  Colonel William R. Brown commanded the 13th West Virginia Infantry.  The regiment spent most of the fall in the Kanawha Valley.  As with the 5th, no specific details as to the assignment or use of the cannon.

Noteworthy, a return from December 1863 for the Department of West Virginia indicates the entire division had sixteen field pieces.  The division had two batteries assigned – Captain James R. McMullin’s 1st Ohio Battery and Simmonds’ Kentucky Battery.  We are working from incomplete returns from those batteries.  But subtract out the 10 or 12 guns those batteries must have had.  And also subtract the three guns mentioned here with the infantry.  That would still leave us one, and maybe three, field guns unreported.  By that time of the war the Federals always seemed to have a spare piece of artillery about.

Moving down to the ammunition, the smoothbore comes first:

0291_1_Snip_WV_Misc
  • 5th Infantry: 84 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
  • 13th Infantry: 92 case and 68 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.

No Hotchkiss rounds reported. But we can cut down the next page to look at James projectiles:

0292_1J_Snip_WV_Misc
  • 5th Infantry: 60 shell for 3.80-inch James.  Which leaves us with a conundrum – was this an error with the report or with transcription?  This could be the incorrect rounds assigned to the piece; an error reporting the piece; or an error reporting the ammunition on hand.

The next page seems to re-affirm the caliber of the weapon in question:

0292_2_Snip_WV_Misc
  • 5th Infantry: 30 Schenkl shells for 3.67-inch rifles.

The infantry regiments did not report small arms assigned to these artillery sections.  And that brings this entry to a close. 

Summary Statement, 3rd Quarter, 1863 – 1st (West) Virginia Light Artillery

Although West Virginia was formally admitted to the Union in June, the clerks at the Ordnance Department still used the, then, obsolete header of “Virginia” when grouping batteries from the state:

0289_1_All_Snip_WV1

Eight batteries of the 1st (West) Virginia Light Artillery and two artillery sections in infantry regiments.  We’ll break this down into two installments, for clarity and convenience.  So first we look at the 1st regiment’s batteries:

0289_1_Snip_WV1

The 1st Regiment only ever had eight batteries.  Battery A’s first commander Philip Daum, was the regiment’s ranking officer, promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel in mid-1862 (though some records indicate a rank of Colonel, I find no documentation of that rank in the US Volunteers).    Daum served as an artillery chief during the Valley Campaigns of 1862.  But I am unsure as to his role and responsibilities after that point.  The eight batteries were representing the new state in the field:

  • Battery A: At Camp Barry, D.C. with four 12-pdr Napoleons. This battery was in the Artillery Camp of Instruction, Camp Barry.  On September 3, George Furst was promoted to captain.  Later in December the battery would return to the field.
  • Battery B: At Beverly, (West) Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts.  Captain John V. Keeper command this battery,  supporting Averill’s Brigade, Department of West Virginia.  
  • Battery C: At Rappahannock Station, Virginia with six 10-pdr Parrotts (although a consolidated report from the Army of the Potomac, dated August 31, gives this battery four Parrotts). The “Pierpoint Battery” remained under Captain Wallace Hill.  The battery remained in the Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac.  With reorganizations of the reserve, the battery moved from the Third Volunteer Brigade to the Fourth Volunteer Brigade.  And it would later move to the Second Volunteer Brigade.
  • Battery D: Reporting at New Creek, (West) Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles. Captain John Carlin’s battery was part of Mulligan’s Brigade, Department of West Virginia.  Recall this battery spiked and abandoned its guns with the retreat from 2nd Winchester. Just a few weeks later, the battery was re-equipped and in the field.
  • Battery E: Reporting at Mechanicsburg Gap, (West) Virginia with six 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Under Captain Alexander C. Moore, this battery was part of Campbell’s Independent Brigade, Department of West Virginia.  The battery is mentioned on interpretive markers at Fort Mill Ridge, overlooking the Mechanicsburg Gap.
  • Battery F: At Camp Barry, D.C. with four 3-inch Ordnance Rifles.  Recall this battery was caught up in the retreat from Martinsburg in June, losing all four guns (which were obviously replaced when they arrived at Camp Barry). Captain Thomas A. Maulsby, commanding the battery, was among the wounded.  In his place, Lieutenant John S.S. Herr commanded through July.  Herr became ill and relinquished command to Lieutenant James C. Means in August.  Finally, in October,  Lieutenant George W. Graham was promoted to battery captain. Again, note this battery was rapidly re-equipped after the disasters of June 1863.
  • Battery G: Indicated at Martinsburg, (West) Virginia with two 6-pdr field guns and two 10-pdr Parrotts.  Captain Chatham T. Ewing commanded this battery.  But with Ewing wounded at White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia on August 26, Lieutenant Howard Morton stood in as commander. The battery supported Averell’s Separate Brigade, Department of West Virginia.
  • Battery H:  No return. Captain James H. Holmes was commissioned as commander of this battery in late September. The battery was still organizing through the fall.

Moving on to the ammunition reported, first the smoothbore:

0291_1_Snip_WV1
  • Battery A: 128 shot, 64 shell, 200 case, and 128 canister for 12-pdr Napoleons.
  • Battery G: 300 case for 6-pdr field guns.

Moving to the rifled projectiles, first the Hotchkiss:

0291_2_Snip_WV1
  • Battery D: 120 canister, 18 percussion shell, 278 fuse shell, and 720 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery E: 226 canister, 395 percussion shell, and 1,303 fuse shell for 3-inch rifles.
  • Battery F: 80 canister, 111 percussion shell, 370 fuse shell, and 252 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.

Yes, a lot of shells for Battery E as they protected their gap in the mountains.

On the next page, we only have Parrott projectiles to account for:

0292_1P_Snip_WV1
  • Battery B: 372 shell, 333 case, and 206 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery C: 653 shell, 270 case, and 213 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
  • Battery G: 92 shell for 10-pdr Parrott.

One entry for Schenkl projectiles:

0292_2_Snip_WV1
  • Battery C:  90 case for 10-pdr Parrott.

We turn last to the small arms reported:

0292_3_Snip_WV1
  • Battery A: Fifteen army revolvers and seventy-five cavalry sabers.
  • Battery B: Eighteen navy revolvers and forty-four horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery C: Ten navy revolvers and nine cavalry sabers.
  • Battery D: Sixteen army revolvers and five horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery E: Twenty-nine army revolvers and thirty horse artillery sabers.
  • Battery F: Thirteen army revolvers, six navy revolvers, and twenty-five cavalry sabers.
  • Battery G: Thirteen army revolvers.

Save for Battery H, which was still organizing, a rather complete record for the West Virginia batteries.  We’ll look at the two sections reported in the infantry regiments next.