Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Miscellaneous Missouri artillery units

Having looked at the second quarter, 1863 summaries for the First Regiment and Second Regiment (first formation) Missouri Artillery, we can now turn to eight entries carried at the bottom of the state’s listings:


Eight lines.  Double the number from the previous quarter.  There is some carry-over from the previous quarter, but each line deserves close scrutiny:

  • 1st Battery Missouri State Militia (M.S.M.) Artillery: Matches up from the previous quarter.  Reporting at Sedalia, Missouri with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers and four 10-pdr Parrotts. This was Captain Charles H. Thurber’s battery.  The return was posted to Washington in September 1863.  So we might think this reasonably accurate.  Think again.  Indeed most of the battery was at Sedalia, in the District of Central Missouri, at this time of the war.  But a muster roll from that same time indicates, a section of two 2.9″ English Rifled Guns, 21 men, and 24 horses under Lieutenant Albert Waschman was on escort duty with the 4th M.S.M. Cavalry.  The guns mentioned were undoubtedly imported from Liverpool, England, manufactured by Fawcett, Preston & Company, with some affiliation to the Blakely rifles of note (Very likely a CORRECTION here, see comments below).  The caliber was, of course, the same as the 10-pdr Parrott.  So perhaps a clerk somewhere along the way made a decision to tally under that column.  Call it clerical expediency?
  • Lovejoy’s (?) Battery, Mountain Howitzer: Listed at Brownsville, Arkansas with four 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  The location is almost certainly reflecting the August 1864 reporting date.  If my read of the name is correct, this is a battery in the 2nd Missouri Cavalry (Merrill’s Horse) commanded by Lieutenant George F. Lovejoy.  And, if so, the regiment, along with its battery, was posted in central Missouri.  The 2nd Cavalry was in the 1st Brigade, First Cavalry Division, Department of Missouri.
  • Howitzer Battery Attached to 5th Cavalry M.S.M.: This unit reported from Waynesville, Missouri, but with no cannon indicated.  Three companies from that regiment were at Waynesville under Major Waldemar Fischer. A listing of equipment reported included: four thumbstalls, two tube pouches, two vent covers, two vent punches, two whips, two tar buckets, two leather buckets, two gimlets, one guners’ pincers, four sets of mountain howitzers harnesses, four lanyards, two priming wires, and 250 friction primers.  We might say that’s the left-overs from a couple of mountain howitzers.  Maybe?
  • 2nd Cavalry M.S.M. :  At Cape Girardeau, Missouri, with two 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  The 2nd Cavalry M.S.M. was assigned to the District of Southeast Missouri at this time of the war, under Lieutenant-Colonel Hiram M. Hiller.  Dyer’s mentions McClanahan’s Battery associated with this regiment, but I have no other particulars.
  • Company G?, 6th Cavalry:  Reporting at Vicksburg, the 6th Missouri Cavalry was assigned to Thirteenth Corps at the time.  Colonel Clark Wright commanded.  During the campaign, the 6th was initially assigned to the corps headquarters.  Later they were assigned to the Ninth Division of the corps (remember, at that time the Western armies gave unique numbers to each division).  When given verbal orders to report to Brigadier-General Peter Osterhaus, commanding that division, on May 25, Wright refused, asking for written orders.  Reason I bring that up, in addition to demanding written orders, Wright also asked for two 12-pdr howitzers. (See OR, Series I, Volume XXIV, Part III, Serial 38, page 347.) Such implies Wright had found use for light artillery with his troopers, perhaps based on experiences. At any rate, the 6th Cavalry would, for the second quarter running, report ammunition on hand… for 12-pdr mountain howitzers… which we will count below.
  • Company A, 10th Cavalry: Reporting at Memphis, Tennessee, with four 12-pdr mountain howitzers.  The 10th Missouri Cavalry was assigned to the Sixteenth Division, specifically the District of Corinth, and commanded by Colonel Florence M. Cornyn.  Lieutenant Peter Joyce of Company A had charge of two sections of mountain howitzers.  State records cite this as Joyce’s Battery.  The battery received praise for work on July 7 in action near Iuka, Mississippi.
  • 18th Missouri Volunteers: The location is difficult to read, but indicating a Tennessee address.  The regiment reported two 6-pdr field guns. Colonel Madison Miller commanded this regiment, which at the time was part of the District of Corinth, Sixteenth Corps.
  • 6th Co., 1st Missouri Engineers:  Reporting no guns, but stores, and at Pocahontas, Tennessee.  And yet another interesting story.  During the Vicksburg Campaign a battalion of the engineers were sent to Pocahontas on orders to gather timber and other supplies.  While there, the engineers found themselves heavily involved with suppressing irregulars and other sorts.  From the regimental history, page 97:

The train used by the Regiment for bringing timbers and other materials required, was fitted out with a guard of boiler iron for the Engineer on the locomotive, and a flat car was fitted up with a timber guard faced on the outside with boiler iron, and carrying a ten pounder Parrott gun with a train guard of fifteen men, they called this bullet-proof car their gunboat.

So maybe the engineers are reporting the stores on hand for that Parrott gun?  Well, I’m going to dispute the identification of the gun based on the ammunition reported, below.

One glaring omission from the list above, and the two regimental listings, is Landgraeber’s Battery.  Originally organized in October 1861 as the First Missouri Flying Battery, or sometimes the First Missouri Horse Artillery, or Pfenninghausen’s Battery (after the battery’s first commander), in June 1863, this battery was assigned to First Division, Fifteenth Corps.  Captain Clemens Landgraeber commanded. The battery had four 12-pdr howitzers (some indications mountain, others field) on hand.  After September 1863, the battery would receive the official designation of Battery F, 2nd Missouri Light Artillery.  And that is actually how the battery appears on the consolidated returns from the Official Records in June.  However, I would contend the designation was retroactively applied.  The “first” Battery F was at that time in Missouri, counting down the days to mustering out, but with no report entered for the summary.  Either way around, we have two units which can be called Battery F, but no data from either of them.

Another battery missing from Missouri’s lists is Walling’s Battery.  But they appear elsewhere in the summaries under the Mississippi Marine Brigade.

With those administrative details aired out… or at least the questions laid on the table… we can move to account for the ammunition.  With a lot of mountain howitzers, the smoothbore page is busy:


By battery:

  • 1st Battery M.S.M.: 36 shell, 50 case, and 40 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • Lovejoy’s Battery: 64 shell, 372 case, and 116 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 2nd Cavalry M.S.M.: 20 case and 24 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 6th Missouri Cavalry: 64 shell and 40 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 10th Missouri Cavalry: 30 shell, 160 case, and 30 canister for 12-pdr mountain howitzers.
  • 18th Missouri Infantry: 217 shot, 179 case, and 123 canister for 6-pdr field guns.

So we have an indication that the 6th Missouri Cavalry had mountain howitzers at one time.

Moving over to the rifled projectiles, none of these units reported Hotchkiss projectiles on hand.  But moving to the next page, there are some points to discuss:


Two batteries reporting quantities:

  • 1st Battery M.S.M.:  245 Parrott shell and 80 Parrott canister in 2.9-inch caliber; 100 Schenkl shot in 2.9-inch caliber.
  • 1st Missouri Engineers: 26 James shells, 3.80-inch caliber.

If we work from the premise that Washman’s section used 2.9-inch English rifles, then we have to question the identification of Parrott projectiles here.  When those rifles were purchased, a quantity of projectiles were included.  So might those be Britten rifled projectiles, 2.9-inch, instead of Parrott?  I can make a case the clerks simply transcribed these as Parrott projectiles, lacking an open column header.

As for the 1st Missouri Engineers, let’s also consider the next page:


  • 1st Missouri Engineers: 72 Schenkl shells, 3.80-inch caliber; 20 Tatham’s canister, 3.80-inch caliber.

The 1st Missouri Engineers didn’t report any cannon, but we have a citation from the regimental history mentioning a Parrott rifle.  However, the detachment reported having James caliber projectiles on hand.  I’d lean towards this unit having a James rifle on the armored flat car (if indeed that is what we are looking at here), and the regimental history incorrectly identifying the gun.

To close out this section and all of Missouri for the second quarter, we have the small arms:


Looking down the list, we see a scatter of entries:

  • 1st Battery M.S.M.: Thirty Navy revolvers, twenty-eight cavalry sabers, twenty horse artillery sabers, and forty-nine (?) foot artillery sabers.
  • 10th Missouri Cavalry: Sixty-nine cavalry sabers.
  • 18th Missouri Infantry: Three Army revolvers.
  • 1st Missouri Engineers: Twenty-six breechloading carbines and three rifles (type not specific).

My presumption is the “train guard” from the 1st Missouri Engineers carried those long arms while doing their escort work.  As to why those appear on the artillery’s ordnance return as opposed to one for infantry weapons, I think this goes back to who was filing the paperwork.  If you are the ordnance officer for a detachment of engineers working in Tennessee, would you submit two separate reports?  Or just consolidate it all onto one report, regardless if artillery or small arms?  All that paperwork was going to Washington anyway.

Published by Craig Swain

"Historical marker hunter" and Civil War enthusiast.

11 thoughts on “Summary Statement, 2nd Quarter, 1863 – Miscellaneous Missouri artillery units

  1. Those “English rifle guns” (called “Parrotts” in the return) of the Missouri State Militia Battery were not from Liverpool, nor manufactured by Fawcett, Preston & Co., nor had anything to do with Blakely rifled guns. The guns were procured on behalf of Gen. J. C. Fremont in 1861 ; they were cast at Robert F. Mushet’s Forest of Dean steel foundry (near Wales), thence shipped 123 miles to the Messrs. Simpson works, Pimlico, London where the blocks were bored, rifled, “trunnioned” and otherwise finished, and had carriages made. Total cost: £100 each (about $500). After proof, they were crated and shipped to Southampton 87 miles, thence to USA via steamer at the beginning of October 1861. Also procured were 2000 Britten shell and 400 shot. These transactions were all “off the books” officially.

    1. John, that is an interesting lead. Do we know what pattern these guns were built to? Were these guns cast iron, wrought iron, or perhaps a composite? Any idea who should be attributed with the design?

    2. John,

      Nice research and a great job of piecing info together. Might I ask where you made the discovery and/or the source(s) consulted? Appears they may be from British archival sources.

    3. I found an article that Captain Blakely and Mr Simpson of Pimlico were members of the London Association of Foreman Engineers. Perhaps this could be of help.

  2. These guns were “steel” — specifically “Mushet’s Patent Gun Metal.” In 1861 “steel” meant many things, but Mushet was the recognized expert. Bessemer’s process came to depend on Mushet’s discovery that “spiegeleisen” (which has a good dose of manganese) must be added to a charge of Bessemer iron for the process to produce good malleable steel. The gun blocks were cast, never hammered, then finished. Mushet had many partners and possibly the one who influenced the form most was John C. Haddan, though one of the Americans had knowledge of the current rifling preferences: “Guns [ indistinct ‘can of course’?] be bored & rifled to any model desired by Col Ripley. Mr. Benzon has I think drawings of the guns, recommended by Col Ripley.” They were 42″ to 48″ long, 7″ to 8″ diameter at the back. But supplying a good, simple, distinctive name is a problem since there are many hands in the dough near equally.

  3. Gil –

    I noticed your question only today, so I apologize for the long delay. I hope you haven’t given up on hearing from me via Craig’s site. Yes, the information is from private archival sources (unpublished, as yet) split between the University of Michigan and U.C.L.A. Not much detail is mentioned in “official” sources, but it’s well laid out in the archival correspondence.


    1. John –

      Thanks for the reply.

      I have more than a passing interest in Wachsman’s/Thurber’s Battery, Missouri State Militia Light Artillery and Co. L, 2nd Missouri Light Artillery, U. S. V. My great-grandfather served in the batteries. I have been doing extensive research on the units for many years. I hope to eventually publish a history.

      If it doesn’t compromise your research/project, can you provide a citation of the source(s) for footnoting purposes?


  4. John –

    That would have been Robert Forester Mushet who owned/operated the Forest Steel Works, which was located on the edge of the small hamlet of Gorsty Knoll in the Forest of Dean in Gloucestershire, England in 1861.

    The other company you referenced was probably the James Simpson & Company located in Pimlico in London.

    As you wrote, it is hard to give a specific name to the artillery pieces. I have been referring to them as “2.9” English rifles” in the history of the batteries that I am working on.

    Interesting that Wachsman’s Battery was originally raised as an independent battery and mustered into the pro-Union, Missouri State Militia. It was one of only two field batteries which served in the Missouri State Militia during the Civil War. Johnson’s Battery was the other. Both units were organized in the spring of 1862.


    P. S. – Please see my prior request dated February 24th for your consideration.

    1. Hello Gil –

      Again, I only today noticed your 24 & 27th Feb. responses. I’m going to ask Craig to send you my email.


  5. The State of Missouri was charged $300 each for 4 2.9-inch English rifled-guns, steel by the USA Ordnance Department. Additionally, there were 2 2-inch bronze guns at $200 each and 8 2-inch Woodruff guns at $285 each charged to the State of Missouri.

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