As a historian, particularly one who’s day job is not history, one of the greatest gifts a friend can offer is a primary source previously not seen or consulted. Any good historian is always looking for additional sources that may help with the unanswered questions, provide more detail and clarity, or at least offer corroboration for other sources. History, in my view, is the process of accumulating parts of the story. A process that is never really complete, no matter how authoritative the perception might be.
Last year, John Hennessy shared just such a source in an email titled… as these are apt to be… “Have you seen this?” The link was to a wartime letters of William Watts Folwell, who served as an engineer officer in the Army of the Potomac for most of the war. The letters are part of the digital, online collection of University of Minnesota Library. These appear to be letters home, but have been transcribed into a typewritten page. Of course, my interest was immediately focused on Folwell’s entries from June 1863 and his accounts of the bridge-laying at Edwards Ferry.
Born in 1833 in Romulus, New York, Folwell attended Hobart College, graduating in 1857. After a brief position teaching mathematics at the college, he was studying philology in Berlin at the outbreak of the Civil War. In February 1862, Folwell mustered into the 50th New York Engineers as a first lieutenant in Company G. He was promoted to Captain in December of that year, commanding Company I. Then advanced to major in February 1865 (with rank from October 15, 1864). Some sources indicate he was given a promotion to Lieutenant-Colonel before mustering out in June 1865. After the war, Folwell briefly lived in Ohio before accepting the position of President, the first president as a matter of fact, of the University of Minnesota in 1869. And that would be how Folwell’s diary ended up in the university’s collection.
Specific to the Gettysburg Campaign and the movement through Loudoun County in June 1863, Folwell was in command of Company I, 50th New York Engineers. And that unit was very busy laying bridges that brought the Army of the Potomac from Virginia to Maryland. As such, I am going to enter his account into my collection of Edwards Ferry resources here on the blog. Though there are interesting entries from earlier in June (and at other times in the war), for sake of scope, I will start with the entry for June 17, 1863. At that time, Folwell was in Alexandria:
Bivouac 50th N.Y.V. Engrs., near Alexandria, Va., June 17, ’63, 7 A.M.
Major [Ira] Spaulding takes Cos. C, F and I and one pontoon train to Nolan’s [Noland’s] Ferry on the Upper Potomac. We are going just at noon as the Steamer comes, and we expect her every moment. We worked like beavers last night till 2 A.M., making up our train. We had to dismantle the rafts made up at Belle Plain, unload the wagons on those, and then reload the material for shipment by canal. We take steamer to Georgetown, then enter the canal up which we tow our boats by teams if we can get them; if not, by hand.
Last evening, Capt. Woodward and his wife rode down to camp from their hotel. Bain [Lieutenant Mahlon Bainbridge Folwell, brother] and I called on them in the evening. Saw Mrs. Ben. Woodward, also. Ate sundry and drivers ice-cream and straw-berries, and drank soda waters.
We are both well, barring a slight head-ache Bain has.
I can’t tell you any War news. Don’t know any. Hooker is probably moving w. between here and the Bull Run Mountain, while Lee goes up the valley. I wish you could see your husband at this present. He wears a dirty hat, do. coat, do. vest, do. trousers in the left knee of which is an immense hole through which his drawers display themselves conspicuously. My baggage is over in Maryland somewheres. When I shall see it, I can’t tell. I have nothing with me but one rubber blanket, one woolen do., one shelter tent, and my sword.
I must try to find an envelope for this before it is too late. Direct to me as usual.
One detail I must track down is the referenced Captain Woodward. The meeting with Woodward and his wife seems a pleasant respite from an otherwise hot and dusty campaign.
This account plugs in well with the movements described in the Official Records by way of dispatches. The bridges had last been used at Aquia Creek. And at the time of writing, staff officers in the Army of the Potomac were anticipating the need for a bridge over the Potomac at some point near Leesburg. The day before (June 16), Brigadier-General G.K. Warren detailed some of the crossing points on the river between Hancock and Leesburg. Captain Charles Turnbull, of the US Engineer Battalion, had one set of pontoons at Georgetown and was ordered to move up the canal to the Monocacy River on June 17.
On the same day Folwell wrote his letter, Colonel William Pettes, commanding the 50th New York Engineers, received orders from Brigadier-General Henry W. Benham, commander of the Engineer Brigade, to
… detail Major Spaulding, with 200 men from your regiment, to proceed per steamer Rockland to Georgetown, to join the trains which started under Captain Turnbull. The steamer will be at the railroad wharf as soon as possible. Your men will take four days’ rations with them. The boats, after getting into the canal, will be pushed forward as fast as possible to Noland’s Ferry, where the bridge is ordered to be laid before noon of the 18th. Teams, if possible, will be procured from Washington, to haul the boats along the canal….
We see, generally, the details of the letter match those of the order. However, “as soon as possible” was interpreted to allow for ice cream, strawberries, and soda water.
I’ve always found it odd that none of the dispatches or orders issued at this phase of the campaign specify the purpose of the bridges to be laid. Just a few days after this, on June 19, a clear suggestion came from Major-General Henry Slocum to place a bridge to provide a supply link back to Washington. And the location for that bridge was Edwards Ferry, where eventually most of the army would cross into Maryland.
But if we walk back to June 17, there is a question as to why the Army of the Potomac wanted a bridge at Noland’s Ferry. That site is almost fourteen miles upstream from Edwards Ferry, and beyond even White’s Ford. In my opinion, the most important reason to place a bridge at Noland’s Ferry on the date specified on the orders would be to support movement from Harpers Ferry to Loudoun… emphasis on FROM Harpers Ferry. As things stood that day, Major-General Joseph Hooker was maneuvering the Army of the Potomac as if to meet the Army of Northern Virginia in the vicinity of the Bull Run Mountains. He had given no indication about movements across the Potomac. But he had asked about the availability of the Harpers Ferry garrison. Mine is conjecture based on what we surmise of the situation. But that does open room for logical extensions into the “what if” world.
My plan is to continue transcribing these letters as time permits, with commentary to provide context within the detailed blog posts about the crossing. It should be “entered into evidence.”
(Citations from William Watts Fowell, Civil War Diary, unpublished, transcription retrieved from University of Minnesota Library, pages 404-5 (pages 410-11 of scanned copy); OR, Series I, Volume 27, Part III, Serial 45, page 179.)