Officially announced as we entered the Martin Luther King, Jr. weekend, President Obama created the Reconstruction Era National Monument, along with several other monuments at historic sites related to the advancement of civil rights. From the official fact sheet:
Reconstruction Era National Monument: Located in coastal South Carolina, the new Reconstruction Era National Monument encompasses four sites throughout Beaufort County that tell the vibrant story of the robust community developed by freed former African American slaves in the Reconstruction Era South. This designation includes the Brick Baptist Church and Darrah Hall at the existing Penn Center on St. Helena Island as well as the Old Firehouse in downtown Beaufort and parts of Camp Saxton in Port Royal where the Emancipation Proclamation was read on New Year’s Day in 1863. These sites establish the first unit of the National Park System focused on telling the story of Reconstruction.
And that brand-new Monument already has its official website. I’m impressed with the direction taken. As I’ve pointed out before, there is a tendency to compartmentalize Reconstruction as if a separate, stand-alone chapter. We should properly see a story-arc that connects the Civil War through to Civil Rights … and right up to our doorsteps today. And Beaufort County, South Carolina is a perfect place to demonstrate that continuity. Reconstruction of that county started during the Civil War. And the evolution of the Reconstruction into the post-war era may be readily traced across various sites in the county.
I am pleased to see the inclusion of Mitchelville and Fort Howell in the Monuments list of “Places to See.” These immediately call to mind the military role within Reconstruction. We often forget, despite being largely a political event, Reconstruction was in part a military operation. And one that deserves deep study as a military operation. Certainly as those military activities often directly contributed, or in some cases detracted from, the advancement of Civil Rights. Furthermore, many of the military experiences from that period deserve study, in part, as lessons applicable even today. (Dare I remind readers the very lengthy “reconstruction” engagements still ongoing in places such as Afghanistan?)
Several places within the Beaufort Historic District will no doubt get attention. Mention of the Baptist Church brings to mind one important story I’d like to see highlighted with the interpretation. After the battle of Port Royal Sound, November 1861, much of the county was occupied by Federal forces. Many white residents fled inland, leaving behind a population of former slaves. Those numbers swelled as more slaves escaped through the lines, or were brought to freedom by the Federals. And that population turned, as people will in trying times, to their religious convictions for support. Working among the freemen, Reverend Solomon Peck worked to establish a church, using the Old Baptist Meeting House among other places. Seeking formal sanction for assuming control of the structures, Peck wrote to President Lincoln. And Lincoln replied along the lines that if the majority of the members of the church still present (on the island) are indeed loyal to the United States Government, then they are entitled to use the facilities. After all they would be “the church” in standing.
Doesn’t sound like a big deal. But when you look at it through the lens of history, it is. This is a level of equality not normally extended at that time. So long as the persons were loyal … says nothing of citizenship, but loyal… then the government would recognize a legal standing. The government recognized them as the body of a church. Legally. And what dovetails nicely in this story is the reading of the Emancipation Proclamation in the church, to freedmen, at the start of January, 1863.
Another story that I would much wish to see used in the interpretation of the new Monument comes from the military side in those Civil War years. Frederick Denison, of the 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, recorded an episode that occurred outside Beaufort as the regiment garrisoned the island, in the spring of 1863:
We are here tempted to record a little military anecdote. While Lieutenant [Edward] Waterhouse was on duty near Beaufort, having occasion to ride across the island in a carriage, he invited a staff-officer of the Regulars to ride with him. Meeting a private of a colored regiment who paid the required salute, the Lieutenant properly returned it, when the following dialog ensued:
Regular: “Do you salute niggers?”
Lieutenant: “He is a soldier and saluted me.”
Regular: “I don’t care for the regulations. I swear I won’t salute a nigger.”
Lieutenant: “I obey the regulations and return a soldier’s salute.”
Regular: “Curse such regulations. I’ll never salute a nigger; and I don’t think much of any one that will.”
Lieutenant: (Coolly reining in his horse). “You can get out and walk, sir.”
The snob tried his shoe-leather on the sand, a wiser man, we may hope, and with a higher idea of both the Lieutenant and the polite colored soldier.
You see, the Emancipation Proclamation might say the slaves are free. Constitutional amendments might guarantee their freedom, citizenship, and right to vote. And those freedmen might even wear the uniform and carry a musket. But real equality is not pressed down by the government. It’s achieved at the personal level. When the Lieutenant Waterhouses of the Army saw fit to treat every USCT private in the same manner as any other private in the Army, there is an equality to speak of.
The simple exchange of salutes might seem small in the grand scheme of things. But that salute was but a small example of a larger sentiment building among those serving in the department. Those USCT soldiers would earn the respect and admiration of many for deeds on Morris Island during the summer which followed. There would be plenty of those “regular staff-officer” types, at the time and the century that followed, who would not catch on. Thankfully, over the span of the next 100 years, there were more of the Lieutenant Waterhouses who did.
(Citation from Frederic Denison, Shot and Shell: The Third Rhode Island Heavy Artillery Regiment in the Rebellion, 1861-1865, Providence, R.I.: Third Rhode Island Artillery Veterans Association, 1879, page 150.)