After posting the summaries for Wisconsin’s batteries last week, I updated all the links for the first quarter, 1863 summaries. Before charging in to the next quarter, I wanted to circle back and identify any additional blanks – specifically batteries or other formations that should have been listed in the summaries but were not. For this, allow me to use Frederick Dyer’s Compendium as the base reference. Although there were formations that escaped mention in that work, particularly those serving only under state authority, Dyer’s is a good list to work from.
With that baseline established, some batteries missed by the clerks at the Ordnance Department for the first quarter of 1863:
- 1st Arkansas (Union) Artillery Battery – Captain Denton D. Stark received authorization to raise this battery in January 1863. The battery was not completely formed until later in the spring. The battery mustered at Fayetteville, Arkansas, but would move to Springfield, Missouri (perhaps as early as March of the year).
- 1st Colorado Battery: Once again escaping note from the clerks. Commanded by Captain William D. McLain and often cited as McLain’s Independent Battery. The battery was posted to Fort Lyon, Colorado.
- Armstrong’s (Kansas) Battery: Potentially an interesting story here, but at present I only can offer scant particulars. This was a battery formed within the 1st Kansas Colored Troops. I suspect, from looking at the regimental roster, the name derived from Captain Andrew A. Armstrong. Formed in the fall of 1862, the regiment saw active service in Kansas and Missouri through the winter of 1863 and into spring. The first reference I have to the battery is from a July 1863 action report.
- 13th Massachusetts Light Artillery: Battery left Massachusetts in January 1863 and was assigned to the Department of the Gulf. Captain Charles H. J. Hamlen commanded. The battery performed various duties around New Orleans until around June, when assigned to the defenses of the city.
- 14th Massachusetts Light Artillery: Not mustered until 1864, but I include mention here so you don’t think I skipped a number.
- 15th Massachusetts Light Artillery: Captain Timothy Pearson in charge. Moved to New Orleans in March and was assigned to the defenses of New Orleans.
- Battery L (11th Battery), 1st Michigan Light Artillery: This battery didn’t officially muster until April 1863. But the unit was “on the books” at the state level.
- Battery M (12th Battery), 1st Michigan Light Artillery: Likewise, Battery M would not muster into Federal service until June 1863.
- Walling’s Battery, Mississippi Marine Brigade: I made mention of this battery as one often cited under Missouri, as it was missing from the first quarter listings. And for good reason, the battery really owes more to Pennsylvania than Missouri! We will see this battery appear under a separate heading in the next quarter.
- 1st Marine Brigade Artillery (New York): Colonel William A. Howard commanded this formation, which served in North Carolina. The full “regiment” included ten companies. My first inclination is to rate the brigade as “naval” artillery, as they were intended to be assigned to boats and ships. However the batteries of this brigade were used in the field, and eventually assigned to garrison posts. In January 1863, the regiment was reassigned to the Department of the South. But before that move was completed, the formation disbanded (date given for that administrative action was March 31, 1863).
- Battery A, 1st Tennessee (Union) Artillery Battalion: Also listed at times as the 1st Tennessee Battery, Middle Tennessee Battery, or other derivations. Captain Ephraim P. Abbott commanded this battery, listed in the garrison at Nashville. The battery would go on to serve with the Army of the Cumberland in the field.
And I’m not going to say this “completes” the list or fills in all the holes from the summaries. For instance, one noticeable change reflected between the fourth quarter of 1862 and first of 1863 was the reduction of non-artillery troops reporting cannons and artillery equipment on hand. One example was the 3rd California Infantry, which had reported a pair of 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr mountain howitzers at the end of the previous year. We saw a few cases, in the winter of 1863, where infantry or cavalry units reported having their own artillery. But those were becoming rare.
Still, if we are looking to account for every cannon and every cannoneer – admittedly a long shot at best – one must keep in mind those non-artillerymen serving guns. And also account for those field guns impressed for use in the garrisons and fortifications. And… well you get the point.
My closing note for the first quarter would be a circle back to the point made at the beginning of this thread. During the winter of 1863, the Federal armies underwent substantial reorganizations. These actions “task organized” the force towards strategic objectives. In the east, this change was mostly seen with the movement of the Ninth Corps. But in the Western Theater, two large and cumbersome corps were broken up to form a couple of armies – one aimed at Atlanta (with the near-term objective being Chattanooga) and another directed towards Vicksburg. With that reorganization, batteries moved about on the organization charts. All the while, new cannons and fresh stocks of ammunition flowed in (in addition to replacement horses, fresh recruits, and new equipment). The batteries were but loops in several coiled springs about to discharge in the spring of 1863.