Earlier in January, I offered a brief, general service history of the batteries of the 1st Missouri Light Artillery in the preface to the fourth quarter, 1862 summary. As noted at that time, there is much to “untangle” when matching the Missouri batteries to alternate names and designations that appear in the records. Keep that in mind as we review the Missouri entries over the next couple of posts in this set.
For the first regiment, we have eight returns from the twelve batteries. Two of those were filed in 1864:
So a fair sampling to consider:
- Battery A: No return. Captain George W. Schofield’s battery began the quarter as part of the District of Eastern Arkansas. Their formation bore the very unlucky designation of the Thirteenth Division, Thirteenth Corps. As the corps organized for the Vicksburg Campaign, the battery shifted to the Twelfth Division of that corps. The battery accompanied it’s parent formation during the Yazoo Pass operations that winter. They returned to Milliken’s Bend in April.
- Battery B: No return. The battery was assigned to the Second Division, Department of Missouri during the quarter. Captain Martin Welfley remained in command. However, Welfley also served as artillery chief for the department, starting in mid-March. It is unclear if a subordinate held battery command at that time.
- Battery C: Reporting from Lake Providence, Louisiana with two 6-pdr field guns and two 12-pdr field howitzers. Formerly known as Mann’s Independent Battery, the battery was under Lieutenant Edward Brotzmann at the start of the year and assigned to Sixth Division, Sixteenth Corps. Captain Charles Mann returned to command the battery during the winter. When Sixth Division transferred to Seventeenth Corps, Mann’s battery went along.
- Battery D: At Corinth, Mississippi, with four 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 3-inch rifles. The battery, under Captain Henry Richardson, was part of a battalion of Missouri artillery serving at Corinth under Major George H. Stone, in Sixteenth Corps. Of note, the battery’s reported armament differed greatly from that indicated the previous quarter (five 20-pdr Parrotts).
- Battery E: Indicated at St. Louis with four 10-pdr Parrotts and three “English Guns, Cal. 3.5.” The latter were products of Fawcett & Preston in Liverpool. During the winter, Captain Nelson Cole resumed command of this battery assigned to the Department of the Frontier. The battery moved to Springfield, Missouri in mid-February. Later moved to Rolla. Not until later in the spring did the battery reach St. Louis, as part of the reinforcements sent to Vicksburg. A reorganization to be discussed in the next quarter.
- Battery F: At Rolla, Missouri with two 3.80-inch James Rifles and four 3.5-inch English Guns. Battery F’s story is paired with Battery E’s for the most part. During the winter, Captain Joseph Foust (from Battery E) assumed command. And like Battery E, Foust’s remained with the Department of the Frontier through the winter, to be pulled into the Vicksburg Campaign later in the spring.
- Battery G: No return. Captain Henry Hescock’s battery wintered at Murfreesboro, being placed in the Third Division, Twentieth Corps.
- Battery H: Also at Corinth in Stone’s Battalion and reporting two 6-pdr field guns, one 24-pdr field howitzer, and two 10-pdr Parrotts. Captain Frederick Welker remained in command.
- Battery I: Also part of Stone’s Battalion at Corinth, with two 6-pdr field guns, two 12-pdr field howitzers, and two 10-pdr Parrotts. By the end of the spring, Captain Benjamin Tannrath commanded the battery.
- Battery K: At Germantown, Tennessee with four 10-pdr Parrotts. Transferring out of Stone’s Battalion, Captain Stillman O. Fish’s battery was placed in the District of Jackson. Later in the spring, the battery began movement to Helena, Arkansas.
- Battery L: No report. Captain Frank Backof’s Battery was part of the Department of the Frontier and station at Springfield.
- Battery M: On July 10, 1863, this battery could proudly claim to be at Vicksburg, Mississippi. But at the end of March of that year, they’d only begun the journey to that place. Captain Junius W. MacMurray’s battery was around Lake Providence at the close of the quarter, assigned to Seventh Division, Seventeenth Corps. The battery reported four 10-pdr Parrotts.
With administrative details and the number of guns reported in mind, let us turn to the smoothbore ammunition on hand:
Yes, extended columns because we have a 24-pdr field howitzer to feed. And one should notice something appears off with the line for Battery K. There were no smoothbores in the battery. And at the same time, Battery H had smoothbores to feed, yet only quantities listed for the 24-pdr howitzer. Is this a transcription error? Or admission that the wrong ammunition was carried by Battery K? I think the former. But to be accurate in my transcription here, I’ll reflect the lines as recorded on the form:
- Battery C: 160 shot, 160 case, and 80 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 108 shells, 108 case, and 64 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
- Battery D: 280 shot, 204 case, and 145 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 120 shell, 337 case, and 38 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
- Battery H: 109 shell, 62 case, and 66 canister for their 24-pdr field howitzer.
- Battery L: 15 shot, 260 case, and 155 canister for 6-pdr field guns; 120 shell, 109 case, and 145 canister for 12-pdr field howitzers.
- Battery K: 90 case and 28 canister for 6-pdr field guns.
Moving to the rifled projectiles, we start with Hotchkiss:
Two batteries reporting, and with different calibers:
- Battery D: 42 canister, 46 percussion shell, 80 fuse shell, and 240 bullet shell for 3-inch rifles.
- Battery F: 52 shot for 3.80-inch “James”; 400 percussion shell for 3.67-inch “Wiard”; and 200 percussion shell for 3.80-inch “James.”
I break out Battery F in detail as the battery reported rifles in two distinct calibers. We have to question here if they were using 3.67-inch projectiles in their James Rifles, or if some quantities might reflect the clerk’s attempt to reconcile 3.5-inch ammunition quantities in the form.
We find more from Battery F on the next page:
For James’ patent projectiles:
- Battery K: 172 shot and 12 shell in 3.80-inch.
Moving to the Parrott columns, we see:
- Battery E: 630 shell and 131 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
- Battery H: 13 shell, 60 case, and 117 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
- Battery I: 44 shell, 74 case, and 46 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
- Battery K: 160 shell, 340 case, and 120 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
- Battery M: 152 shell, 240 case, and 152 canister for 10-pdr Parrott.
Lastly the Schenkl columns:
- Battery E: 89 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
- Battery I: 79 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
- Battery K: 90 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
- Battery M: 80 shot for 10-pdr Parrott.
On the last page for rifled projectiles, we find Battery K again:
- Battery K: 200 cansiter for 3.67-inch and 100 canister for 3.80-inch.
And again, we must wonder if some of these were 3.5-inch caliber, but lacking a column were simply “dropped” into the form by the clerks.
And for last the small arms:
At least no “special” columns, just those as printed:
- Battery C: Three Army revolvers and thirty cavalry sabers.
- Battery D: Thirty cavalry sabers.
- Battery E: Eighty-one Army revolvers and fourty-seven cavalry sabers.
- Battery F: Six Army revolvers, six Navy revolvers, and fifteen cavalry sabers.
- Battery H: Six Army revolvers and forty-three horse artillery sabers.
- Battery I: Fourteen Army revolvers, 136 cavalry sabers, and one horse artillery saber.
- Battery K: Three Navy revolvers and twenty-five cavalry sabers.
- Battery M: Seven Army revolvers and seven cavalry sabers.
The small arms reports are always interesting to me, as I look for correlations between quantities and the assignments. In this case, maybe Backof’s Battery needed a lot of edged weapons given their duty in southeast Missouri.
We’ll look at Missouri’s Second Light Artillery Regiment in the next installment.