Working forward from last week’s introduction to Ordnance Reports, as mentioned the individual battery reports were consolidated by the Ordnance Department into summary statements. While we don’t have a lot of ordnance reports to work from, we do have a fair number of these summary statements. And these can tell us something about the batteries, their equipment, and general trends in the Federal artillery arm. It’s information that comes in handy for certain lines of study. Again, let me thank Brett Schulte for forwarding a copy of the the roll he acquired from the National Archives.
These summaries worked in the way you would imagine any bureaucratic bean-counting record-keeping process. After receiving the ordnance returns for a given quarter, the Statistical Division of the Ordnance Department extracted the details for entries into a large ledger style book. Each units’s data spanned across at least twelve pages. The data from the returns was split into the following classes, considered “Part I” of the summary:
- Class I: Cannon
- Class II: Artillery carriages
- Class III: Artillery implements and equipments
- Class IV: Artillery projectiles unprepared for service
- Class V: Artillery projectiles prepared for service
- Class VI: Small arms
- Class VII: Accouterments, implements, and equipments for small arms, and horse equipments for cavalry
- Class VIII: Powder, ammunition for small arms and materials
- Class IX: Parts or incomplete sets of any articles in Classes I-VIII
- Class X: Miscellaneous
Following this was Part II, which included tools and materials… and was very lengthy and detailed. Columns in section for Part II included hammers, punches, and pounds of horseshoe nails. Yes indeed, the sort of detail that requires a staff of bean-counters three months to compile. Suffice to say, these large sheets are difficult to demonstrate without straining eyes:
Not to downplay the need for opium for horses (Battery H, 1st US Artillery reported 16 ounces on hand as of December 31, 1862… if you need to know that little tidbit), the stuff most of us are interested in is under Part I, Class I – the cannons. That class was further subdivided between serviceable and unserviceable cannons, which were even further subdivided by bore type, metal used, and pattern. The columns included:
- Bronze smoothbores – 6-pdr field guns, 12-pdr Napoleons, 12-pdr heavy field guns, 12-pdr mountain howitzers, 12-pdr field howitzers, 24-pdr field howitzers, and 32-pdr field howitzers.
- Iron rifled guns – 3-inch Model 1861 (Ordnance) rifles, 10-pdr Parrotts, and 20-pdr Parrotts.
- Steel rifled guns – 3-inch types, 6-pdr Wiard, and 12-pdr Wiard.
- Bronze rifled guns – 6-pdr rifles (3.67-inch), 6-pdr “James” rifles (3.80-inch), and 12-pdr James (4.62-inch).
- Miscellaneous types – Union repeating guns (Agar Coffee Mill Guns), Bilinghurst-Requa guns, and, written in at times, 4.5-inch siege rifles.
First point to make is that these summaries didn’t track the siege, garrison, or seacoast weapons. I have not seen a reason for this in writing, but implied is that another mechanism existed to track those type of weapon. In most cases, the heavy ordnance was issued not to a battery organization but to an installation – be that a fort, garrison, or armory.
Secondly, the field batteries were the place the bean-counters needed the most clarity when accounting for government equipment. Unlike a fort’s assigned Rodman guns, the Napoleons of a given field battery moved around a lot, sometimes replaced with different weapons, cross leveled or consolidated with other batteries when organizational needs required, and, sometimes, lost in battle. But that said, I haven’t seen any policy statements from the Ordnance Department as a reference to confirm my speculation.
So we have the header of the first page of the summary with the columns (mentioned above) for the serviceable cannons on hand at time of the report:
And even that section requires reading glasses. But hopefully you get the gist of this. You see the summary groups the data by regiment. In this case the 1st Regiment, US Artillery is tabulated by battery, being A through M (there was no J). Furthermore, you see these were hand written so there are questions about entries. Things like “is that a four or eleven?” and “is that Murfreesboro or Mumfordville?” Also, the data needs to be bounced off other sources (such as the official records) for validation. I’ve run into several issues, such as the annotation of “steel” 3-inch rifles where I know none were in use.
My challenge now is to display this information in a useful format for the web… on a blog post…. A form that 150 years ago would have been Jules Verne crazy talk to the bean-counters in the Statistical Department.
As a start, what I plan to do is post a snip for each regimental organization. With that I’ll provide what my read is for each. Then use the comments where questions may be answered and corrections noted. If successful, then we have a start for a database depicting what batteries had what guns at certain times during the war.