Yesterday I put some of the geographic and “demographic” aspects of the first days of Major-General William T. Sherman’s advance into South Carolina. Today, let me focus on more of the martial aspects. Lots of skirmishes broke out across the line of advance on February 2, 1865. Some of those are depicted on the map below with yellow stars:
As mentioned earlier, the level of skirmishing in South Carolina is in contrast to that in Georgia the previous fall. While contact with Confederate forces of some sort happened every day in Georgia, often days would pass with a column encountering no organized resistance. Such was not the case in South Carolina. Every day of the march, some Confederates formation was there to contest the advance.
Specific to February 2nd, Major-General Lafayette McLaws’ division manned a line along the Combahee River, upstream to the mouth of the Salkehatchie River. The extension of this line was a brigade under Colonel George P. Harrison covering the bridges over the Salkehatchie. Harrison’s command included three regular Georgia regiments, two Georgia reserve regiments, detachments of South Carolina cavalry, and a battery of artillery. All told, just over 2,000 effectives. From there, the division of Brigadier-General William Y.C. Humes, from Major-General Joseph Wheeler’s cavalry, covered the area between the Salkehatchie and Savannah Rivers. (Not depicted on the map, the division of Major-General Alfred Iverson covered the Georgia side of the Savannah River… to the displeasure of Major-General D.H. Hill.)
The advance of the Right Wing had to cross the lines defended by Humes and Harrison. Reacting to the advances on February 1, McLaws sent a request for Humes to “cross the Salkehatchie with the greater portion of your command and assist in guarding the crossings of that stream from Rivers’ Bridge to Buford’s and above as far as possible.” Later in the day Humes reported falling back to cover Barker’s and Buford’s Bridges, though he kept his headquarters near Angley’s Post-Office, south of the Salkehatchie. Harrison posted his troops to cover Rivers’ and Broxton’s Bridges (not labeled on the original map, but with a gold box on my overlay above).
Major-General Oliver O. Howard’s original orders for February 2 had the Seventeenth Corps, of Major-General Frank P. Blair, continuing the line of march on the roads paralleling the Salkehatchie with the aim of securing Rivers’ Bridge and a lodgement on the other side. The Fifteenth Corps, under Major-General John A. Logan, was to move on their left to Angley’s Post-Office. But in the evening of February 1, Sherman asked Howard to amend those orders:
Slocum is a little behind. I don’t want Logan to get farther to-morrow than the place marked “Store” near Duck Branch Post-Office. I want to make show marches till Slocum gets up, or nearly so. Please make your orders accordingly.
We need to consider the maps as primary sources here. There are plenty of “stores” around South Carolina. The one in question is indeed simply marked “store” on the military map (a gold colored box on my map above). Logan complied with the amended orders:
… the Second Division having the advance, moved to Loper’s Cross-Roads. Our advance was contested by the enemy’s cavalry at the crossing of all the streams and creeks, in which timber had been felled, with the same pertinacity as on the previous day, but with the same result, and our mounted infantry found no difficulty pushing them back across Duck Branch.
Logan kept his Second Division at Duck Branch, but turned First Division towards Angley’s. The Third Division followed but remained within supporting distance of both divisions when going to camp that night.
On the right, Blair sent forward the Ninth Illinois Mounted Infantry, followed by the Third Division, on a road to the left to reach Whippy Swamp Post-Office. Along the main road, First Division, under Major-General Joseph Mower, assumed the vanguard. Mower first moved up to Broxton’s Bridge, which was burned by the time of his arrival. Leaving one regiment posted to keep the Confederates in place, he moved the rest of the division forward to Rivers’ Bridge:
I took the balance of my command on the Rivers’ Bridge road and ordered the Twenty-fifth Wisconsin, Colonel Rusk commanding, forward as skirmishers; they gallantly charged up toward the enemy’s works, and drove them so rapidly that they had no time to burn the bridges, sixteen in number, over the causeway leading to the other side of the Salkehatchie River. Having saved the bridges I directed Lieutenant-Colonel Rusk to deploy his regiment on the right and left of the road and drive the enemy’s skirmishers (if he had any) from this side of the river. The next regiment, the Forty-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Colonel Swayne commanding, I ordered to move in and take position on the right of the road. While showing him his position a piece of shell struck him in the leg, rendering amputation necessary, which deprived me of the services of a very brave and valuable officer.
Harrison brought up his only artillery at that time, and swept the Federals back away from the bridge itself. Mower’s direct action had saved the crossing, but effecting a crossing was another matter. Towards that end, Mower deployed the remainder of his division to threaten a crossing and started looking about:
After reconnoitering the enemy’s position I found his works too strong to assault them in front, so I ordered all the troops out of the swamp, which was about one mile long, only leaving a very strong skirmish line, and placed my command on high ground; I then put all my pioneers to work felling trees and constructing a road through the swamp, the water in most places being from one to eight feet deep. I reported the condition of affairs in the swamp to Major-General Blair that evening, who ordered me to go on constructing bridges and to cross, if possible, the next day.
A note here to any aspirant armchair generals… this is what you do when confronted with an “impossible” situation. You look for openings and try to make something happen.
Elsewhere, the Left Wing continued its efforts to get out of the Savannah River bottom lands. To close some of the gap developing between the wings, Major-General Henry Slocum directed the two divisions of the Twentieth Corps already over the river to push out towards Lawtonville. Major-General Alpheus Williams left one brigade to protect Robertsville. Major-General William T. Ward’s division lead the advance:
Marched for Lawtonville upon the 2d of February, meeting the enemy about one mile from town, barricaded in a dense swamp, with artillery. I deployed two brigades, and pressing forward two regiments, One hundred and fifth and One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois Volunteers, and four companies of Seventieth Indiana, dislodged the enemy, losing 2 killed and 12 wounded; enemy’s loss, 8 killed, 30 or 40 wounded.
In addition to these movements, Brigadier-General John Hatch started a demonstration towards Combahee Ferry. With one regiment and two Napoleon guns, Colonel Edward Hallowell’s objective was simply a reconnaissance, but “If you are confident that you can carry the work without serious loss you will do so.” That move would develop over the following days.
(Citations from OR, Series I, Volume 47, Part I, Serial 98, page 222, 387, and 782; Part II, Serial 99, pages 194, 203, and 1053.)