As you might guess, when thinking of the Crater at Petersburg, a subject which crosses my mind is the use of artillery in the operation. Not to diminish the other aspects of the battle, but the artillery of the Army of the Potomac played an important role there… and is somewhat overlooked in my opinion. I’m not an expert in the battle. So I would direct you to one of many folks who have written book length treatments of the battle.
My schedule has prevented me from writing up more on Petersburg up to this time. Likely, given the sesquicentennial pace, I’ll have to put that on my “after April 2015” stack. But I did want to mention the artillery’s role and provide a graphic depiction, by way of Brigadier-General Henry Hunt’s map:
The map, and a busy map it is, includes a table breaking down by battery the type and number of guns engaged on July 30, 1864:
For those who are squinting, the roll call is eighteen 4-½-inch rifles, two 20-pdr Parrotts, fifty-two 3-inch rifles (3-inch Ordnance or 10-pdr Parrotts), thirty-eight 12-pdr Napoleons, ten 10-inch mortars, sixteen 8-inch mortars, and twenty-eight Coehorn mortars. Grand total is 164 guns and mortars brought to bear on the Confederate lines in support of the assault.
Some of that number were in the 18th Corps sector and not firing directly in support of the assault. Others were, likewise, firing on the 5th Corps front well to the south of the crater. But all were firing at some time that morning to suppress or pin down the Confederates in conjunction with the assault. For comparison, the “great bombardment” by the Confederates on July 3, 1863 during that “contest” at Gettysburg involved about 140 guns.
Hunt’s map indicates not only the battery positions, but also what the targets were. This adds to the “clutter” on the map. But this is an incredible resource for determining his intent with respect to the fires placed upon the Confederate lines.
The snip above looks at the area of the mine, and just south. Notice there are more dashed blue lines leading to the Confederate redoubt south of the mine than there are the redoubt above the mine. Suppression of the Confederate line was the intent there.
Another Federal position worth noting is that of Company C, 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery. Battery number 8 on Hunt’s map contained ten 10-inch mortars. Circled here in blue.
Those mortars fired on approximately 1,000 yards of the Confederate front, to the south of the crater (blue shading in the snip above). Recall, these mortars were firing, for at least part of the day, case shot as constructed under Colonel Henry Abbot’s instructions. Battery Number 19, Company B, 1st Connecticut, with six 4-½-inch rifles, located north-east (center-right on the snip above) of the mortars also covered a large section of the Confederate lines.
One problem with these arrangements is that suppressing fire requires a high rate of ammunition expenditure. Suppressing fire cannot be sustained, even by a master artillery chief such as Hunt, for longer than a few hours. At some point, fresh ammunition chests must be rotated in. The assault had to quickly achieve the initial objectives, or lose the suppressing fire support.