On July 18, 1864, the messages intercepted and decoded by Federal signal troops included this request from Fort Sumter, addressed to Lieutenant W.G. Young:
Remember, I am greatly in want of baskets and gabions. The barges failed last night; the excuse given was the weather, which was no obstacle at all. I think they should be reported; it was neither rough nor blowing, and the rain was not hard. Send the plank, but not the heavy timber.
Readers will be familiar with the author of the message – Captain John Johnson, engineer working in Fort Sumter. The gabions he requested were similar to these seen in photos taken at the end of the war:
In fact, that photo shows Johnson’s handiwork along with the gabions. And a few of the heavy timbers that he didn’t need on July 18. He was working against the destruction done by Federal guns, which rendered portions of the fort little more than rubble piles.
Earlier bombardments of Fort Sumter focused on reducing the armament or certain defensive structures in the fort. The aim of the Third Great Bombardment was to physically reduce the fort. The intent was to continue “until the walls are demolished,” in Foster’s words.
Johnson’s task, on the other hand, was to shore up the fort’s walls so the Confederates retained at least a post, and limited artillery platform, at the harbor entrance. Writing after the war, Johnson admitted some “anxiety” over the situation. Not in all due to the effectiveness of the Federal efforts, but more so due to the shortage of hands to do the work. The labor force allocated to the fort was cut at the end of spring, due to pressing requirements elsewhere. Now Johnson renewed requests for more labor in order to repair the damage being done.
On July 7, Captain John Mitchel, commanding the fort, pressed Johnson’s request for more laborers up the chain. In reply, Brigadier-General Roswell Ripley indicated neither laborers or troops were available on July 10. Only as Federal pressure eased on James Island were resources released for work at Fort Sumter. In Johnson’s words, “… with a hundred and fifty workmen and mechanics the anxieties of the situation were soon allayed.”
In the interim, the fort suffered substantial damage:
At first the fire, directed at the gorge, left its marks there in deep furrows, flattening the already practicable slope and wasting away much of its substance. Within a week the crest was breached in three places and reduced at one point, the gap previously mentioned, to a height of only twenty feet above the water; a chamber of the abandoned magazine at the eastern end of the gorge was also breached; and the boom, anchored off the south-eastern angle, was broken so as to show an opening of about twenty feet in width.
This was the result of a heavy and constant bombardment. From Confederate roll-up report comparing the daily tally*, the numbers were:
- July 11 – 172 hits in the day, 51 at night, 16 missed. Total – 239.
- July 12 – 157 hits in the day, 31 at night, 14 missed. Total – 202.
- July 13 – 202 hits in the day, 45 at night, 51 missed. Total – 298.
- July 14 – 279 hits in the day, 73 at night, 42 missed. Total – 394.
- July 15 – 219 hits in the day, 141 at night, 71 missed. Total – 404.
- July 16 – 166 hits in the day, 62 at night, 55 missed. Total – 283.
- July 17 – 166 hits in the day, 44 at night, 70 missed. Total – 280.
- July 18 – 109 hits in the day, 93 at night, 62 missed. Total – 264.
- July 19 – 327 hits in the day, 174 at night, 193 missed. Total 694.
- July 20 – 310 hits in the day, 194 at night, 202 missed. Total 706.
Through this mid-July period, the Federals expended over 3,700 rounds. An average of over 375 per day… or just over fifteen every hour. One every four minutes, give or take. And this was an “backwater” theater, mind you! Often Federal fires came from a handful of guns, being worked specifically against particular sections of Fort Sumter.
Over the same period, Mitchel reported five killed and fifteen wounded in the Fort’s Garrison. Relatively light considering the amount of projectiles fired.
One other consideration in regard to Johnson’s message of July 18. The message was one of many observed by Federals on Morris Island then decoded thanks to the work of Sergeant John Colvin. This was a wig-wag message. A telegraph system connected Fort Sumter to Fort Johnson, and was used for communications. There is no reference to problems with the telegraph at that time. Perhaps there were issues with the telegraph that day. Or perhaps the telegraph was busy with other messages of higher priority. Regardless, this was a communications “leak” to which the Federals were privy.
- These figures come from a roll-up provided by Captain Thomas Huguenin on August 1, 1864, and do not often match those reported daily by Captain Mitchel in the same period. A discrepancy I will look at in a subsequent post.
(Citations from OR, Series I, Volume 35, Part II, Serial 66, page 591; John Johnson, The Defense of Charleston Harbor: Including Fort Sumter and the Adjacent Islands, 1863-1865, Walker, Evans & Cogswell Company, 1890, pages 225.)