The rarest of Admiral John Dahlgren’s boat howitzers is the smallest 12-pdr small smoothbore of the “family.” One of only seven surviving examples is on display at the National Museum of the Marine Corps.
In fine USMC tradition that would make the Gunny smile, the boat howitzer shines like the well polished buttons on a dress jacket.
I briefly wrote about this model in a look at Dahlgren’s boat howitzer system last year. The chart below summarizes the members of the “family” with the small howitzer listed on the fourth data column from the left:
At 300 pounds, the Small Boat Howitzer was the lightest of its kind in the Navy (although the Army’s mountain howitzer weighed 100 pounds less). In terms of external dimensions, the small howitzer was simply a down-size version of the larger 12-pdrs. But the 12-pdr Small retained the same chamber size
, and thus used the same ammunition, as the larger howitzers. Although using the same projectiles, the Small Howitzer most likely used a reduced powder charge at about half a pound.
Generally, the small version matches the form of the Heavy Howitzer detailed in an earlier post. The Small Howitzer on display has a restored lockpiece and rear sight.
The layout of the display prevents close examination of the breech and details of the markings. But just to the left of the lockpiece on the breech is the rear sight. Not visible (if there at all) is the lug for the front sight.
The museum’s howitzer sits upon an original boat howitzer carriage. On the shorter barreled Small Boat Howitzer, the underloop where the carriage attached was closer to the muzzle – 21 1/3 inches, against 26 1/2 for the Light Howitzer, and 31 1/4 for the Heavy Howitzer. Preponderance of the Light Howitzer was 25 pounds.
On paper, the Small Boat Howitzers offered only a small weight advantage over the others in the system. With so few produced, the 130 pound difference from the Light Boat Howitzer apparently did not impress naval officers. After the first production batches between 1848 and 1858, totaling 12 pieces, the Navy Yard ceased making 12-pdr Small Howitzers. Meanwhile the Light and Heavy Boat Howitzers remained in production.
In 1864, the Navy Yard resumed production with an additional eleven Small Boat Howitzers. This completed the known deliveries of the type, with a total of 23 on record. The howitzer on display at the museum is registry number 19. Sources indicate this howitzer served on the monitor USS Sangamon.
The late production year and presence on a monitor may offer clues about the Small Howitzer’s service. Perhaps service on the cramped monitors called for a howitzer of smaller dimensions.
Regardless, number 19 in the production series of Small Boat Howitzers, an example of a rare artillery type, provides yet another reason for the Civil War enthusiast to visit the National Museum of the Marine Corps.
Aside from on site notes and links provided above, sources consulted for this post were:
Hazlett, James C., Edwin Olmstead, and M. Hume Parks. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, Revised Edition. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2004.
Olmstead, Edwin, Wayne E. Stark, and Spencer C. Tucker. The Big Guns: Civil War Siege, Seacoast and Naval Cannon. Alexandria Bay, NY: Museum Restoration Service, 1997.
Ripley, Warren. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, 4th Edition. Charleston, S.C.: The Battery Press, 1984.
Tucker, Spencer. Arming the Fleet: U.S. Navy Ordnance in the Muzzle-Loading Era. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989.