After the Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky petered out in the fall of 1862, there were several changes in the lineup of Federal field commanders. I suspect most readers are familiar with the relief of George McClellan, replaced by Ambrose Burnside, which occurred this week 150 years ago. At the end of last month, I wrote about William Rosecrans moving to command the “new” Department of the Cumberland which was really the “old” Army of the Ohio.
But there was another change of command queued up for the fall of 1862, and it also occurred, on paper at least, during the early days of November:
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 184.
WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJT. GEN’S. OFFICE,
Washington, November 8, 1862.
By direction of the President of the United States Maj. Gen. N. P. Banks is assigned to the command of the Department of the Gulf, including the State of Texas.
By order of the Secretary of War:
E. D. TOWNSEND,
And with General Banks then in charge of the Department of the Gulf, who was on the outs?
More explicit orders came the next day from General Henry Halleck:
… The President of the United States having assigned you to command of the Department of the Gulf, you will immediately proceed with the troops assembling in transports at Fort Monroe to New Orleans and relieve Major-General Butler….
McClellan, Buell, and Butler…. all going on the bench. Burnside, Rosecrans, and Banks now taking the field. And meanwhile some fellow named John McClernand was traveling west with these orders in hand:
Washington City, October 21, 1862.
Ordered, That Major-General McClernand be, and he is, directed to proceed to the States of Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa, to organize the troops remaining in those States and to be raised by volunteering or draft, and forward them with all dispatch to Memphis, Cairo, or such other points as may hereafter be designated by the general-in-chief, to the end that, when a sufficient force not required by the operations of General Grant’s command shall be raised, an expedition may be organized under General McClernand’s command against Vicksburg and to clear the Mississippi River and open navigation to New Orleans.
The forces so organized will remain subject to the designation of the general-in-chief, and be employed according to such exigencies as the service in his judgment may require.
EDWIN M. STANTON,
Secretary of War.
On the outside, it appeared that even General U.S. Grant was also vulnerable (although through the lens of history we know better).
Were all these changes an indication of failures in the field by these generals? Or was it a change in direction, emanating from the chief strategist in the White House? Or a little of both?
(Citations above from OR, Series I, Volume 15, Serial 21, page 590 and Series I, Volume 17, Serial 25, page 282.)
- 150 years ago: the Army of the Cumberland’s first orders (markerhunter.wordpress.com)
- 150 Years Ago: Orders for “Old Rosy” and the birth of the Army of the Cumberland (markerhunter.wordpress.com)
- General Ambrose Burnside Ordered to Replace General McClellan (abrahamlincolnandthecivilwar.wordpress.com)