The last I detailed the Federal bombardment of Charleston was in relation to increased bombardments in the middle of January 1864. Through the end of January, Confederate observers recorded 990 projectiles reached the city, with an additional 533 falling short. The average, considering days on which no shots were fired at the city, was 49 per day counting hits and misses.
The Federals increased the pace in February. A March 4, 1864 report from Colonel Alfred Rhett, commanding the Fifth Military District (which encompassed the city of Charleston itself) provided the number of projectiles observed fired at the city for each day:
The totals for February 1864 were 964 fired into the city and 763 falling short. For that month, the average per day increased to 59.5 rounds per day. And the figures provided in the table do not count shots fired at other targets around the harbor. A table from the 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery’s regimental history lists the weapons in Fort Putnam with their assigned targets, ranges, elevation, fuse settings, powder charge, and shell charges:
UPDATE: Forgot to add – the range given here for Battery Lamar appears to be in error. I estimate the range to be around 8500 yards. Perhaps the typesetter mixed up “8″ with “3″ when transcribing.
Guns at positions 1 and 2 in the fort bore directly on Sullivan’s Island and Fort Sumter. Their most distant target was the channel in front of Mount Pleasant at 3500 yards… or nearly two miles. Those two 30-pdr Parrotts were these two familiar subjects:
Two larger 8-inch Parrotts in positions 3 and 4 also pointed at Sullivan’s Island. But the mountings allowed traverse to fire on Fort Johnson, though not on Charleston.
A 10-inch Columbiad in position 5 also fired on Forts Johnson and Sumter, in addition to other targets on James Island. The most distant of those targets was two miles away. I believe the photo below shows that gun. There is a sign to the left of view that appears to have a number “5.”
A 6.4-inch Parrott in position 6 also fired on James Island along with Castle Pinckney some three miles distant:
In position number 7, a 30-pdr Parrott could train on Mount Pleasant, Castle Pinckney, and, importantly, Charleston. The range to Charleston was a remarkable 7440 yards, or 4.2 miles. And this was at a 40° elevation with 3¾ pounds of powder. I’ll come back to discuss this gun a bit more further down in this post.
Position number 11 contained a 6.4-inch Parrott that fired upon Charleston and “Ram on stocks” – again, I should mention, a military target. Range to Charleston was the same 7440 yards. The gun elevated 38° and used ten pounds of No. 7 grade powder to reach the city. The weight of the shell was 101 pounds. The projectile took over thirty seconds to reach its target in Charleston.
Lastly, a 3.67-inch Wiard gun in position number 12 also fired on James Island and Charleston. However a notation below the table indicated “This last did not reach” in relation to the 7440 yard range to Charleston. As the gun fired a much lower powder charge compared to the 30-pdr Parrott, one could expect less performance from the field piece.
I don’t know of any wartime photographs that capture details of Charleston as seen from Morris Island. However a color drawing does show an artist’s rendition of the view:
In the mid-range of this view are Battery Simkins and Fort Johnson. Beyond are the ship masts and church spires of the “Holy City.”
In regards to the 30-pdr in position number 7, that weapon burst during the bombardment that winter. But not before it fired a remarkable number of rounds:
The famous gun, in its life, for firing on Charleston was No. 7. It was expended on the 4,606th round, having thrown ninety-five tons of loyal compliments to the Charlestonians, expedited by nine tons of patriotic powder.
The ordnance officers recorded the fragmentation of the gun after it burst:
The gunners of the 3rd Rhode Island went on to say more about this gun:
We must add another word of this famous thirty-pounder that so splendidly pounded the cradle of secession. From the time it was mounted – Jan. 10th – its carriage playing and recoiling on a peculiar chassis of long, elastic timbers, it was fired, on average, once in about twenty minutes, day and night (sometimes once in twelve minutes), til it burst March 19th, making it, on account of its elevation, range, destructive work, and long life, the most remarkable gun on record. Its fragments were carefully collected and put together, and after it had received suitable inscriptions ending with these words, “Expended on Morris Island under Col. Charles R. Brayton, Chief of Artillery,” it was sent to West Point for study and for preservation. On the 15th of January it fired 237 shell, 216 being good shots and striking the city fairly. In its whole life it fired 4,257 good shots, 259 tripped, ten fell short, and eighty were premature explosions.
Folks, let me pause for a moment of silence. Cavalrymen speak lovingly of their horses. And infantrymen will caress their musket. I submit this is the artillerman’s emotional attachment to their iron. The endurance of the gun, compared to that of the Swamp Angel, or other large Parrotts used on Morris Island, stands in contrast. The 4,606 rounds fired from 30-pdr, registry number 193, were a substantial portion of the 3,250 rounds fired at Charleston itself in January and February 1864.
One last note on that particular gun position in the fort. Photographic evidence suggests that after it burst a larger Parrott replaced it:
Notice the “7″ just below the super-elevated 6.4-inch Parrott in the photo above.
The guns at Fort Putnam were not the only weapons bearing on Charleston’s defenses. But those guns did the lion’s share of the work.
(Citation from Frederic Denison, Shot and Shell: The Third Rhode Island Heavy Artillery Regiment in the Rebellion, 1861-1865, Providence, R.I.: Third Rhode Island Artillery Veterans Association, 1879, page 238.)