Monthly Archives: July 2010

Yankee Cannon Production Figures

Some time back I complied a spreadsheet to break-out the pace of Federal cannon production.  It was not a perfectly scientific survey, as I worked off the date of credit on published ordnance returns.  As published sources offer slightly different numbers, I opted to work strictly from those offered in the appendices in The Big Guns: Civil War Siege, Seacoast and Naval Cannon, by Edwin Olmstead, Wayne E. Stark, and Spencer C. Tucker.  The authors of that work proved a full listing of both heavy and field weapons.

Keep in mind that a gun was generally only “credited” after it had undergone proofing and received acceptance marks.  While not in every single case a consistent reference point, the crediting date is at least a benchmark for metrics.

Consider this subset of data, focused on the three main weapons (the “big three”) used by the Federal armies – 10-pdr Parrotts, 3-inch Ordnance Rifles, and 12-pdr Napoleon Guns.

Federal Field Gun Production

I’ve broken down the “credited” numbers by quarter, for each type, looking at the war years (1861-65).  Several points to ponder.

First, based off the credit dates, Parrott production peaked early and then tapered off to nothing by mid-war.  When production of the 3-inch model started, production figures are practically a “bell curve,” and peaked again at the end of 1864.

The credit numbers for the 3-inch Ordnance Rifles likely are skewed.  With such a high figure credited at the end of 1861 and start of 1862, I wonder if these were production batches held up waiting acceptance trials.  Perhaps the Ordnance Department was not quite sure about wrought iron and held up the official credits.

Credits of the 3-inch Ordnance Rifles slacked in the middle of 1863.  Did the Confederate invasion have any influence on this?  Perhaps contradicting this premise, production again slacked at the end of 1864.  But note the last credits for the rifles came well after Appomattox.

Napoleon credits had two distinct surges.  Numbers reached three figures across 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quarters of 1862.  After falling off through 1863, credits reached record numbers in the last quarter of that year and remained high in the first quarter of 1864.  While one might like to correlate those numbers to the pace of the war, nothing conclusively matches up.

Napoleon production ceased entirely after the middle of 1864.  Did the army have plenty of Napoleons at that point?

I’d added a column to indicate the quarterly totals for the “big three.”  The raw credit numbers show an early war surge, with that late war “bulge” clearly influenced by Napoleon deliveries over the winter of 1863-4.  And high production of 3-inch Ordnance Rifles in the 2nd quarter of 1864 kept those numbers to three figures.

The furthest right column increments the quarterly figures to show the total number of the “big three” credited and, by assumption, delivered, by that time in the war.  For instance, by the 2rd quarter of 1862, the Ordnance Department had credited 912 of the “big three.”  During the fighting in September 1862, the Federals brought 323 cannons of all types on the Maryland Campaign.  Assuming the 24 batteries in the field at Perryville, Kentucky had six guns each, that added 144 cannons.  Hard to tally complete numbers for the forces along the Mississippi, but I’d guess roughly another 24 or 25 field batteries, and add 160 or so more cannons.  For the three main areas of operation, the Federals needed about 920 to 925 cannons.

So in theory, if the logistic system functioned responsively, and issue was conducted with a minimal amount of bureaucracy, ALL batteries in the field during the important battles of August-October that year would have Parrotts, Ordnance Rifles, or Napoleons.  Of course, that assumes a lot of good effort from the supply system.  It also leaves out the substantial quantities of cannons lost to the Confederates, and thus pointed back at the Federals on those same fields.

Production numbers and the supply system caught up to demand by 1863.  As any student of Gettysburg knows, all but a handful of Federal batteries used the “big three” during that battle.  However, the Army of the Cumberland hauled quite a number of old 6-pdr guns and 12-pdr howitzers into North Georgia later that summer.  Tallies for batteries at Vicksburg and Port Hudson are somewhat skewed due to the use of heavy weapons for siege operations there.

I’d advance the notion that the Federal army needed no more than 1300 field pieces to fill its wartime needs.  By the end of 1862, the northern factories had produced enough “new” weapons to meet that need.  Due to attrition, battlefield losses, and other factors production lines remained open.  But regardless, the Yankee war machine produced enough field cannons to arm its army and for good measure, the opposing side!

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Summer Book Acquisitions

One advantage of a mid-summer birthday is I always have “gift money” to spend around this time.  Always nice to get more “stuff” in the middle of the year to balance out Christmas!   As practice for, the last … oh… I’d say fifteen years, this time my gift money went toward books.

During the winter, I had exhausted my “pack along” books while jumping between metro stops.  So my purchases were influenced by a requirement for smaller paperbacks that would fit in the leftover space in my computer pack.  Thus several offerings from The History Press’s Civil War Sesquicentennial Series caught my attention:

- The Battle of Franklin:  When the Devil Had Full Possession of the Earth, by James R. Knight.

- The Battle of Brandy Station: North America’s Largest Cavalry Battle, by Eric J. Wittenberg.

- The Civil War at Perryville: Battling for the Bluegrass, by Christopher L. Kolakowski.

- The Union is Dissolved! Charleston and Fort Sumter in the Civil War, by Douglas W. Bostick.

These four join Rick Simmons’ Defending South Carolina’s Coast, Michael Coker’s The Battle of Port Royal, and Daniel Crooks’ Lee in the Low Country from the series, which I purchased around Christmas this year.  I was quite pleased with the coverage of lesser known topic areas, which are particularly suited to my tastes. The Sesquicentennial Series format fits my “requirement” rather well.  The books are paperbacks, about 8 1/2 by 6 inches, and between 125 and 200 pages.  And the cost per book is below a couple of sawbucks.

As with any series with an array of authors contributing, content and styles vary between the offerings.  Several of the titles lack annotations, with the authors preferring to provide many block quotes, with mention to the source in the text.  But this seems more writing style than publisher preference.  While I have not read it through, Wittenberg’s book on Brandy Station is well documented and supported by detailed maps, as his readers have grown to expect.

But not all my purchases came from that publisher.  Working off several recommendations, I picked up The Maryland Campaign of September 1862 – Volume 1: South Mountain, by Ezra Carmen – the first of a two-volume set edited and annotated by Tom Clemens.  I also have Joseph Pierro’s edited version of the same work, and had used it heavily when working on the Antietam markers some time back.  I’m tempted to lay the two side-by-side for full effect.  From just a cursory read,  I am more appreciative of the notations provided by Clemens.  His publisher, Savas Beatie, opted to use footnotes, thankfully.  Endnotes would probably force the reader to stress the binding, continually looking back and forth!

I am less impressed with So You Think You Know Gettysburg? by James and Suzanne Gindelsperger.  Perhaps, given the other references I have on the shelf, my bar is a bit high with respect to Gettysburg field guides.  This book would be useful for the average stomper.  But I was looking for a reference to add further details to the Gettysburg marker entries, and unfortunately this guide offers little more beyond that of the other references I have.

On the other hand, I am extremely pleased with A Guide to the Battles of the American Revolution, by Theodore Savas and J. David Dameron.  As  an “equal opportunity” battlefield stomper, my Revolutionary War field guides are well worn and dated.  For some time Mark Boatner’s Landmarks of the American Revolution (1992), and Craig Symond’s Battlefield Atlas (1986) have filled the role.  Both are good works, but their limits are more apparent every year.  After thirty minutes of reading Savas and Dameron’s guide, I knew I’d found a replacement.  Well organized and supported with plenty of maps, this book is worth double the list price, in my opinion.

As I’ve been exploring more of the old Revolutionary War topics over the last few months (a trip through South Carolina does that for me), I picked up another book in that topic area – With Zeal and with Bayonets Only: The British Army on Campaign in North America, 1775-1783, by Matthew H. Spring.  This work promises a deep look into the way the British Army operated and fought during the war.

Lastly, to satisfy my interests in World War II topics, I picked up a copy of Armored Thunderbolt: The U.S. Army Sherman in World War II, by Steven Zaloga.  No, Civil War fans, this is not about Uncle Billy’s march to Berlin!  Rather a proper examination of the design, refinement, use and misuse of the M4 Sherman tank by the U.S. Army during World War II.  I always like fresh views of supposedly “well mapped” topics.  Zaloga tackles many of our notions of the ineffectiveness of the M4, and American armor in general, during that war.  Perhaps down the line I’ll write-up a full review, offering my two cents on the subject.

That’s why I like having a birthday in July – lots of new “stuff” to brag about!

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HMDB Civil War Updates – Week of July 26

We entered, processed, and published twenty-nine markers in the Civil War category at the Historical Marker Database this week.  New entries come from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Michigan, New Jersey, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia.  Here’s the list:

-  A plaque on the Gorgas Library, University of Alabama campus in Tuscaloosa, honors a group of students and local youths who joined the Confederate army in 1864 as Shockly’s Escort Company of Cavalry.

- Outside Jacksonville, Florida a monument stands at the site of Yellow Bluff Fort, a Confederate defense covering Saint Johns River, placed there under orders of Gen. Robert E. Lee.

- North of there, outside Fernandina Beach is Fort Clinch, a third-system masonry fort which was repaired and reconstructed in the 1930s.   At the outbreak of war, Confederates used the military road when seizing the fort.  Union forces also used the road when they reoccupied the fort.

- Union soldiers stayed briefly in the Causey-Maxham House in Austell, Georgia.

- In nearby Marietta, Georgia the Dickson House suffered battle damage from a June 15, 1864 action, and later served as Gen. Hooker’s headquarters.  Around that same time, Gen. O.O. Howard maintained his headquarters at the Wallis House.

- Rounding out the markers from Cobb County Georgia, a state marker near Smyrna references the Hargrove House, which served as headquarters for Gen. Edward McCook’s Cavalry Division.

- Two markers in Roswell, Georgia discuss Union crossings of the Chattahoochie River in mid-July.  Troopers from Garrard’s Cavalry Division, followed by Newton’s Division (Fourth Corps) crossed at Shallow Ford under opposition on July 9-10, 1864.  The Sixteenth Corps followed on the 10th.  The Fifteenth Corps crossed on bridges on the 15th. And finally the remainder of McPherson’s Army completed the crossing on the 17th.

- A state marker in Augusta, Georgia discusses the Confederate Powder Works which supplied the southern forces throughout the war.

- Suches, Georgia was home to Joseph E. Brown, wartime governor of the state.

- A memorial in Hillsdale, Michigan honors those who died in the Sultana disaster.  The 16th Michigan, formed in Hillsdale, lost 75 men when the steamboat sank.

- The reverse side of a marker in Detroit, Michigan notes the service of soldiers from the city’s Jewish community during the war.

- The Passaic County Soldiers and Sailors memorial in Paterson, New Jersey lists war dead from the county.

- The Kovner-Bobys Homestead also known as the Merriman House in Corpus Cristi, Texas was impressed as a hospital during the Civil War.

- Camp Ford, outside Tyler, Texas, was a stockade prison.

- A dedication marker in Fredericksburg, Virginia records the creation of Fredericksburg-Spotsylvania National Battlefield Park, created by Act of Congress in 1927.

- An interpretive marker on the north side of the Rappahannock, near Fredericksburg, notes the 1862-63 winter camp for Birney’s Division, named Camp Pitcher.

- Phoebus, Virginia, on the landward side of Fort Monroe, saw considerable traffic, both military and slaves seeking freedom, during the war.

- A Fairfax County marker in Annandale, Virginia discusses a Confederate cavalry raid on a 45th New York position in December 1861.

- Soldiers who passed Virginia’s Natural Bridge in Rockbridge County sounded more like tourists than combatants.   Their comments are related on a Civil War Trails marker at the site.

- The Circle Tour marker for the Battle of Front Royal (May 23, 1862) was recently restored and placed on Guard Hill.  It is now part of the Front Royal tour by Markers.

- A Civil War Trails marker outside Romney, West Virginia discusses a patrol led by Lew Wallace into the town on June 13, 1861, resulting in a brief skirmish.

- Another Civil War Trails marker near Baker, West Virginia notes that a Union column led by General John C. Fremont camped nearby during the Valley Campaign of 1862.  The marker includes a rather terse set of dispatches between President Lincoln and Fremont.

- The Presbyterian Church in Moorefield, West Virginia suffered during the war, perhaps since its members expressed pro-Confederate sentiment.

- A memorial in front of the Tucker County Courthouse in Parsons, West Virginia adds to the set of Corrick’s Ford markers.

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